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Index to Volume XXXVIII 




Index to Articles 


Accidents and Lightt 534 

Accidents, Cars Destroyed in 483 

Adaptability of Electric Locomotive to 

Switching Service* 255 

Adjustable Spacing Collar* 82 

Advantages of Mechanical Stokers 465 

Air Brake Association, Convention Re- 

port 257 

Air Brake Cylinder Head Holders* 47 

Air Brake Equipment, Maintenance and 

Repairs to 377 

Air Brake Hangers, Manufacture of* . . 11 
Air Brake Prize, Westinghouse, An- 
nouncement of 411 

Air Brake Story Awards 474 

Air Compressor, Cross-Compound, Two- 
Stage* 35 

Air Compressor, Rotary* 530 

Air Hoist for Wheels* 240 

Air Hose Couplings, Testing* 221 

Air Line Junction, Improvements, L. S. 

& M. S. Ry.* 145 

Air Pumps, Device for Handling Dur- 
ing Road Shipments* 21 

Air Pump Stop Bosses, Reamer for Tru- 
ing Up* '. 104 

Air Pump Valve, Gauging Lift of* 144 

Allen's Flush Car Door* 183 

Alloys and Heat-Treated Steel in Loco- 
motive Construction 317 

Alloyed Steel for Tools 208 

Ambulance Trains in England* 542 

American Locomotive Co., Handling of 
Boiler Shop Materials*. 557 

American Railway Association, Spring 
Meeting 202 

American Railway Master Mechanics' 
Association Convention Report*. . .303 

American Railway Tool Foremen's As- 
sociation. (See Tool Foremen 's As- 

American Society of Mechanical Engi- 
neers, Chicago Meeting 536 

Among the Manufacturers*. . .35, 80, 126, 

167, 206, 271, 355, 401, 436, 530, 565 
Angus Steel-car Shop, Canadian Pacific 

Ry.* 251 

Angus Tool Room, Canadian Pacific 

Ry.t* 404, 407 

Another Shop Incident 484 

Applying Tail-bar Cross Braces, Meth- 
od of* 392 

Apprenticeship — 

Apprentice Efficiency 23 

Apprentice Instruction, Fundamentals 

of 231 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, System 

in Use on the* 135 

Canadian Pacific, System in Use on 

the* : 263 

Erie R. R., System in Use on the*. . .185 

Arc Welding* 207 

Are Welding, Electric 558 

Articulated Compound Locomotive, Erie 

R. R.* 196 

As India Sees Us 483 

Ash Pan Construction* 487 

Associations — 

Air Brake, Convention Report 257 

American Railway, Spring Meeting.. 202 

American Railway Master Mechanics, 
Convention Report* 303 

American Railway Tool Foremens, 
Convention Report 383 

Car Foremens of Chicago, Annual 
Meeting* 516 

Chief Interchange Car Inspectors & 
Car Fmns., Convention Report. .. .439 

Chief Interchange Car Inspectors & 
Car Fmns., List of Members. .. .450 

International Engineering Congress, 
1915 184 

International Railroad Master Black- 
smiths,t 403 

International Railroad Master Black- 
smiths,* 415 

International Railway Fuel, Conven- 
tion Report 257 

International Railway General Fore- 
mens, Convention Report 373 

Master Boiler Makers, Convention 
Report 258 

Master Car & Locomotive Painters, 
Convention Report 474 

Master Car Builders, Convention Re- 
port* 279 

Membership of the Mechanical 204 

Niagara Frontier Car Men 's, Organi- 
zation of 150 

Railway Electrical Engineers, Con- 
vention Report 525 

Railway Equipment Manufacturers, 
Officers of* 413 


Railway Storekeepers, Convention 

Report 259 

Railway Supply Manufacturers', An- 
nual Meeting 331 

Tool Foremens, Topics for 1914 Con- 

Traveling Engineers, Convention Re- 

portt* 454, 463 

Traveling Engineers, Officers of*.... 412 
Western Railway Club, Annual Meet- 
ing 260 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. — 

Making Mechanics on the* 135 

Atlantic City Conventions for 1915, An- 
nouncement of 495 

Atlantic City Conventions. Exhibitors 

and Exhibits* 333 

Atlantic City, 1914 (Poem)* 215 

Atlantic City Special Train 172 

Austin Trailing Truck* 331 

Autogenous Welding 378 

Automatic Drill Truck, Wahlstrom*. . .206 

Automatic Reamer Grinder* 413 

Automobile Cars, Grand Trunk Ry.*... 28 


Back Flue Sheets, Duplicating* 540 

Back Talk 399 

Baltimore & Ohio R. R.— 

Dairy Cars for the 528 

Fire Fighting Methods on the 404 

Band Saw, Metal* 436 

Bearing Metals 471 

Bell Ringers, Device for Testing* 268 

Bending Iron, Device for* 434 

Better Keep Smiling (Poem) 238 

Better Machinery and Fuel Economy. . .460 

Big Men, The (Poem) 262 

Billing Department, The M. C. B 134 

Biographies — 

Allison, William L.* 39 

Anthony, J. T.* 168 

Barnhill, Charles F 165 

Barnum, Morgan K.* 434 

Bosworth, W. M 166 

Coburn, Ralph G.* 39 

Coyle, Walter H.* ' 39 

Delano, Frederick A.* 33 

Endsley, Louis E.* 270 

Garstang, William* 34 

Hall, W. G.* 165 

Heintzelman, I. W.* 166 

Henry, J. M 35 

Lichtenhein, Alan* 40 

Mellor, C. L.* 169 

Midgley, Stanley W.* 129 

Magraw, W. E.* 535 

Neff, John P.* 38 

Purdy, Frank A.* 39 

Savage, Harlow D.* 169 

Sheppard, J. A 166 

Sullivan, J. J.* 435 

Westinghouse, George* 149 

Black smoke, Prevention of 463 

Blew torch, kerosene* 436 

Blue Flag Holder* 552 

Boiler — 

Feed Waters 429 

Inspection Reportt 534 

Lagging, Method of* 66 

Locomotive, Inspection* 13 

Locomotive, Pumps and Injectors for 

Feeding 396 

Maintenance* 493 

Maintenance and Care of 511 

Maintenance and Water Treatment. .400 
Shop, Method of Handling Material*. 557 

Tubes, Locomotive* 272 

Tubes, Repairing 432 

Bolt Header, Dies for* 422 

Books (See New Books) 

Boring Bar, Cylinder and Valve Seat*. .355 

Boston & Albany R. R., Scrap Handling 

Plant, at West Springfield* 547 

Box Cars, All-Steel for the Pennsyl- 
vania R. R.* 369 

Box Cars, Improper Loading of 181 

Box Cars, Overhead Inspection of 292 

Brake Cylinder Head Holder* 47 

Brake Performance Testst 88 

Brake Performance Tests* 99 

Brake Shoe and Brake Beam Equip- 
ment* 281 

Brass Furnace* 395 

Brick Arch, Thet 360 

Brick Arch and Superheater Tests, N. 

& W. Ry 329 

Brick Arch in Locomotive Practice. .. .142 
Brick Arch for Locomotive Fireboxes, 

A New* 356 

Bronze Journal Bearings 271 

Burning Oil for Fuel 488 

Burnside Shops, I. C. R. R., Planer In- 
stallation at* 80 

Burnside Shops, I. C. R. R., Tool Room 

Work at* 91 

Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Ry., Electri- 
fication of* 113 

Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Ry., Tractor 
Trucks for* 382 


Canadian Northern Ry. — 

Fuel Tests 24 

Shop Kinks* 65, 485 

Valve Setting, Instructions for* 182 

Canadian Pacific Ry. — 

Steel Car Shops at Angus* 251 

Steel Passenger Coaches* 199 

Stock Cars. Thirty -ton* 555 

Structural Steel Trucks* 109 

Tool Room Methods at Angus 

Shops*t 404, 407 

Training Apprentices on the* 263 

Canvas Car Roofing 437 

Capacity 234 

Capacity of Superheater Locomotives. .229 
Car — 

Air Brake Hangers, Manufacture of* 11 

Blue Flag Holder* 552 

Box, All-Steel, for the Pennsylvania 

R. R.* 369 

Box, Overhead Inspection of 292 

Box, The Standard Fifty Years Ago*.247 

Center Plate Oilert 87 

Cleaner, Thurman* 35 

Coal, Seventy-Ton* 243 

Construction* 299 

Coupler and Draft Equipment* 287 

Coupler Tests, University of Hlinois..l55 
Dairy, for the Baltimore & Ohio R. R.528 

Department Correspondence 550 

Destroyed in Accidents 483 

Door, Allen's Flush* 183 

Door Troubles 8 

Dynamometer, Imperial Railways of 
Japan 90 

Exhibit of Safety, New York Central 

Lines* 120 

Ferry, N. T. Ry.* 563 

Foremen's Association of Chicago, 

Annual Meeting* 516 

Freight Car Question 63 

Freight, Standardization oft 2, 212 

Grab Irons, Socket Washers for* .... 83 
Grand Trunk Ry., Hopper and Box*.. 26 

Hopper, Wrench for* 17 

Hot Boxes 261 

Instruction, Great Eastern Ry. (Eng- 
land)* 398 

Interchange 514 

Journal Box Packing Guard* 167 

Journal Packing and Lubrication.. . .220 

Lining, Asbestos 128 

Loading, Improper, of Box Cars 181 

Loading oft 2 

Lunch, on Pennsylvania R. R 75 

Machine Formers for Car Parts*.... 5 

Maintenance, Increased Cost of 173 

Men, Vocational Instruction for 76 

Motor, Gas-Electric, for the S. P. & 

S. Ry.* 525 

Motor, Gas-Electric, for St Louis 

Southwestern Ry.* 414 

Motor, Hall-Scott* 36 

Motor, McKeen, for Sunset-Central 

Lines* 9S 

Niagara Frontier Car Men's Assn...l50 

Passenger, Steel, for Canadian Pacific 

Ry.* 199 

Reinforcing Wooden Box* 54 

Repair Fund, A General 536 

Repair Shops at Air Line Jet., O. (L. 

S. & M. S. Ry.)* 147 

Repair Shops, Jointt 533 

Repair Shops, Joint 549 

Repair Shop, Requirements of* 67 

Repair Statisticst 1 

Repair Statistics* 21 

Retirement of 40,000 and 50,000 

Pounds Capacity Box Cars 301 

Roofing, Canvas 437 

Seats, Scarritt 355 

Seal* 168 

Shops at Angus for Repair of Steel 

Cars, Canadian Pacific Ry.* 251 

Spring Swinging Link, How to 

Forge* 527 

Springs for Railway Equipment*. . . .245 

Standardization of Freightt 2, 212 

Statistics of the Department, N. Y. C. 

& H. R 195 

Steel, Finish oft 172 

Steel, Insulation oft 171 

Steel, Special Machine for Building*. 155 

Stock, Thirty-ton, C. P. R.* 555 

Structural Steel Trucks, Canadian 

Pacfie By.* 109 

Supply, Conservation of Our 194 

Tank 293 


Trucks* 294 Conservation of Natural Resources Electric Arc Welding 558 

U. S. Safety Appliance Standard 553 

Wheels* 283 

Wheels, Cast Iron, Stresses in the 

Plates of* 157 

Cartoons 25, 62, 397, 472, 550, 563 

Case Hardening 418 

Cash Investment of the Railways Dur- 
ing Six Years 362 

Through Railway Electrification. . . 50 Electric Center Grinder* 436 

Conservation of Our Car Supply 194 Electric Drag, Portable* 127 

Consolidation Locomotives, Grand 
Trunk Ry.* 17 

Consolidation Locomotives, Western 
Maryland Ry.* 393 

Control of Railways, State or Federal t. 275 

Convention Reports (See Associations). 

Conventions for Julyt 275 

Cast Iron Wheels, Stresses in the Plates 

-» 157 Conventions, Mechanical, for 1914, Work 

Castings, Weight and Shrinkage of.. ..237 

Center Drilling Machine* 392 

Center Grinder, Electric* 436 

Central New York Southern R. R., Gas- 
oline Motor Car for* 351 

Center Plate Oilert 87 

Center Plate Oiler* 112 

■"Centipede" Locomotive, Erie R. R. ..196 

of Each 161 

Correspondence — 

Autogenous Welding 496 

Electric Headlights 518 

Electric Lantern* 436 

Electric Locomotives — 

Adaptability of in Switching Serv- 
ice* 255 

Equipment Design* 69 

Gait, Preston & Hespler Ry.* 47 

McKeen Switching* 552 

Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Ry.* 143 

Electric Motors in Railway Shops, Use 

of 308 

Pop-Valve Abuse 133 Electric Plug and Receptable* 83 

Shop Hose 496 Electrical Engineers' Association, Rail- 

Valve Gear Device 405 

way, Report of 524 

Water Treatment 216 Electrification — 

Coupler and Draft Equipment* 287 

Coupler Tests, University of Illinois. .155 

Central of Georgia Ry., Welding on the.521 Couplings, Air Hose, Testing* 221 

Couplings, Flange and Screw, for In- 
jectors* 306 

Centralized Control System, Panama 
Canal Locks* 29 

Central of Georgia Ry., Macon Tool 
Room of the* 363 

Oentral R. R. of New Jersey, Communi- 
paw Terminal* 388 

Central Railway Club, September Meet- 
ing 500 Cylinder Lubrication, Locomotivet . . 

Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Ry.* 113 

Conservation of Natural Resources 

Through 50 

Emergency Hydraulic Jack* 565 

Encourage the General Foremant 131 

Change in Attitude, At 1 

Chemistry of Combustion 469 

Check Valve, Rotary, for Locomotives*.271 
Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. — ■ 

Mallet Locomotives in Freight Serv- 
ice on 

Manufacture of Air Brake Hangers at 

Clifton Forge Shops 11 

Pacific Locomotive for* 537 

Tire Turning Test at Clifton Forge 

Shops* 60 

Chicago & Western Indiana Ry., Switch- 
ing Locomotives* 249 

Chicago Great Western R. R., Oelwein 

Tool Room* 497 

Chicago Meeting, A. S. M. E 536 

Chicago, Rock Island ft Pacific Ry. — 
Pacific and Mountain Type Locomo- 
tives* 105 

Chief Interchange Car Inspectors' and 
Car Foremen 's Association — 

Couplings, Tank Hose* 271 Endsley Goes to Pittsburgh* 270 

Cutting and Welding Devices in Rail- Engine House Efficiency ...373 

road Work 9 Engineering Congress, International, 

Cutting, Oxy-Acetylene 478 1915 Meeting 184 

Cylinder and Valve Seat Boring Bar* . . 355 Engines, Wiring oft 494 

.403 England, Ambulance Trains in* 542 

England, Locomotives Built in 1913*... 48 


Dairy Cars for the Baltimore & Ohio B. 

R 528 

Damage Suit, White Enamel Co. Sue 

England Losing Big Railway Contracts.133 
Erie R. R., Training Apprentices on 

the 1 


Erie R. R., Triplex Locomotive for the*.196 
ilmiriil 1i 210 Eur0 P ean Locomotive Developments . . . 4 

Evening School of Engineering 484 

Exceptional Employe, The 193 

Executive, Two Kinds of 233 

Damage to Freight Car Equipment by 

Unloading Machines 297 

Dangers of Motor Carst 533 

. . ,Qjj Exhibitors and Exhibits at the Atlantic 

Delaware, Lackawanna & Western R. 

R., Pacific Locomotives* 479 

Denver & Rio Grande R. R., Balanced 

Fire Door* 59 

City Convention* 333 

Exhibitors at the M. M. and M. C. B. 

Conventions, List of 163 

Exhibits, The Junet 172 

m "," "» R , Exploitation of New Devices, Failures 

Derailments, Tender* 61 r . ' 

Design and Adjustment of Walschaert 1D e •*" •**'** '"' J* 

* n * 223 Ex P 0Sltl0n > Steam Railway at the 556 

' V 434 Eye Protectors Improved* 207 

Eye Protectors, Non-Strain* 83 

Device for Bending Iron 

Device for Testing Bell Ringers* 268 

Dies for Bolt Header* 422 

, Dies, Special, for Cold Work 387 p 

Annual Convention, Report of* 439 ^. .. . .. — T „ .. „ ,-,„>* co- 

_ n . ' ,t .„„ Distribution Box, Locomotive Cab* 56o ...■*., -a. ^ „„ * 

Executive Committee Meeting 122 -. ., . ', To 1 * 385 Failures in tne Exploitation of New De- 
History of 301 _ 18 n _ U _ ° ' "' fi vicest 

Door Troubles, Car 8 

Draft and Coupler Equipment* 287 

, Drag, Portable Electric* 127 . 

154 _ "' T . . TT ... » -- Feeding Locomotive Boilers, Pumps and 

Drawbars, Locomotive, Upsetting* 77 f ' r 

„Qg Injectors for. . . 

Ferry, Car, N. T. Ry 


List of Members 450 

Chrome- Vanadium Steel Tires, Heat- 

Chuck Drill, Wahlstrom Automatic* 206 

Classification Yard Lighting* 513 

Drill Chuck, Wahlstrom Automatic* 
Drill, Horizontal Multiple* 25 

Club Membership, Railway t 212 DriU) Mud . Ring and Flue -Sheet 81 

Coal Cars, Seventy-ton* 243 Driyi Wheel T - G for * 162 

Coal, Powdered* 211 D Foreines 416 Fire De P artment > Sho P 

Coal Sprinkler, Hancock' 167 u * icati * * ack ' ^ ^^[ [" " "fcO Eire Door, Balanced, D. & R. G. R. R.* 59 

- - ■ - Fire Fighting on the Baltimore & Ohio 

Federal or State Control of Railwayst.275 
Feed Waters, Boiler 429 


Finish of Steel Coachest 172 

Firebox, Large Sectional* 49 


Coal Sprinkler, Nathan* 206 

Coal Sprinkler, Wiltbonco* 357 

Coal Sprinkling, Safety Squirt for* 272 

Communipaw Terminal, Central R. R. of 


R. R 404 

Flange and Screw Couplings for Inject- 

Eccentrics, Gauge for Setting* 71 ors* 


New Jersey* 388 Economics, Railway, in the United Flange Oiling 460 

Compensation of Labor on British and States and New South Wales 276 Flue-Sheet and Mud-Ring Drill* 81 

American Railways 43 Educational Bureau, Railway 481 Flue-sheets, Back, Duplicating* 540 

Compressor, Cross-Compound, Two- Efficiencies of Pneumatic Tools 473 Flues, Superheater, Welding Machine 

Stage* 35 Efficiency, Fuel 260 for* 157* 



Flush Car Door, Allen's*. 183 

Forge, Hardening Steel in a 522 

Forging Front End Braces 483 

Forgings. Drop 416 

Formers* 415 

Formers, Machinet 2 

Formers, Machine, for Locomotive and 

Car Parts* 5 

Frame Making and Repairing 417 

Frame Planer, Locomotive* 400 

Freight Car Equipment, Damage to by 

Unloading Machines 297 

Freight Car Patent, A 401 

Freight Car Question, The. 63 

Freight Cars, Standardization oft... 2, 212 
Freight Service, Mallet Locomotives in. 545 

Freight Train Handling 55 

French Locomotive Improvements 203 

Front End Braces, Forging 483 

Fuel Association (See Railway Fuel Assn.) 

Fuel, Burning Oil for 488 

Fuel Economy 214, 327 

Fuel Economy and Better Machinery. .460 

Fuel Efficiency 260 

Fuel, Powdered, The Use of 455 

Fuel Tests, Canadian Northern Ry 24 

Fund, A General Car Repair 536 

Fundamental of Apprentice Instruction. 231 
Furnace, Brass* 395 


Gait, Preston & Hespler Ry., Electric 

Locomotives for* 47 

Galvanized Steel Wire Hose Bands*. 83, 355 
Gas-Electric Motor Cars, Hlinois Cen- 
tral R. R.* 491 

Gas-Electric Motor Cars, St. Louis South- 
western Ry.* 414 

Gas-Electric Motor Cars, S. P. & S. Ry.*525 
Gasoline Motor Car, Central New York 

& Southern* 351 

Gauge for Setting Eccentrics* 71 

Gauges, Pressure, Repair of* 127 

Gauging Lift of Air Pump Valve* 144 

General Car Fepair Fund 536 

General Foremen's Association — 
Date of 1914 Convention and An- 
nouncement 3 

Encourage thet 131 

Report of 1914 Convention 373 

Subjects for 1914 Convention 73 

George "Westinghouset 131 

George Westinghouse (Biography)*. . .149 

Goggles, improved* 207 

Goggles, non-strain* 83 

Grab-Iron Socket "Washers* 83 

Grand Trunk Ry. — 

Cars, Hopper and Box* 26 

Mikado and Consolidation Locomo- 
tives for*... 17 

"Safety First" on the 75,133 

Grinder, Automatic Reamer* 413 

Grinder, Electric Center* 436 

Grinder, Knife* 126 

Grip Xuts on Knuckle Pins* 37 

Grinding, Tool Room 384 

Grinding Wheel Saf ety t 454 

Grinding Wheels, Safety Applied to*.. 475 
Gregory Smoke Consumer* 461 


Hack Saw, High Speed* 82 

Hancock Coal Sprinkler* 167 

Handling Material at American Loco- 
motive Co. Boiler Shop* 557 

Handling Metallic Packing in Round- 
houses 406 

Handling Scrapt 212 

Hardening Steel in a Forge 522 

Hauck Kerosene Torch* 531 

He Took Chances and Chances Took 
Him (Poem) 413 

Headlight Standardization, Canadian 

Northern Ry.* 427 

Headlight Testst 276 

Headlights, Electric 518 

Headlights, Locomotive 309 

Heat Treated Chrome-Vanadium Tires*. 154 

Heat Treatment* 418 

Heater, Steam-Water* 128 

Heavy Service Shaper* 271 

High Speed Locomotives, Electric*. .. .143 

High Speed Steel 415 

History of Railroading 151 

Hopper Cars, Grand Trunk Ry.* 26 

Hopper Cars, Wrench for* 17 

Horizontal Multiple Drill* 24 

Hose Bands, Galvanized Steel* 83, 355 

Hose Couplings, Tank* 271 

Hose Couplings, Testing* 221 

Hose Protector* 401 

Hot Boxes 261 

How to Use the Technical Journal 526 

Hump Yard, Mallets for Service in*.. 235 

Hunt Nut Lock* 208 

Hydraulic Jack, Emergency* 565 

Hydraulic Rivet Shear* 244 


Illinois Central R. R — 

Gas-Electric Car for* 491 

Nonconnah Terminal* 424 

Planer Installation at Burnside* 80 

Tool Room at Burnside Shop* 91 

Improper Loading of Box Cars 181 

Improved Eye Protectors* 207 

Improvements in French Locomotives. 203 
Increased Cost of Maintenance of Cars 

and Locomotives 173 

Increasing Shop Output 62 

India, As She Sees Us 483 

Individual Motor Drive for Machine 

Toolst 131 

Industrial Railwayst 42 

Injectors and Pumps for Feeding Loco- 
motive Boilers 396 

Injectors, Flange and Screw Couplings, 

Dimensions for* .306 

Inspection Report, Boilert 534 

Instructions for Valve Setting, C. 

X. R.* 182 

Insulation of Steel Carst 171 

Interchange of Cars 514 

Interchange of Cars, Revision of Rules 

of 283 

Interchange Rule 120t 404 

Interline Loading of Commodities 293 

International Correspondence School 

Lessons ...... Ill, 196 

International Engineering Congress 

i9i5 ; 184 

International Railroad Master Black- 
smiths' Assn. (See Master Black- 
smiths' Assn.) 

International Railway Fuel Assn. (See 
Railway Fuel Assn.) 

International Railway General Fore- 
men's Assn. (See General Fore- 
men's Assn.) 

Interstate Commerce Commission t . . . .361 

Iron and Steel, Properties, Treatment 
and Selection of* 505 

Iron and Steel, Zinc Coating as a Rust 
Preventive 12 

Issuing Instructions to Subordinates. .482 


Jack, Emergency Hydraulic* 565 

Jack the Time Killer (Poem) 528 

Jacks, Journal, Tests of* 233 

Jacobs-Shupert Firebox, Largest Built* 49 

Joint Car Shopst 533 

Joint Car Shops 549 

Jones ' Waste Cleaner* 141 

Journal Bearings 1 271 

Journal Box Packing Guard* 167 

Journal Jacks, Tests of* 233 

Journal Packing and Lubrication 220 

Journal, The Technical, How to Use... 526 

July Conventions! 275 

June Exhibits, Thet 172 

Just Keep On K,eepin > On (Poem) 90 


Keeping On the Subjeett 42 

Kennedy Tool Kits* 437 

Kerosene Blow Torch* 436 

Kerosene Torch, Hauck* 531 

Knife Grinder* 126 


Labor and Material, Prices for 286 

Labor, Compensation of on British and 

American Railways 43 

Laboratory and Road Tests, Method of 

Conducting 321 

Lagging Boilers, Method of* 66 

Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Ry. — 

Air Line Jet. Terminal .145 

Mallet Locomotive* 235 

Lantern, Electric* 436 

Lathe Dog, Safety* 566 

Lathe Screw Cutting Indicator* 433 

Lennox Serpentine Shear* 128 

Lesson of the Shops (Poem)* 278 

Let Us Smile (Poem) 512 

Leverage Applied to a Firedoor* 59 

Library, A Railway 472 

Lifting Device, Vacuum* 221 

Light and Aecidentst 534 

Lighting, Classification Yard* 513 

Lighting of Trains* 292 

Loading of Box Cars, Improper 181 

Loading of Carst 2 

Loading of Commodities, Interline. .. .292 

Loading Rules* 290 

Locomotive — 

Ash Pan Construction* 487 

Boiler Inspection* 13 

Boilers. Maintenance and Care of... 511 


Boiler Tubes* 272 

Bri.:k Arch, a New* 356 

Cheek Valve, Kotary* 271 

Consolidation for the Western Mary- 
land Ry.* 393 

Construction, Alloys and Heat-treated 

Steel in 317 

Cylinder Lubrication t 403 

Developments in Europe 4 

Distribution Box* 565 

Drawbars, Upsetting* 77 

Electric (See Electric Locomotives) . . 

English, in 1913* 48 

Frame Making and Repairing 417 

Frame Planer* 400 

Fuel Economy 327 

Fuel Tests, Canadian Northern Ry. . . 24 

Gauge for Setting Eccentrics* 71 

Headlight Testst 276 

Headlights 309 

Improvements in France 203 

Knuckle Pins, Grip Nuts on* 37 

Machine Formers for Locomotive 

Parts* 5 

Maintenance, Increased Cost of 173 

Mallets for Hump Yard Service, L. S. 

& M. S. Ry* 235 

Mallets, in Freight Service 545 

Maximum Efficiency at Lowest Cost. 466 

McKeen Switching* 552 

Mikado and Consolidation, Grand 

Trunk Ry* 17 

Of Today 523 

Pacific and Mikado Types, Pennsyl- 
vania R. R.* 351 

Pacific and Mountain, C, R. I. & P. 

Ry* 105 

Pacific Type, Chesapeake & Ohio Ry* . 537 
Pacific Type, Delaware, Lackawanna 

& Western R. R.*. 479 

Piston Puller* 267 

Practice, Brick Arch in 142 

Pumping of, Proper Methods 239 

Pumps and Injectors for Feeding Boil- 
ers 396 

Pyrometer for Superheaterst 88 

Pyrometer for Superheaters* 119 

Running Repairs, Present-day 191 

Springs for Railway Equipment*. . .245 
Staybolt Breakage, Theoretical Dis- 
cussion on* 519 

Stoker, The 500 

Stokers 303 

Superheater 316 

Superheater, Capacity of 229 

Switching, C. & W. I. Ry* 249 

Tail Bar Cross Braces, Method of 

Applying* 392 

Tender Derailments* 61 

Testing Bell Ringers, Device for*... 268 

Tests in Servicet 41 

Tests Method of Conducting 321 

Tire Heater, Monarch* 565 

Trailing Trucks, Water Cooling De- 
vice for* 156 

Triplex, Erie R. R.* . 196 

Tubes, Modern, 543 

Valve Setting, Instructions for, C. 

N. R.* 182 

Water, Purification of* 175 

Wheel Sliding 74 

Valve Gear Design t 211 

Valve Gear Design and Adjustment*. 223 

Valve Gear Device* 368 

Valve Seat and Cylinder Boring Bar*.355 

Low Water, An Unusual Case of* 504 

Loyalty 89, 201 

Lubricating and Packing Car Journals. 220 

Lubrication, Locomotive Cylinder t 403 

Lunch Car, Pennsylvania R. R 75 


Machine Formerst 2 

Machine Formers for Locomotive and 

Car Parts* 5 

Machine Repairs 384 

Machine Tool Capacity t 534 

Machine Tools, Individual Motor Drive 

fort 131 

Machinist, A Threshing Machine 222 

Macon, Ga., Tool Room of Central of 

Georgia Ry.* 363 

Magraw, William E.* 535 

Mail Pay, Railway 173, 422 

Maintenance and Care of Locomotive 

Boilers 511 

Maintenance of Cars and Locomotives, 

Increased Cost of '. 173 

Making Car Men Efficient by Vocational 

Instruction 76 

Making Good 219 

Making Mechanicst 132 

Making Mechanics on the Santa Fe*. . .135 

Malleable Castings, Mending of 511 

Mallet Locomotives for Freight Service. 545 
Mallets for Hump Yard Service, L. S. 

& M. S. Ry* 235 

Man Ahead, The (Poem) 434 

Man Failure (Poem) 73 

Manufacture of Air Brake Hangers* ... 11 

Master Blacksmiths' Convention t 403 

Master Blacksmiths' Convention* 415 

Master Boiler Makers' Assn., Conven- 
tion Report 258 

Master Car and Locomotive Painters' 

Assn., Convention Report 474 

M. C. B. Billing Department 134 

Master Car Builders' Assn., Convention 

Report* .279 

Master Mechanics' Assn. (See Ameri- 
can Railway Master Mechanics' 
Material to Wear Out but None to Rust 

out 455 

Materials, Specifications and Tests for. 297 
Maximum Efficiency of Locomotives. . .466 
May Meetings (Convention Reports). . .257 
McKeen Motor Cars, Sunset-Central 

Lines* 98 

McKeen Switching Locomotive* . .552 

Mechanical Conventions for 1914, Papers 

to be Delivered 161 

Mechanical Engineers Meet in Paris.. 362 
Mechanical Officials, Statistics fort.... 43 
Mechanical Officials, Statistics for*. .. . 45 
Mechanical Stokers, Advantages of.... 465 
Membership of the Various Railway 

Mechanical Associations .204 

Membership in Railway Clubst ...... .212 

Metal Band Saw* .436 

Metallic Packing '.'. 174 

Metallic Packing, Handling It in 

Roundhouses 406 

Metals, Bearing 471 

Method of Lagging Boilers* 66 

Mispronouncing Santa Fe ;.483 

Mikado Locomotives, Grand Trunk Ry.*. 17 

Mix-up, A 142 

Modern Car Repair Shop (Requirements 

of)* . : 67 

Modern Tube for Locomotive Service.. 543 

Monarch Tire Heater* .565 

Motor Car — 

Dangers oft ,....533 

Gasoline, for Central New York 

Southern* 351 

Gas-electric for St. Louis Southwest- 
ern Ry.* ....... ...414 

Gas-electric for S, P. & S. Ry,* 525 

Hall-Scott* '..' ,'.". 36 

McKeen for Sunset-Central Lines*.. 98 

Motor Drive for Machine Tools t 131 

Motors, Electric, Use of in Railway 

Shops 308 

Motors, Shopt 494 

Mountain Type Locomotives, C, R. I, 

&P. Ry.* .....105 

Mud-ring and Flue-Sheet Drill*. . 81 


Nathan Coal Sprinkler* : . . v'.'l .206 

National Council for Industrial Safety, 
Annual Meeting ; . .512 

National Transcontinental Ry. — 

Car Ferry* ...563 

Leonard Shops* . . . . '. 19 

New Books. .77, 126, 268, 350, 399, 434, 
489, 529, 563 

New Devices, Failures in the Exploita- 
tion oft .171 

New Literature.. 84, 129, 168, 208, 273, 
357, 401, 438, 492, 531, 566 

New York Central & Hudson River R. 
R., Car Department Statistics 195 

New York Central Lines, Safety Exhibit 
Car* .121 

New York Railroad Club, March 1914 
Meeting 150 

Niagara Frontier Car Men's Assn., Or- 
ganization of 150 

Nonconnah Terminal, Illinois Central 
R. R.* ....424 

Norfolk & Western Ry., Superheater and 
Brick Arch Tests On. 329 

Novel Suggestion for Supervision 495 

Nut Lock, Hunt* 208 

Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Ry., Elec- 
tric Locomotives* 143 

Obituary . .35, 40, 80, 86, 130, 167, 274, 
355, 400, 491, 529, 532, 535, 566 

Oelwein Tool Room, Chicago Great 
Western R. R.* '. .497 

Officers of the, Railway Equipment Mfrs. 

ASSI1. ■••»••• .v?'.i •■•'••••••••••••■ .'4J.<> 

Officers of the Traveling Engineers 

Assn.* 412 

Oil Burner for Shop Use* 414 

Oil for Fuel, Burning .488 

On the Job \\..: :<..... 84 


Oregon Short Line, Shops at Pocatello, 
Ida.* 241 

Overhead Inspection of Box Cars 292 

Oxy-acetylene Welding on the St. Louis 
& San Francisco* 457 

Oxy-acetylene Welding and Catting. . . .478 

Pacific and Mikado Locomotives tor the 

Pennsylvania* 351 

Pacific Locomotives, Chesapeake & Ohio 

Ry* 537 

Pacific Locomotives, C, R. I. & P. Ry.*.105 
Pacific Locomotives, Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna & Western R. R.* 479 

Packing Hot Superheaters 302 

Packing Guard, Journal Box*. 167 

Packing, Metallic 174 

Packing, Metallic, Handling it in Round- 
houses* 406 

Panama Canal Locks, Centralized Con- 
trol System* 29 

Panama Canal, Pacific Shops of the... 195 
Panama-Pacific Exposition, Railway 

System 213 

Past and Present Railroading 151 

Patent Laws of Our Country t 212 

Peffers Hose Protector* ' 401 

Pennsylvania R. R. — 

All-steel Box Cars* 369 

Lunch Car ~ r > 

Pacific and Mikado Locomotives for*. 351 

Shops, Safety in " 

Personals* . .33, 79, 125, 165, 205, 269, 

354, 399, 434, 489, 528, 564 

Phonetic Spelling, Railroad 142 

Piston Puller* 267 

Planer, Locomotive Frame* 400 

Planer Installation, Burnside Shops, 

L C. R. B.* 80 

Plug and Receptacle* 83 

Pneumatic Tool Efficiencies 473 

Portable Riveting Stake* 554 

Positions and Agencies 130 

Postoffioe, The First Railway 426 

Powdered Coalt 211 

Powdered Fuel, The Use of 455 

Present-day Running Repairs 191 

Pressure Gauges, Repair of* 127 

Prevention of Black Smoke 463 

Prevention of Smoket 493 

Prices for Labor and Material 286 

Progressive Tool Room, A* 91 

Properties, Treatment and Selection of 

Iron and Steel* 505 

Proper Method of Packing and Lubri- 
cating Journals 220 

Publicityt 494 

Pumping Locomotives 239 

Pumps and Injectors for Feeding Loco- 
motive Boilers .' 396 

Punch Press, Vacuum Lifting Device 

for* 221 

Purification of Water for Locomotives*. 175 

Pyrometer for Superheaters t 88 

Pyrometer for Superheaters* 118 


Railroad Phonetic Spelling 142 

Railroad Situation, The 540 

Railway Business Assn., 1913 Meeting. . 12 
Railway Economics in the United States 

and New South Wales 276 

Railway Educational Bureau 481 

Railway Electrical Engineers Conven- 
tion Report 524 

Railway Equipment Mfrs. Assn., Officers 
of* 413 

Railway Exchange, The 362 

Railway Fuel Assn., Convention Report. 257 
Railway Lessons, for March, I. C. S.. . .196 

Railway Library, A 472 

Railway Mail Pay 173, 422 

Railway Officer, to thet 453 

Railway Postoffice, The First 426 

Railway Rate Case, The 454 

Railway Shop, Raising the Standard of 

Efficiency in the 90 

Railway Storekeepers Assn., Convention 

Report 259 

Railway Supply Exhibit in New Quar- 
ters* 170 

Railway Supply Manufacturers' Assn., 

Annual Meeting 331 

Railway Supply Manufactured 453 

Raising the Standard of Efficiency in a 

Railway Shop 90 

Rate Case, The Railway 454 

Reamer Grinder, Automatic* 413 

Reamer for Truing Up Air Pump Stop 

Bosses* 104 

Reamers, Standardization of 383 

Reclaiming of Material* 217 

Relation Between Supply Department 

and Other Departments 213 

Relic of Other Days (Box Car)* 247 

Reopening of the Southern Hotel*. .. .170 
Repair Fund, A General Car Repair... 536 

Repair of Pressure Gauges* 127 

Repair Shops, Jointt 533 

Repair Shops, Joint 549 

Repair Statistics, Cart 1 

Repair Statistics, Car* 21 

Repairing and Applying Superheater 

Units* 121 

Repairing Boiler Tubes 432 

Replacing the Vacuum 59 

Retirement of 40,000 and 50,000 Pounds 

Capacity Box Cars 301 

Revision of M. C. B. Standards and Rec- 
ommended Practice 279 

Revision of M. M. Standards and Rec- 
ommended Practice 307 

Revision of Rules of Interchange 283 

Revision of Train Brake and Signal In- 
structions 322 

Rivet Shear, Hydraulic* 244 

Riveting Stake, Portable* 554 

Road Tests, Method of Conducting 321 

Roofing, Canvas Car 437 

Rotary Air Compressor* 530 

Rotary Cheek Valve for Locomotives*. 271 

Roundhouse and Fuel Economy 214 

Roundhouses, Handling Metallic Pack- 
ing in 406 

Rule 120* 404 

Rules of Interchange, Revision of 283 

Running Repairs 191 

Rust Preventive for Iron or Steel, Zinc 
as a 12 

Safety Appliance, Standard, U. S 553 

Safety Appliances 290 

Safety Applied to Grinding Wheels*. . .475 
"Safety Firsts- 
Exhibit Car, New York Central 
Lines* 120 

Grand Trunk Work 75, 133 

Grinding Wheel Safety* 454 

Oil Burner* 414 

Pennsylvania Shops 77 

Safeguarding Railroad Shops 201 

Safety First Button 486 

Specializing on 456 

Safety Lathe Dog* 566 

Safety Squirt for Coal Sprinkling* 272 

St. Louis & San Francisco R. R., Oxy- 

actylene Welding on the* 457 

St. Louis Southwestern Ry., Gas-elec- 
tric Motor Cars for* 414 

Sand (Poem) 406 

Santa Fe, Mispronouncing 483 

Saw, High-Speed Hack* 82 

Saw, Metal Band* 436 

Scarritt Car Seats 355 

Scrap, The Handling oft 212 

Scrap Handling Plant at West Spring- 
field, B. & A. R. R.* 547 

Scrap Material, The Reclaiming of*... 217 
Screw Cutting Indicator for Lathes*.. 433 

Seal, Car* 168 

Searchlight Gas for Shop Work 207 

Sectional Firebox, Large* 49 

Sellers Safety Squirt for Coal Sprink- 
ling* 272 

Selling Side, The*. .38, 85, 129, 168, 209, 

273, 358, 401, 438, 492, 531, 566 

Seventy-ton Coal Cars* 243 

Shaper Attachment* 204 

Shaper, Heavy Service* 271 

Shear Blade Economy* 372 

Shear Lennox Serpentine* 128 

Shear, Rivet, Hydraulic* 244 

Shocked the Superintendent 461 

Shop, A Well Lighted* 491 

Shop Fire Department, The 353 

Shop Kinks — 

Air Brake Cylinder Head Holder*... 47 

Air Hoist for Wheels* 240 

Air Hose Couplings, Method of Test- 
ing* 221 

Air Pumps, Device for Handling* ... 21 

Back Flue Sheets, Duplicating* 540 

Bending Iron, Device for* 434 

BlacksmithB* 419 

Brass Furnace* 395 

Canadian Northern Ry. (Vari- 
ous)* 65, 485 

Center Drilling Machine* 392 

Center Plate Oiler* 112 

Flue Welding Machine for Superheat- 
ers* 157 

Forging Front End Braces 483 

Gauge for Driving Wheel Tires* 162 

Gauging Lift of Air Pump Valve* . . . 144 
Handling Boiler Shop Material*. .. .557 

Horizontal Multiple Drill* 25 

Malleable Castings, Mending of 511 

Oil Burner. X. Y. C. & H. R, R. R.*. .414 


Piston Puller* 267 

Keamer Grinder, Automatic* 413 

Reamer for Truing Up Air Pump Stop 

Bosses* 104 

Repairing and Applying Superheater 

Units* 121 

Rivet Shear, Hydraulic* 244 

Riveting Stake, Portable* 554 

Screw Cutting Indicator for Lathes*. 433 

Shaper Attachment* 204 

Shear Blade Economy* 372 

Spring Swinging Link, Method for 

Forging* 527 

Stud Wrench* 516 

Tail Bar Cross Braces, Method of 

Applying* 392 

Test Pump, Hydrostatic* 163 

Testing Bell Ringers, Device for* .... 268 

Tool Wagon for Thermit Work* 70 

Upsetting Locomotive Drawbars*.... 77 
Vacuum Lifting Device for Punch 

Press* 221 

Waste Cleaner* 141 

Wrench for Hopper Cars* 17 

Shop Man, A Traveling 481 

Shop Motorst 494 

Shop Output, Increasing 62 

Shop Tools, Distribution of 385 

Shops, Lesson of the (Poem)* 278 

Shops, New (Description of) — 

Canadian Pacific R. R., Steel Gar, at 

Angus* 251 

Illinois Central R. R., Nonconnah Ter- 
minal* 424 

Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Ry., 

Air Line Junction* 145 

Modern Car Repair (General Require- 
ments) * 67 

National Transcontinental Ry. at 

Quebec (Leonard Shops)* 19 

Oregon Short Line at Pocatello, Ida.*241 
Panama Canal, Pacific Shops of the . . 195 

Shops, Railroad, Safeguarding of 201 

Shops, Railway, Welding int 359 

Shops, Use of Electric Motors in Rail- 
way 308 

Sincerity 230 

Situation in Brief 89, 399, 549 

Sit Tight! Don't Rock the Boat 486 

Smoke Consumer, Gregory* 461 

Smoke Prevention* 320 

Smoke Preventiont 493 

Socket Washer for Grab Irons* 83 

Southern Hotel, Reopening of* 170 

Spacing Collar, Adjustable* 82 

Special Dies for Cold Work 387 

Special Tools* 386 

Special Train for Atlantic City Conven- 
tions 172 

Specializing on ' ' Safety First " 456 

Specifications and Tests for Materials. . 297 

Speed Recorders 469 

Spokane, Portland & Seattle Ry., Gas- 
Electric Motor Cars for* 525 

Spring Making and Repairing 416 

Spring Swinging Link* 527 

Springs for Railway Equipment* 245 

Standardization of Freight Carst...2, 212 
Standardization of Headlights, Cana- 
dian Northern Ry.* 427 

Standardization of Reamers 383 

Standardization of Tinware* 313 

State or Federal Control of Railways t .275 

Statisticst 359 

Statistics, Car Department, N. Y. C. & 

H. R. R. R 195 

Statistics for Mechanical Officialst .... 43 

Statistics for Mechanical Officials* 45 

Staybolt Breakage, Theoretical Discus- 
sion on* 519 

Steam Locomotives of Today 523 

Steam Railway at the Exposition 556 

Steam-Water Heater* 128 

Steel, Alloyed for Tools 208 

Steel and Iron, Properties, Treatment 

and Selection of* 505 

Steel-Car Building, Special Machine 

for* . 155 

Steel Car Shop at Angus, Canadian Pa- 
cific Ry 251 

Steel Cars, Insulation oft 171 

Steel Coach Finisht 172 

Steel Freight Car Patent 401 

Steel Hardening in a Forge 522 

Steel, Heat-Treated, in Locomotive Con- 
struction 317 

Steel, High-Speed 415 

Steel Passenger Coaches, Canadian Pa- 
cific R. R.* 199 

Stock Cars, Thirty-ton, C. P. R.* 555 

Stokers, Advantages of 465 

Stokers, Locomotive 303 

Stoker, The Locomotive 500 

Stop Bosses on Air Pumps, Reamer for 

Truing Up* 104 

Storekeepers Assn. (See Railway Store- 
keepers' Assn.). 
Stores, Department Relation to Other 

Departments 213 

Stresses in Plates of Cast-Iron Wheels*.157 
Structural Steel Trucks, Can.-Pac. Ry.*.109 

Stud Wrench* 516 

Subjects for 1915 Convention of A. R. 

M. M. Assn 319 

Sunset-Central Lines, McKeen Motor 

Car for* 98 

Superheater and Brick Arch Tests, N. 

& W. Ry 329 

Superheater Flue Welding Machine*. . .157 

Superheaters, Hot, The Packing of 302 

Superheater Locomotives, Capacity of.. 229 

Superheater Locomotives 316 

Superheaters, Pyrometers fort 88 

Superheaters, Pyrometers for* 118 

Supervision, A Novel Suggestion for. . .495 
Superheater Units, Repairing and Ap- 
plying* 121 

Supply Department, Relation to Other 

Departments 213 

Supply Exhibit, Permanent Railway in 

New Quarters* 170 

Switching Locomotives, C. & W. I. Ry.*249 
Switching Locomotive, McKeen Elec- 
tric* 552 

Switching Service, Adaptability of the 
Electric Locomotive to* 255 


Tail Bar Cross Braces, Method of Ap- 
plying* 392 

Tank Cars* 293 

Tank Hose Coupling 271 

Technical Journal, How to Use the... 526 

Telephone Service 426 

Tender Derailments* 61 

Terminals (See also "Shops, New, De- 
scriptions of) — 
Central R. R. of New Jersey at Com- 
munipaw* 388 

Hlinois Central R. R. at Nonconnah 

(Memphis)* 424 

Test Pump, Hydrostatic* 163 

Testing Air Hose Couplings* 221 

Testing Bell Ringers, Device for* 268 

Tests and Specifications for Materials. .297 

Tests, Brake Performance t 88 

Tests, Brake Performance* 99 

Tests, Car Coupler, University of Illi- 
nois 155 

Tests, Headlightt 276 

Tests of Journal Jacks* 233 

Tests, Locomotive, in Servicet 41 

Tests, Locomotive, Method of Conduct- 
ing 321 

Thermit Work, Tool Wagon for* 70 

Theoretical Discussion on Staybolt 
Breakage* 519 

Thirty-ton Stock Cars, C. P. R.* 555 

Threshing Machine Machinist 222 

Thurman Car Cleaner* 35 

Tinware, Standardization of* 313 

Tire Heater, Monarch* 565 

Tire Turning Tests, C. & O. Ry.* 60 

Tires, Driving Wheel, Gauge for* 162 

Tires, Heat-Treated, Chrome - Vanad- 
ium* 154 

Tool Foremen's Association — 

Announcement of Convention Topics.203 

Convention Report* 383 

Tool Kits, Kennedy* 437 

Tool Room Grinding 384 

Tool Room Methods at Angus Shops, 
Canadian Pacific Ry.t* 404, 407 

Tool Room Methods at Burnside Shops, 
Illinois Central R. R.* 91 

Tool Room Methods at Macon Shops, 
Central of Georgia Ry.* 363 

Tool Room Methods at Oelwein Shops, 
Chicago Great Western R. R.* 497 

Tool Room Workt 87 

Tool Wagon for Thermit Work* 70 

Tools, Alloyed Steel for 208 

Tools and Formers* 415 

Tools, Special* 386 

Torch, Hauck Kerosene* 531 

Tractor Trucks, Butte, Anaconda & Pa- 
cific Ry.* 382 

Trailing Truck, The Austin* 331 

Trailing Trucks, Water Cooling Device 

for* .156 

Train Brake and Signal Equipment 280 

Train Brake and Signal Instructions, 

Revision of 322 

Train Handlingt 41 

Train Handling, Freight 55 

Train Lighting* 292 

Train Resistance and Tonnage Rating. 325 
Training Apprentices on the Canadian 

Pacific* 263 

Training Apprentices on the Erie R. R.*185 


Transcontinental Ry (See National 

Transcontinental Ry.). 
Traveling Engineers' Assn., Officers of 

the* 412 

Traveling Engineers' Convention, Re- 
port oft* 454, 463 

Traveling Shop Man, A 481 

Triplex Locomotive, Erie R. R.* 196 

Trouble Man, The 496 

Trucks, Car* 294 

Trucks, Structural Steel, Canadian Pa- 
cific Ry.* 109 

Trucks, Trailing, The Austin* 331 

Trucks, Trailing, Water Cooling Device 

for* ....156 

Trucks, Warehouse* 37 

True Romance, The (Poem) 456 

Tubes for Locomotive Service 543 

Tubes, Locomotive Boiler* 272 

Twenty Years Ago This Month 

3, 43, 89, 173, 213, 277, 405, 455, 495, 535 
Two Kinds of Executive 233 


U. S. Safety Appliance Standard 553 

University of Illinois, Car Coupler Tests 

at 155 

University of Pittsburgh, Evening 

School 484 

Unloading Machines, Damage to Freight 

Cars by 297 

Unusual Case of Low Water* 504 

Use of Powdered Fuel 455 

Useful Document 75 


Vacuum Lifting Device* 221 

Valve Gear Design t 211 

Valve Gear Design and Adjustment*.. .223 
Valves, Cylinders, Cross-Heads, Pistons 
and Guides 376 

Valve Gear Device* 368 

Valve, Rotary Check, for Locomotives*. 271 
Valve Setting, Instructions for, C. N. 

R.* 182 

Valve Seat and Cylinder Boring Bar*.. 355 
Vanadium-Chrome Tires, Heat-Treated*154 
Veterans of Westinghouse Electric Co. 

Organize 97 

Vocational Instruction for Making Car 

Men Efficient 76 


Wahlstrom Automatic Drill Chuck* 206 

Walschaert Valve Gear Design and Ad- 
justment* 223 

Warehouse Trucks, All-Steel* 37 

Warman's, "Cy," Last Poem 184 

Waste, Cleaner, Jones* 141 

Water Cooling Device for Trailing 

Trucks* 156 

Water for Locomotives, Purification of*175 
Water Treatment and Boiler Mainten- 
ance 400 

Weight and Shrinkage of Castings. .. .237 
Welding — 

Arc Method* 207 

Autogenous 378 

Cutting and Welding Devices in Rail- 
road Work 9 

Electric Arc 558 

On the Central of Georgia Ry 521 

Oxy- Acetylene, and Cutting 478 

in Railway Shopst 359 

Oxy-Acetylene, on the St. Louis & 

San Francisco* 457 

Searchlight Gas for Shop Work 207 

Superheater Flues, Machine for*.... 157 
Wernicke-Hatcher Rotary Air Com- 
pressor* 530 

Well-Lighted Railroad Shop. A* 491 

West Springfield Scrap Handling Plant, 

B. & A. R. R.* 547 

Western Maryland Ry., Consolidation 

Locomotives for* 39:^ 

Western Railway Club, Annual Meet- 
ing 260 

Westinghouse Air Brake Prizes, An- 
nouncement of 411 

Westinghouse Electric Veterans Organ- 
ize 97 

Westinghouse, Georget 131 

Westinghouse, George* (Biography)... 149 

What the Injured Person Said 484 

Wheel Sliding 74 

Wheels, Air Hoist for* 240 

Wheels, Car* 282 

Wheels, Cast-iron, Stresses in the Plates 

of* 157 

Wheels, Grinding, Safety Applied to... 475 
White Enamel Co., Successful in Dam- 
age Suit 210 

Who Caused the Wreck ft* 404, 423 

Why He Kept His Job 195 

Who Did This? 29 

Will the Lights Be White? (Poem) 184 

Wiltbonco Coal Sprinkler* 357 

Wine Socket Washer for Grab Irons*.. 83 

Wiping Cloths 401 

Wire Hose Bands, Galvanized Steel*83, 355 

Wiring Enginest 494 

Work Report, A 477 

Wrench for Hopper Cars* 17 

Wrench, Stud* 516 


Yard Lighting, Classification* 513 


Zinc, Coating as a Rust Preventive for 
Iron or Steel 12 


Author's Index 

A Cozad, William S. — "Training Appren- Johnson, Lacey E. — "Training Appren- 

»«. r, -a- i.-r. * t, „• tices on the Erie R. R. "* 185 tiees on the Canadian Pacific"*. . .263 

Abbott, C K- Device for Bending David K H .-"Pacific Shops of the Johnson, T. J.-"Bearing Metals". .. .471 

Iron 434 

Idams W H-"Canvas"car"Eoofin' S "437 PaDama Canal " 195 J ° neS ' Isaac ~ ' Jon es Waste Cleaner"*141 

Adams, W H Canvas Lar Kootng .43/ Dayi A E .— "Macon Tool Boom, Cen- Kearney, J. E.— "Conservation of Our 

Bantam, MK.-» Relations Between tral of Georgia Ry „. 363 Car gupply „ 194 

Supply Department and Other De- Dickert> a L ._< < Welding on the Cen . Kendall, P. L.-" Specializing on Safe- 

partments ....... 213 tral of Georgia Ey." 521 ty First" 456 

Bennett, Arthur-" Forging Front-End Diebert> w C .-" Automatic Eeamer Kinsey, Owen D.-" A Progressive Tool 

„ graces •■■ ••■■•• ;••••'" Grinder"* 413 Boom"* 91 

Bentley F. W., Jr.-" Eeamer f or Tru- Diefe w _ a _„ Screw Cutti Indi . Ki A G.-"Pumping Locomo- 

ing Up Air PumpStop Bosses"*... 104 cator „* 433 t - veg „ ^ ° ^ 

Bentley, F. W., Jr. "Safety Device Dix, L. E.—" Hydrostatic Test Pump"* 163 Kropidlowski, V. T.—" Test of Journal 

? r aZ ». PS nDg o Dowd ' Albert A.-"Hardening Steel in Jacks"* 233 

Boad Shipments ....... _1 & Forge" 522 Kuhn, B. F.— "Use of Electric Motors 

Berg R. M.- U. S. Safety Appliance _ Dudley> g w _, , Brake Perf ormance in Eailway Shops „ 308 

Standard . . . 5o3 Tests "* 99 LaBach, P. M.— "Purification of Water 

Berry, Orville F.-"Past and Present Dunham> w< E ._«p re sent-Day Eun- for Locomotives"* 175 

Eailroading ......... 151 Eepairs" 191 Lacerda, H. A.— "A 'Safety First' 

Beyer, F. A.-' Oxy-Acetylene Weld- ^^ D j _, , The Freight Car Queg . m Burner „ , 4U 

„ 1Dg _ """" *■"".'." ,'"" ,* 45 ' tion" 63 Lawson, A. B.—" Gauge for Setting Ec- 

Borer, Frank J.-"Baising the Stand- E } A.-" Device for Testing Bell centrics"* 71 

ard of Efficiency in a R ailway Ein gers"* 268 Lawson, A. B.-" Water Cooling Device 

Shop ........... ......... 90 EUiott j A.— "Gauging Lift of Air for Trailing Trucks" 156 

Borer, Frank J. — "Testing Air Hose ~ ,, , ,,* i ii T ,, v ,,,. , „ ~ . ,._ „„ D 

' ttm 6 Pump Valve"* 144 Lewis, B. N. — "\alve Gear Device"*. 368 

Couplings . .221 E1Uott j A _, < p iston Puller »« 267 Lucas, A. N.— ' « Portable Eiveting 

Boutet, H. — "Interchange of Cars"... 514 _, , . T -,-, iia , ., , , ,,» „. 

_ ', * „ ,,° .„, Endsley, Louis E. — "Stresses m the Stake"* 5o4 

Brackenbury, H. L. — "Pneumatic Tool .„, . - ~, . T .„,., , ,,* •>-- T » -vt ,,-d • • -r> -i 

. J \ ,, Plates of Cast-Iron Wheels"* lo/ Lucas, A. N. — "Eepaning Boiler 

Efficiencies ^ . . . ....... 4(3 Freeman> Lewig D.— " Walschaert Valve Tubes" 433 

' _ . _. SS1 " ° " „ Gear Design and Adjustment"*. .223 Lucore, F. M. — "A General Car Eepair 

tions to Subordinates" 482 _, , m r ..„ . .-.., „ -^ , ,, _„„ 

„ . „ _ . ,,,_ . . _ ,, French, W. L. — "Burning Oil for Fund" 536 

Brentnall, Louis — "Making Car Men ™ m aqq at a » << a tt io e 

^^ .' , „ , . , T . Fuel " 488 Masters, A. A. — ' ' An Unusual Case of 

Efficient by Vocational Instruc- „ , TTT T ,,-vtt, , „,.,. ,, -. , ' . ... r/ .. 

.. ,, _ fi French, W. L. — "Wheel Sliding" <4 low Water"* 504 

t, x „ y\'"gia'l ,'•'■■'''.',* Freuler, Daniel — "Brass Furnace"*. . .395 McManamy, Frank — "Locomotive Boil- 

Brentnall, Louis — "Safeguarding Bail- _. , J:. . . ,,„, .^i. T *- i.« 

' ,, 6 ° Freuler, Daniel — "Shaper Attach- er Inspection"* 13 

road bhops ...... 201 ment ,« 204 Mould R B .— "Allen's Flush Car 

Brentnall, Louis — "The Shop Fire De- _ , _. **«_.* t» -i ^ ,,» ,„„ 

' * Graburn, A. L. — "Springs for Eailway Door"* 183 

par men •";•* Equipment"* 245 Murray, E. A. — "Manufacture of Air 

Brewster, E .T.-< '.Repairing and Ap- ^^ R w _ ( , Tendef Derailments , ,. 61 ^ Hangers , „ n 

plying superheater Units 121 Q Charles F ._<< Greg ory Smoke Nutt, G. W.— "Oelwein Tool Boom, C. 

Bryan, J. ^-'Electric Arc Welding" 558 burner"* 461 G. W. E. E.* 497 

Buell, D. C. — "The Fundamentals of ■ _ _.„. ,, T ou ^ . _,_, _. _, „_. .. ^ -, , 

_ ,, __., Hall, William — "Increasing Shop Out- O'Connor, W. E. — "Duplicating Back 

Apprentice Instruction" 231 ao -m . L , } * kac 

x> a n t <i<TUTA n t> • P ut 62 Flue Sheets"* 540 

Bundy, C.L.- A Modern Car Eepair Hedemail) Walter R ._„ Ash Pan C on- Ord, L. C.-"Steel Car Shops at An- 

x> + ! P -d ™ "<Yv ","■'"■"" V \r' struction"* 487 ' gus"* 251 

Burnett, B. W. — "Eeclaiming of Ma- TT ., ^ , x _ ,,, r . . „ _ , ** .. _ .,_ A _, ,, n _, 

' s Hedeman, Walter B— " Machine Form- Parks, O. J.— "Hot Boxes" 261 

^, '*. t> ' 2JL" "/.IS." ". "V"«V"i ers for Car and Locomotive Parts"* 5 Perry, H. M. — "A Eelic of Other 

Burnett, B. W. — "Structural Steel „ , T m ,,„ t^ • • i. .« n.r, 

Tn/cks r P R"* 100 Hendrum > J - T.— "Gauge for Driving Days"* 247 

n . b , tt <*io"* ••••••••••••• • Wheel Tires"* 162 Phelps, Frank— " Another Shoplnci- 

Cain, Paul H. — "Spring Swinging _ , _ ,._ _ _ \ ' ,, r ... 

'. . ^ s s 6 Herron, James H.—" Properties, Treat- dent" 484 

_. .. „ "/".'.'// " "/ r ".',' V ' ", ~ ment and Selection of Iron and Phelps, Frank — "A Threshing Machine 

Charlton, G. J.— "Proper Method of ___ i r ' . . & 000 

p ' .f . . T Steel"* oOo Machinist" 222 

. ,, 2 „ Hewitt, John — "Apprentice Efficiency" 23 Baps, J. F. — "Maintenance and Care of 

. ^ '/'Wei' "^""" x« Hobson, W. P. — "Superheater Flue Locomotive Boilers" 511 

Cleary, Frank — "Car Department Corre- .«..,. ,, ,. .,» **„ r, , ^m, t. -, ^ o-x 

" , .. r _ n Welding Machine"* 157 Bea, Samuel— "The Eailroad Situa- 

spondence" 5o0 & ,, 

Collett, Eobert— "Fuel Efficiency"... .260 Hodgins, George S.— "Car Ferry, N. T. tion . . ••••••• • • • ■•••■■■.••;•■ 

Conrath, P. J.-"The Modern Tube for *?."• 56a Royer, L. D.-" A Brick Arch m Loco- 
Locomotive Service " 543 Horn, Frank—' ' Door Troubles " 8 motive Prac « ce •■■■■ ■ • • • • • • • • • ■ -J« 

Schultz, F. C. — "Joint Car Shops" 549 

Converse, W. A.— "Boiler Feed Wa- Jesson, J. A.— "Brake Cylinder Head gh j S .— "The Roundhouse and 

t«s" 429 Holder"* 47 ^ Economy „ 214 

Cordeal, Ernest — "Statistics for Me- Jesson, J. A. — "Center Drilling Ma- Sitterly, W. H. — "Improper Loading 

chanical Officials"* 45 chine"* 392 for Box Cars" 181 

Corkran, Herbert— "The M. C. B. Bill- Jesson, J. A.— "Wrench for Hopper Spicer, H. C— "A Traveling Shop 

ing Department" 134 Cars"* 17 Man" 481 

Cosgrove, P. E. — "Method of Lagging Jesson, J. A. — "Upsetting Locomotive Spicer, H. C. — "Method ox Applying 

Boilers"* 66 Drawbars"* 77 Tail Bar Cross Braces"* 392 


Spidy, E. T. — "Hydraulic Rivet Thomas, F. W. — " Making Mechanics on 

Shear"* 244 the Santa Fe"* 135 

Spidy, E. T.— "Shear Blade Econo- Turner, W. L— " Theoretical Discussion 


.372 on Staybolt Breakage"* 519 

Walters, W. T. — "Air Hoist for 
Stafford, B. E. D. — "Theoretical Discus- ' >)# 

sion on Stavbolt Breakage"* 519 m ,^ ® el " .111' ' li'Wl'l "J" 

Walsh, J. F. — "The Mallet Locomotive 
Stevens, H. C-" Center Plate Oiler "M12 - n preJght Service .„ 545 

Street, Clement F.— "The Locomotive Westfall, Andrew — "Better Machinery 
Stoker" 500 and Fuel Economy" 460 

White£ord, A. W.— ' ' Cutting and Weld- 
ing Devices in Eailroad Work"... 9 

Whitehouse, W. M. — "Tool Room 
Methods at Angus Shops"* 407 

Williams, R. G.— "Safety Applied to 
Grinding Wheels "* 475 

Williams, T. E.— "Oxy- Acetylene Weld- 
ing and Cutting " 478 

Woolford, A. — "Pumps and Injectors 
for Feeding Locomotives " 396 

January, 1914 


The World's Greatest Railway Mechanical Journal 

Published at the World's Greatest Railway Center 

Established 1878 


WILLIAM E. MAGRAW, Pres. and Treas. 
CHAS. S. MYERS, Vice-Pres. L. F. WILSON, V. P. & Editorial Director 


J. M. CROWE, Mgr. Central Diet. KENNETH L. VAN AUKEN, Editor 


Office of Publication : Manhattan Building, Chicago 

Telephone, Harrison 4948 

Eastern Office: 50 Church Street, New York 

Telephone, Cortlandt 5765 

Central Office: House Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Address all editorial and business communications to the Com- 
pany, at Chicago. 

A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, car equipment, 
shops, machinery and supplies. 

Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are solicited. 

Subscription price, $2.00 a year; to foreign countries, $2.50, free of 

postage. Single copies, 20 cents. Advertising rates given on 

application to the office, by mail or in person. 
In remitting, make all checks payable to The Railway List Company. 
Papers should reach subscribers by the 16th of the month at the 

latest. Kindly notify us at once of any delay or failure to 

receive any issue and another copy will be very gladly sent. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter June 18, 1895, at the Post Office 
at Chicago, Illinois, Under Act of March 3, 1879. 

Vol. XXXIX Chicago, January, 1914 No. 1 

Editorial — 

Car Repair Statistics 1 

A Change in Attitude 1 

Standardization of Freight Cars 2 

Machine Formers 2 

Loading of Cars 2 

Twenty Years Ago This Month 3 

Date of General Foremen's Convention 3 

European Locomotive Developments 4 

Machine Formers for Locomotive and Car Parts 5 

Door Troubles 8 

Cutting and "Welding Devices for Railroad Work 9 

Manufacture of Brake Beam Hangers 11 

Why a Zinc Coating Is the Best Rust Preventative for Iron 

and Steel 12 

Locomotive Boiler Inspection • . 13 

Wrench for Hopper Cars 17 

New Locomotives, Grand Trunk Ry 17 

Leonard Shops, National Transcontinental Ry 19 

Safety Device for Handling Air Pumps During Road Shipments. 21 

Freight Car Repairs 21 

Apprentice Efficiency 23 

Fuel Tests, Canadian Northern Ry 24 

Horizontal Multiple Drill 25 

Cars for the Grand Trunk 26 

Who Did This? 29 

Centralized Control System for Panama Canal Locks 29 

Personals 33 

Obituary 35 

Among the Manufacturers — 

Thurman Car Cleaner 36 

Hall-Scott Motor Car 37 

Grip Nuts on Knuckle Pins 38 

All Steel Self- Oiling Warehouse Trucks 38 

New Literature 38 

The Selling Side 39 

Obituary 40 

Car Repair Statistics. 

In an article entitled "Freight Car Kepairs," published else- 
where in this issue, there are given interesting figures with regard 
to repairs to freight cars on two large transcontinental systems. 
On both roads the figures prove the inability of the light capacity 
car to stand the service. On the first named road, 65 per cent of 
the cars destroyed in 1907 were 25-ton cars or under. In 1913 
but 13 per cent of the cars destroyed were 25-ton cars, but this 
was due to the fact, however, that less than one per cent of the 
total number of cars in 1913 were 25-ton cars, and it will be noted 
in this same year that 78 per cent of all the cars destroyed were 
30-ton cars, showing that the lighter capacity cars were still suf- 
fering heavy damage as compared with the 9 per cent credited to 
cars over 30 tons. 

In these figures it is interesting to note that, although the 
average capacity of cars had increased 38.83 per cent since 1907, 
the average tare weight had increased only 29.81 per cent, showing 
that on this road at least the contention that shippers were not 
using large capacity cars efficiently, was well founded. 

On the second road, the most noticeable feature is the number 
of couplers pulled out and broken during the past two years. On 
one division they reached a total of 600 in one month, and a large 
percentage occurred on light capacity cars. Although on this road 
the number of 20-ton cars equals but 3.3 per cent of its equipment, 
the number of 30-ton cars amounts to 42.5 per cent of the total 
equipment. In the meanwhile the percentage of 40 and 50-ton 
cars has grown from 14.7 in 1909 to 54.2 in 1913. 

Light capacity cars, when run in the heavy trains prevalent 
today, are adding materially to the high cost of repairs. Some 
roads have found it economical to equip their old wooden cars 
with steel underframes, and while of course this is a remedy, it is 
often a question as to whether the outlay is warranted. 

A Change in Attitude. 

During the past few months the newspapers, which to a large 
measure reflect the feeling of the public, have shown a change in 
their attitude towards railways. Quite a number of editorials 
have appeared expressing the opinion that regulation had pro- 
ceeded far enough for the present and that the roads' appeal for 
higher freight rates should be granted. The trend of public 
opinion, as indicated by these editorials, is certainly a welcome 
sign to railway officials. The public is beginning to see that 
national prosperity is closely allied with railway prosperity and 
that when railway stocks are down it touches nearly everybody's 

In a Chicago paper recently, E. D. Hulbert, vice president of 
the Merchants' Loan and Trust Co., and mentioned in connection 
with the new Federal reserve board, expressed himself as follows 
with regard to the outlook: 

Conditions in some respects' are not as good now as they 
were a year ago. More men are out of employment, and 
the number is likely to increase before the turn comes. 
Such conditions as we are passing through now are pretty 
likely to search out the weak spots, and we may expect an 
increase in commercial failures. 

On the other hand, with the tariff and currency ques- 
tions settled for some time to come, and with both the 
stock market and the stocks of merchandise largely liqui- 


January, 191+ 

dated, we have a more solid foundation for business 
operations than we have had for years, or perhaps have 
ever had before. 

The one thing more than any other that stands in the 
way of a business revival is the condition of the railroads. 
They are the largest employers of labor in the country, 
and when they are forced to curtail everybody is affected. 
If the railroads are permitted to make such earnings as 
are absolutely essential to the growth and healthy condi- 
tion of any industrial enterprise, nothing, in my judg- 
ment, can prevent the rapid return of business activity 
and prosperity. 
While Mr. Hulbert does not paint the future in glowing terms, 
his words indicate confidence in the coming year. His statements 
with regard to the railroads are especially significant. They in- 
dicate that those who know, realize that a complete return of 
prosperity is dependent on railroad earnings. 

At this time it appears that the eastern roads will be granted 
a part or all of the 5 per cent increase in freight rates for which 
they asked. However, the matter has been delayed because one 
Louis D. Brandeis, employed by the government, has submitted a 
multitudinous number of questions to the roads which it will take 
some time to answer, as they call for a large amount of statistics. 
Some of these questions have to do with the number of super- 
heaters in service, the number of automatic stokers, and other 
mechanical questions which Mr. Brandeis feels affects freight 

Standardization of Freight Cars 

In a copyrighted article in the September, 1913, issue of The 
Monthly Official Eailuay List, E. P. Riplev, president of the 
Santa Fe, has expressed himself very forcibly on the freight car 
situation. This article was commented upon editorially in the 
September issue of this publication and has drawn out discussion 
from others interested in the problem. 

F. A. Delano, president of the Monon, in discussing the ques- 
tion, expresses fear that such standardization might be carried 
to extremes. He, however, recognizes the need for concerted 
action and illustrates by calling attention to the standard of the 
Pennsylvania, the designs of which call for construction which 
by far exceeds in weight that of any other system. If these de- 
signs are correct, those of all other lines are far too weak. Set- 
ting the highest price for an ordinary box car at $1,400 and the 
lowest at $900, he feels that the most efficient car could be con- 
structed by standard design, at a cost which would represent a 
big saving over the highest, and not be much more expensive than 
the lowest. Mr. Delano also calls attention to a fact which often 
escapes those who touch upon this subject — that the present M. C. 
B. rules place upon the car owner nearly all burdens of expense 
incident to cheap construction. He suggests that standards should 
be fixed little by little for draft rigging, sills, bolsters, etc., just 
as they have been fixed for wheels, axles, journals, arch bars, etc. 

F. D. Underwood, president of the Erie, gives little attention to 
the question of general standardization, but calls attention to the 
immediate necessity for a standard method of attaching brake 
beams, a standard quality for journals and air brake hose. 

Eaymond Dupuy, vice president of the Virginian, expresses him- 
self as favoring complete standardization of cars by legal require- 
ment, under direction of the Interstate Commerce Commission. 

It would appear that Mr. Delano's point to the effect that, 
since the car owner is responsible for expense of repair incident 
to cheap construction, he is the only one to suffer, is not well 
taken. It will be readily admitted by all familiar with the oper- 
ation of long freight trains made up largely of foreign cars, that 
the damage to an individual car which fails in any part is of 
small importance compared with the damage which may and fre- 
quently does occur to other cars in the train, and which is also- 
not infrequently represented in delays and blocked traffic; the 
objectionable practice of suspending brake beams from car bodies. 
for instance, might result in an accident which would cost the 
railway owning a car thus poorly designed only a few dollars, 
while the railway operating the car at the time of the failure- 
might easily be placed to the expense of thousands. 

The complete standardization of freight ears would be possible 
under federal requirement. It should be possible by agreement 
among the railways, and the objectionable features of the enforce- 
ment of such a federal law could be thus avoided. Such action by 
the railways cannot be expected at once, however, and in the 
meantime the Master Car Builders' Association would do well to 
extend its own work in the standardization of parts as rapidly as 

Machine Formers 

The development of presses and bulldozers during the past 
few years has greatly decreased the cost of turning out dupli- 
cate parts in large numbers, and formers are constantly be- 
ing designed to handle fork of this character at a considerable 
saving. Therefore the article on "Machine Formers for Loco- 
motive and Car Parts," published on another page, is one which 
is of particular interest at this time when the motive power 
-department is pressed to save every cent possible. It contains 
descriptions and illustrations of seven formers for various parts, 
which the author, Mr. Hedeman, states have materially reduced 
the production cost of these parts. These parts include draft, 
sills, cab roof gutters, hopper door supports, arch bars, hopper 
car struts, tool brackets and box car corner bands. 

The shop superintendent who wants to lower the cost of pro- 
duction will find it profitable to consider how these formers 
can be. adapted to use in his own shop. It is possible that 
some of our readers are familiar with some of them or have 
improved upon them. If so, we would be glad to receive descrip- 
tions of them, in order that we may give our readers the benefit. 
The formers shown by Mr. Hedeman are well designed and with 
the increasing number of steel and steel frame cars in use, formers- i 
and dies are going to play an important part in lowering costs. 

Loading of Cars 

One of the recent meetings of the Car Foremeu"s Association 
of Chicago was devoted to a discussion of the loading of ears, 
and most of the members present expressed the opinion that the 
rules for loading were not being properly observed in all terri- 
tories, thus working a hardship on the men in certain territories. 
This contention is true, for there is considerable divergence in 
the way in which rules are lived up to in different sections. 

The fact that the loading rules are not lived up to can scarcely 
be blamed to any extent upon the car men. however, for they are 

January, 1914 


earnestly endeavoring to live up to the rules as they understand 
them. The difficulty is that they are not given sufficient backing 
by the higher officers and organizations in their dealings with 
shippers. The shipper may or may not be familiar with the 
rules. Even if he is familiar with them, he is apt to tell the 
inspector that he knows how to load his own cars. In cities 
where there are interchange bureaus, effective work is being done 
to overcome this condition of affairs, by going direct to the 
management of the various concerns and urging the necessity 
of complying to the loading rules. 

Many improperly loaded cars come from the small stations along 
the line, where few of the agents have a proper knowledge of 
the loading rules and there is opportunity for educational work 
among these agents. 

Another thought brought out at the above mentioned meeting 
was that the safety bureaus, which are now organized on prac- 
tically all roads should take a hand in enforcing the observance 
of the loading rules. Many accidents and deaths have occurred 
by the sudden shifting of a load and it would seem that this 
would open a new field in safety work. 

What is needed most is that the American Railway Association 
take steps to insure the fulfilling of these rules by the shippers. 
The business of the shipper, of course, is vital to the railway 
and no road can afford to lose business by antagonizing its cus- 
tomers. It is necessary that the rules be enforced on all roads 
alike bv the action of nn association which embraces all. 

A MANUFACTURER, who has been for some time past, en- 
gaged in exploiting a device which, when applied to locomotives, 
has been proved to result in a very considerable increase in ef- 
ficiency, recently expressed himself as satisfied that the adoption 
of such devices must be secured without the expectation of any 
assistance from the officers of the railway mechanical departments. 
On the contrary, he insists that any device which calls for con- 
siderable change in locomotive design, cannot be presented with- 
out incurring the absolute disfavor of such officers, generally 

This impression is one frequently gained by novices in the rail- 
way field, mainly on account of the fact that they are technically 
unprepared to present their devices in proper detail to technical 
men and can deal only in glittering generalities with those who 
will listen. Coming from a man of years of experience in the 
field and one who is fully prepared to demonstrate and to back 
up his statements, as the gentleman above mentioned is, his at- 
titude is surprising and should be provocative of careful thought. 

HERETOFORE THE reports of department heads on the re- 
sults of efforts for economy were supposed to be concluded with 
ihe endorsement of the executive officers of their roads. The 
Interstate Commerce Commission has. however, compiled a series 
of most searching questions, the answers to which will necessarily 
constitute detailed and voluminous reports, which are to be used 
as evidence in the investigation preliminary to the rate decision. 

One of these questions calls for information as to the number 
of locomotives equipped with brick arches, superheaters, me- 
chanical stokers and feed-water heaters. Another question deals 
with the installation of fuel-saving devices and the results there- 
from generally. Those who have studied the problems touched 
upon by these questions are surely excusable for wondering how 

the mass of information demanded by these questions can poa 
sibly be handled in such a way as to assist the commission in 
reaching its decision. Who are the experts who will pass upon 
the advisability or inadvisability of the past and future practice 
of the railways with respect to these details? What possible 
result may be attainable from this catechism other than delay of 
the decision and a saddling of great additional expense upon the 
railways? If the questions are answered in detail aud the reports 
made public property some benefit to mechanical officers may re- 
sult in information with respect to the operation of certain de- 
vices which has not been voluntarily offered in the committee 
work of the American Railway Master Mechanics ' Association. 
The developments will certainly be interesting. 

erifq^fe ais Ago This Month 

(From the Files.) 

The Griffen Wheel Co., Chicago, has been formed to manu- 
facture car wheels. The 'incorporators are T. A. Griffin, G. C. 
Willard and W. W. Evans. 

The Westinghouse Air Brake Co. secures^ an injunction against 
the Xew York Air Brake Co. to prevent infringement of the 
former's patents. This ends a famous infringement suit which 
has cost an unusually large sum of money and has kept employed 
the best legal talent of the world. 

The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul is standing suit brought 
by the Pullman Palace Car Co. to recover damages for the break- 
ing of a contract regarding the use of sleeping cars. 

W. R. McKeen has been elected president of the Terre Haute 
Sc Indianapolis (Vandalia). 

Joseph Billingham succeeds George Ott as master mechanic of 
the Baltimore & Ohio shops at Garrett, Ind. 

The first practical test of the water power plant at Niagara 
Falls was made in Jan. 25. 

The Alexander Car Replacer Co. of Scranton, Pa., has been 
incorporated with Jos. Jermyn, president ; John T. Richards, 
treasurer; and James Russ, secretary. 

Samuel Higgins has been appointed superintendent of motive 
power of the Lehigh Valley. 

The Illinois Central has completed new shops at Burnside near 
Chicago, 111. 

The Armstrong shops of the Union Pacific at Kansas City, Kas., 
have completed a new locomotive for high speed heavy work. 
The locomotive is of the American type and weighs 62 tons. It 
will be used on the main line between Sidney, Neb., and Cheyenne, 
Wyo., for hauling sixteen coaches on through .passenger trains. 

The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul is testing a process for 
making wood incombustible. 

The report that the Lake Shore will build new shops at Coll in - 
wood has been revived. A. M. Waitt, master car builder, states 
that he has been called upon periodically to furnish plans for 
such a plant and that there are a dozen different designs around 
his office. 

The engineering laboratory at Purdue University was dedicated 
January 19. It was destroyed by fire four days later. 

The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe is considering the applica- 
tion of automatic couplers to comply with the law. 


The executive committee of the International Railway General 
Foremen 's Association met at Hotel Sherman, December 9th, 
1913, for the purpose of arranging for the 191-1 convention, and 
for the consideration of other matters pertaining to the best 
interests of the association. The secretary had received and 
read very cordial letters from the business men 's associations of 
numerous cities inviting the association to meet with them, 
notably Xew York, and St. Louis, but after due and careful 



January, 1914 

consideration it was decided that Chicago was the most suitable 
city to meet in, 'due to its accessibility and accommodations. 
Therefore the next convention will be held at Hotel Sherman, Chi- 
cago, July 14-15-16-17, 1914. , 

The same plans will be followed as at last convention, the 
General Foremen meeting first, followed immediately by the 
Tool Foremen's convention, thus eliminating the necessity of the 
exhibitors moving their exhibits until both conventions are 

The question of holding the 1915 convention at San Francisco 
during the Panama Exposition was considered, but the committee 
came to the conclusion that it would not be advisable to go so 
far especially at that time, for several good and sufficient reasons, 
so action was deferred until the next executive committee was 

Several others matters were discussed and decided upon, look- 
ing towards improvement in conducting the affairs of the con- 
vention, both socially and otherwise, and it is expected that the 
year 1914 will mark a new era in the annals of the association. 

The General Foremen's Association covers an important field as 
its members are the men who are in actual touch wtih the details 
of shop production. An intelligent discussion of shop problems 
by these men is bound to make for economy and it is to be 
hoped that master mechanics and superintendents of motive power 
will give their support in urging their men to attend these 
conventions. Those desiring to join the association should com- 
municate with William Hall, secretary, 829 West Broadway, 
Winona, Minn. 


Twenty powerful locomotives, the first of which has been 
delivered are being built by Robert Stephenson for service on 
the Xatal section of the South African Railway system, where 
there are gradients of 1 in 30 (compensated), combined with 
300 ft. radius curves. 

The engines have four leading wheels 2 ft. 4% in., eight 
coupled wheels 4 ft. 6 in., and two trailing wheels 2 ft. 9 in., 
in diameter. The cylinders have a bore of 22 in., with a piston 
stroke of 26 in., and the valve gear is of the Walschaert pattern. 
The heating surface is 2,361 sq. ft., to which the tubes contribute 
2,212 sq. ft. and the firebox 149 sq. ft. The superheater 
(Schmidt's) surface is 503.04 sq. ft. and the grate area 36 
sq. ft. At 75 per cent of the boiler pressure the tractive effort 
amounts to 36,375 pounds. In running order the engines weigh 
155,680 pounds. The maximum axle load is 36,176 pounds. 
The tender has 400 cu. ft. of fuel space and a capacity for 
4,250 gallons of water, the weight in running order being 
112,784 pounds. The total length over buffers of engine and 
tender combined is 66 ft. 5% in. and the total weight 323,264 

These locomotives, which are the heaviest yet constructed 
by Stephenson, are for the standard South African gauge, 3 ft. 
6 in. They are being constructed from the. designs of D. A. 
Hendrie, chief mechanical engineer of the South African Bail- 
ways, under the supervision of H. G. Humby, consulting en- 
gineer to the High Commissioner for the Union of South 

The progress of superheating is continuous both in England 
and on the European Continent. The latest news in England is 
to the effect that Locomotive Superintendent Hughes, of the 
Lancashire and Yorkshire, is now fitting several eight-coupled 
engines with his own arrangement of superheating apparatus. 
Mr. Mcintosh is employing the Schmidt arrangement in some 
2-6-0 engines he is building for the Caledonian, the first Moguls 
introduced into Scotland. The South Indian Railway is re- 
sponsible for the first metre-gauge superheating locomotives 
ordered for service in Hindustan. 

Beference has also been made in these columns to some of 
the important locomotive exhibit at the Ghent exhibition, 
Belgium. Mention might be made here that the exhibit of the 

Chemin de fer de I 'Est, France, is one of the most imposing. 
This company has lately placed in service two tank engines with 
a 2-10-2 wheel arrangement fitted with the "Mestre" super- 
heater. These engines weigh 117 tons and are simple engines 
with cylinders 25% in. by 26% in. This design is a develop- 
ment of the previous eight-coupled class and would be regarded 
by some as falling under the designation "decapod," a term 
applied in the first place to engines with 2-10-0 wheel arrange- 

The Belgian State Railways are showing a "Baltic" (4-6-4) 
tank engine with four high pressure cylinders 16% in. by 25% 
in., its weight being 113 tons. This also is equipped with a 
superheater, and carries 6 tons of coal and 3,500 gallons 
of water. These heavy tank engines with six-coupled wheels 
and bogie "fore and aft" are becoming somewhat the fashion, 
and it is rumored that Mr. Billington is moving in this direction 
on the Brighton, England line. 

Two very interesting engines have lately made their appear- 
ance on the Northern of France. These are superheater four- 
cylinder locomotives of 2-10-0 type, the one a compound on the 
de Glehn-du Bousquet lines, the other a simple engine. These 
are for working heavy mineral traffic over severe gradients 
and are doing fine work in actual service. 

There is interest in the announcement that a Swiss locomotive- 
building firm has delivered to the Prussian State Railways the 
first practical oil locomotive built on the Diesel system. Con- 
siderable difficulty has hitherto stood in the way of adapting 
this type of motor to the special requirements of railway work, 
and the experiments have occupied a lengthy period. Even if 
it does not affect anything like a revolution in railway practice, 
this engine is distinctly interesting. The internal combustion 
motor has lately come in for a good deal of attention, although 
hitherto this type of motor has at best only had a restricted 
field of utility for railway purposes and the best results have 
perhaps been attained by the combination of petrol and elec- 
tricity, which has been used with success for certain classes of 
passenger traffic. In the circumstances a successful oil engine 
would represent an important advance. The locomotive built 
for the Prussian Government is designed for express passenger 
work, and is capable of developing a speed of 62 miles an hour 
when the motor is running at no more than 304 revolutions per 

A Danish engineer of English origin has invented a railway 
signaling apparatus which he claims would in operation make 
absolutely impossible such an accident as that which occurred 
recently in England en the Midland Railway. In the case of 
this accident one train following five minutes behind a former 
one dashed into it, owing to the driver not observing the sig- 
nals which indicated that the former train had come to a stop 
*on..a steep gradient. The invention is an apparatus for auto- 
matically indicating on the locomotive itself the position of ' 
the signals along a railway track. It consists of a vertical 
shaft placed near the railway track, said shaft being turned 
by the same gear used for operating the semaphore or light 
signals. The shaft is fitted with horizontal arms, which, when 
the locomotive passes by the shaft, operate vertical swinging 
arms on the locomotive. Through the ensuing movement each 
of the said arms closes an electric current. By these means 
a lamp of the same color as the one on the signal mast or cor- 
responding to the signal given by the wings is lighted on the 
locomotive. The advantages claimed for the invention are 
that trains can travel at full speed in all weathers; no mis- 
take can be made where signals are placed near each other and 
showing different lights; both men on the engine can see the 
position of the signals by means of the indicator on the en- 
gine; there is no unnecessary stopping or slowing down of the 
train, thus bringing about a saving in the coal consumption; 
trains are able to keep time in all sorts of weather. The system 
has been tested by the Danish State Railways at different speeds 
up to 56 miles per hour, in snowstorms, and has been found to 
work with security. 

January, 1914 


Machine Formers for Locomotive and Car Parts 

By Walter R. Hedeman. 

With economy as the foreword in railroad operation, anything 
which will tend to reduce the cost of manufacture of new and 
repair parts, for locomotives and cars, is gladly welcomed by the 
motive power department. 

Each of the following formers or dies have materially reduced 
the production cost of the part which it is designed to make. 
It will readily be seen by shop foremen that the adoption of 
these tools, or tools embodying their principles of design and 
construction, will be a worth-while addition to their shop tool 

Fig. 1 shows draft sill for steel cars, and is made with the 
three-piece, hydraulic press die shown on Fig. 1-A. The design 
of this sill is shown clearly on the figure, and the dies ,are de- 
signed to press out a right and left sill at one operation. 

The hot sheets are laid on the lower or female clamping die, 

One-sixteenth-inch clearance is allowed between sheet flanges 
and dies, and the coefficient of expansion used is .0078. 

Fig. 2 shows detail and application of cab roof gutter, to cabs 
above top of side cab window. This gutter was applied at the 
request of the enginemen, to prevent the water from dripping 
from cab roof on the neck of the engineman in rainy weather. 

At first these gutters were made by hand by beating the metal 
around a piece of 1" pipe, bent to the proper radius. As a great 
number of these gutters were required, the dies shown on Fig. 
2-A were designed to lessen the cost of manufacture. 

These formers are for use on the bulldozer, and very little 
power is required to make these gutters. 

The blanks are cut rectangular in shape and placed against 
face of female die. As the ram comes up with the male die 
fastened to same, the sheet is bent in the shape of an arc, and 

Fig. 1. 

which is fastened to the bottom central plunger of the press, 
and the top flange of the sill is turned by bringing down the 
male clamping die, which is secured to the top central plunger. 

The continuous front and bottom flange of the sill is then 
turned by raising the female or flanging die, which is fastened 
to the main platen of the press. 

Fig. 1A. 

then carried into the female die beyond the shoulder, and is 
perfectly formed. 

The female die is larger in back than in front; this is to per- 
mit the removal of the finished gutter through either end of the 

Fig. 3 shows pressed shape used for supporting hopper door 

X x 


Fig. 2. 










Cast Iron 

Cast Iron 

1- Tf?as 

1- Thus 




Fig. 2A. 


January, 1914 


hinge Butt Support 
Open Hearth 5teei 

Fig. 3. 

hinge butts on steel cars of the hopper type. These hinge butts 
are made with the bulldozer formers shown on Fig. 3-A. 

The female die is stationary, while the male die is movable, 
and is provided with flanges at either end to be drilled with 
suitably located holes to fasten die to ram. 

The blank, cut to the proper shape, is heated and placed on 
ledge (as shown fine dotted on figure) in front of female die. 

The I"x2"x5" lugs on the front of the male die are provided 
to prevent male die raising when bending the sharp bottom 
flange on the support. One-sixteenth-inch taper is allowed at 
either end of the female die to permit easy removal of the shape 
when same is finished. 

Fig. 4 shows bottom arch bar for freight car. and tender 

It is easy enough to make an arch bar without gibs, in one 
heat on the bulldozer: but to make the bar shown, with gibs, in 
one heat, requires a pair of formers similar to those shown on 
Fig. 4-A. 

The design of these formers is clearly shown on the figure 
and the notes on same make the method of operating very plain. 
Arch bar without gib is formed on the first stroke of the ram, 
and gib or toe is formed on second stroke by dropping the auxil- 
iary former "B"' into position. 

Fig. 3A. 

The two unused lugs on each end of the male die were pro- 
vided for adding another toe squaring former if necessary, but 
same was not required. 

Fig. 5 shows diagonal strut used on the end of steel hopper 
cars, for bracing the center and end sills. 

It is necessary to make these right and left, and same can be 
easily made with the formers shown on Fig. 5-A. These dies 
are designed for use on the bulldozer and are simple in con- 

A total of %" taper is allowed for the removal of the finished 


Diagcnai Cente r dn& tna J 
? Right i 

Fig. 5. 

_ - s end shews former 'A " in position 
\ en 2nd stroke of ram for finishing 
arch bar 

This end Shons former 'A out of 
position on first stroke of ?~ 

Wrg-f 5fee! 
I -thus Rigp 
l-Thus iefr 

'us Right s 

Fig. 4. 

Fig. 4A. 

January, 1914 



h Thus Riant I -Thus Left • 
Right Shown Cast iron <. 

I- Thus Right I- Thus left _ T 
Right Shewn Cast Ircn <=x$ 

Section Y-Y 

Fig. 5A. 

' ^~ ^if tides >" Rivets 








Male Die 

Cast Iron 

I- Thus 



_ 2'9i'_ 



»s: | ^ 

-r^ _£--„. 



=# J — 




Female Die 
Cast Iron 
I- Thus 



I" fir 

Fig. 6. 

Fig. 6A. 

Z Holes 

2- Thus- Right 

2 Thus- Left 

Left Shown 

Wrot Iron 


Male Die I- Thus 
Female Die /• Thus 
Cast Iron 

Fig. 7. 

Fig. 7A. 



January, 1914 

shape from the female die. To insure getting the proper offsets 
in the ends of the strut the female die is made with ■&" clear- 
ance at the middle portion, to give solid bearing to male die 
at the end where offsets are pressed. 

Fig. 6 shows two sizes of fire tool bracket, one 14" long and 
the other 22%" long. These brackets are used on the front end 
of tender tanks for the fireman to hang the ends of firing 
tools on. 

Brackets are made out of W sheet steel, and twisted after 
being punched out with the dies shown on Fig. 6-A. The male 
die has the contour of the bracket and the hole in the female 
die is made gV' larger all around. Sheets are punched hot, and 
the two different lengths are made by using the proper length of 
blank. The finished bracket is removed from the female die, 
through the hole in the end of same. 

Fig. 7 shows roof corner band for box car roof. This shape 
would be comparatively easy to make were it not for the 1W 
set in one of the legs of the band. 

These bands can be made with the bulldozer formers shown 
on Fig. 7- A, in two operations as follows: the heated strip ia 
first placed flat side up on the ledge on upper front part of 
female die. 

Earn is then advanced and the 1}|" set is put in shape by male 
die pressing against same; male die is prevented from raising by 
lower part entering female die. 

The partly finished shape is then placed edge up against lower 
part of female die, and another hot strip from furnace put in 
upper part of die. Earn is then advanced and lower shape is fin- 
ished, while upper shape is given the first set. This operation is 
repeated until the required number has been made. 

Eights and lefts are made by placing alternately the half 
finished shape with first made set to the right or left side of the 
female die. 

By Frank Horn, Car Foreman, P. C. C. & St. L. Ry. 

This subject is a serious one, not only to car designers and 
builders, but in a greater degree to freight and claim agents, the 
transportation department and last, but not least, to the repair 
and inspection forces. 

Doors are of two general types, flush and outside, and in their 
present state of development neither is satisfactory. While both 
have their advantages from one point of view or another, they 
are overshadowed by the objections that are constantly arising 
due to loss of doors and consequent loss or damage to lading, not 
to speak of the cost of a door to replace the lost one and the 
many cases where property damage or personal injury or loss of 
life is incident to loss of doors from moving trains. 

To commence at the seat of the trouble, false economy is to 
blame for most of our door troubles. In order to save a couple 
of dollars on the first cost of a car, the party responsible will 
choose a door faulty in design, difficult to operate, and in all 
probability one already in use on his own road, not because he 
wants that particular door, on account of any merit it possesses, 
but because it is cheaper than others. 

So with no consideration for tomorrow, he inaugurates a series 
of loss and damage claims for his claim department, constant 
trouble for his inspection forces and expensive car repair bills for 
renewals and repairs of doors. Doors can be found all along his 
right-of-way, utilized as bridges over ditches, roofs or sides of 
out buildings, barn doors, etc. We see them daily, and they are 
so common that they no longer impress us as they should. 

Flush doors, if properly applied, are in all probability less ex- 
pensive to maintain than the outside type, and as a rule cars so 
equipped, require very little or no special preparation for ship- 
ments of inflammables and explosives. They exclude rain, snow 
and sparks, and are less susceptible to damage from sidewiping 
than outside doors. They cost more, however, and as a rule 
operate harder than the outside type, and unfortunately, most of 

those in common use are as easily, or possibly more easily, lost 
off than the other. 

Generally speaking the outside door, overhung or sliding, has 
fixtures of less complicated design than the flush door, consequently 
they are cheaper and in more general use, while they afford less 
protection to lading and offer a better opportunity for pilfering. 

Probably the most dangerous door in use is the overhung door 
with two or three guides or brackets spaced along the side sill 
to prevent the door swinging out at the bottom, but that same 
false economy dictates that as few brackets be used as possible^ 
usually two, one at a point near either edge of the door when 

When, due to ignorance of how to operate a door, or because 
it actually is difficult to operate, men engaged in loading or un- 
loading cars in freight stations or on team tracks, resort to force,, 
and sledge and pry, they soon break away the corners and then 
the door can and does swing out to the destruction of itself or 
any less substantial object it may come in contact with. 

Then again, doors are abused at loading points in another 
manner. No door is designed to retain lading in the car, and 
no lading should be placed in contact with the door, yet it is a 
common practice to pile lading of any description in contact with 
doors, and as soon as cars are moved the doors begin to bulge- 
Many cars are cut out of trains or doors lost off due to this prac- 

Doors must be closely watched at all inspection points for in- 
dications of failure, either of the door itself or of its fastenings, 
or fixtures and a car should never be allowed to leave a terminal,, 
either empty or loaded if condition of doors indicates the least 
possibility of their coming loose or swinging out, or exposing 
contents of the car. ' ' A stitch in time saves nine. ' ' and often 
a little preliminary repairs saves a door. 

The remedy for this dangerous and expensive condition, in my 
opinion, lies in concerted action to standardize doors. If a com- 
mittee of the M. C. B. Association, ignoring cost, and setting 
aside individual preferences, were to go at the door problem in a 
thorough manner, and without regard to existing cars, and devise 
a door and fixtures that would meet the demands of the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission and the Bureau for Safe Transporta- 
tion of Inflammables, Explosive and other Dangerous Articles, 
that would have the requisite strength and at the same time 
operate with reasonable ease (edges and corners protected by suit- 
able metal designs), and the Association would adopt it as a 
standard, 75 per cent of the door troubles, and 90 per cent of the 
wrong repairs (incident to present wide range of door design) y 
would disappear. 

While the initial cost would be higher, there can be no doubt 
as to the ultimate saving, not only in the actual cost of repairs,, 
but also in fewer detentions incident to shopping cars owing to 
door troubles. Until some such remedy is applied we will be 
compelled to go on as in the past making the best of the bad 
conditions as we find them. 

The Baldwin Locomotive Works is building a Mallet com- 
pound locomotive which, it is said, will be the largest and have 
the greatest tractive power of any engine ever built. It is to- 
be used in hauling long freight trains on heavy mountain grades 
of the Erie system. The weight of the locomotive will be 410 
tons and the tractive power 160,000 pounds. It will have capac- 
ity for 10,000 gallons of water and 10 tons of coal. 

Joseph W. Peters has been made secretary of the board of 
managers of the Association of Engineering Societies. His 
office is at 3817 Olive street, St. Louis, Mo., at which place the 
Journal of the Association of Engineering Societies will be 
published. , 

The National Association of Railway Commissioners has by 
unanimous vote committed itself to a proposition advocating 
general uniformity in interstate express rates. 

January, 1914 


By A. W. Whiteford. 

All modern cutting and welding devices, irrespective of type, 
design, the source of their energy, or the principle involved, are 
built with but one object in view — a more flexible distribution of 

They are not intended to perform any labor nor to accomplish 
any result that has not already been accomplished by some stand- 
ard means, but they do it in a different manner. The result of 
their efforts is usually seen in one of three different ways; a 
decrease in time required — an increase in efficiency — or a reduction 
in cost. 

They have, perhaps from lack of a better or more comprehensive 
term, gradually come to be known under the head of autogenous 
welding devices. 

This really is a misnomer, as autogenous welding in its literal 
sense means seJ^-welding or welding by means of heat alone. 
Some authorities have made an effort to divide the work into two 
classes, one to be called autogenous welding and the other to be 
called heterogeneous welding; autogenous welding to include all 
welding where no outside metal was introduced, and heterogeneous 
welding to include all welding where an alloy or foreign sub- 
stance of any kind was used. 

This hardly seems to be correct either, as in each class there 
would then be a division of principle. A more recent effort has 
been made to divide them according to their sources of power. 
This would class them under two heads — electricity and gas. As 
all the electric machines receive their power from an electric cur- 
rent, and as all the gas machines receive their power primarily 
from the gas of combustion which is oxygen, it would seem that 
the terms electric welders and oxywelders would not be far out 
of the way. 

Whatever might be their names, however, and irrespective of 
how they might really be classed, the history of their various 
developments presents some interesting features. 

The electric group has two mains divisions. Resistance or sec- 
tional welding and arc or surface welding. Aside from the fact 
that they both receive their power from an electric current they 
are in no manner similar. 

Resistance welding was developed by Prof. Elihu Thompson at 
Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, in 1877. He was conducting 
some experiments with a Leyden jar and he noticed that under 
certain conditions the two coils of wire with which he was work- 
ing would become fused together at certain spots. The result of 
his investigations is what we know to-day as the "Thompson 
process." Briefly, it consists in passing an electric current 
through two pieces of metal brought into close contact, the resis- 
tance at the point of contact generating enough heat to cause 
the ends to fuse when sufficient pressure has been applied me- 

The arc or surface system of welding has three divisions each 
division being named after the man who first developed it. 

The earliest effort at producing anything of this kind of which 
we have any record was made in 1874, by a German named 
Werdner. He attempted to take an electric arc and deflect it by 
means of an air jet and thus secure what would have practically 
been an electric blow pipe, but his efforts do not seem to have 
been successful. 

In 1881, a Frenchman, by the name of De Meriten, succeeded 
in welding lead plates together for use in battery jars by means 
•of an electric arc. but nothing seems to have come from it. 

Two Russians were next, Benardos and Olszweski, who de- 
veloped an arrangement whereby they passed an electric current 
from a carbon electrode, which was one terminal, to the metal to 
be welded, which became the other terminal, the result being the 
formation of an arc between the two which generated sufficient 
heat to flow the metal within a given radius and thus produce a 
surface weld. This is what is known as the "Benardos Process," 
and is the first arc welding machine that was successfully de- 

* A paper delivered before the New England Railroad Club. 

veloped. This was about 1884, and the United States patent was 
issued in 1887. 

Benardos was followed closely by Slavianoff, a fellow country- 
man, who got out a very similar device except that where 
Benardos used a carbon electrode, he used a metal electrode of 
substantially the same composition as the metal to be welded. 
This idea has been known ever since as the ' ' Slavianoff process. ' ' 
From these two original ideas all subsequent arc welding devices 
have been developed with the exception of an idea worked out by 
Zerener, a German, which came out somewhat later. He really 
tried an improvement on the original Werdner idea of deflecting 
the arc, only instead of using an air jet he used a magnet. This 
idea, like Werdner 's, has never been very extensively developed. 

The Benardos and the Slavianoff processes, however, have been 
developed to quite a considerable extent, not only in Europe but 
also on this side of the water. 

The Siemund Wenzel Company, of Xew York, were the pioneers 
in this work in this country followed closely by the C. & C. or 
Garwood Company of Garwood, New Jersey, and to these two 
concerns belongs the credit for introducing the idea into Ameri- 
can railroad service. The machines and outfits are made in 
various types and sizes — both portable and stationary — and you 
are all more or less familiar, no doubt, with the equipment and 
the work that is done by it. 

Standing somewhat by itself, although really allied to the gas 
branch, is what is known as the alumino-thermite process, or 
' ' Thermit welding. ' ' This is a German development, brought 
out about 1900, and consists of an arrangement whereby the 
uniting of metallic oxides and aluminum is brought about in such 
a way as to produce a flowing mass of metal at about 5400 
Fahrenheit. This is made possible by the increased affinity that 
the aluminum has for oxygen over the balance of the mixture. 
When ignition takes place, the oxygen in the other metals makes 
a rush for the aluminum, the aluminum oxide rising to the top 
in the form of a slag; the free body of clean metal, still at a 
flowing heat, then running down into the mould and joining the 
parts together. 

The gas branch of these cutting and welding devices also has 
several sub-divisions. Unlike the electric group, however, these 
are not divisions of principle, but only divisions of degree. 

These sub-divisions usually take their name from the secondary 
gas which is combined with oxygen to secure the necessary heat. 
They come under various heads such as coal gas, Pintsch gas, 
water gas, Blau gas, hydrogen and acetylene. 

The principle involved is the same in all cases, being the proper 
combination of the secondary gas with the main gas or the gas 
of combustion, which is oxygen; and the various degrees of 
efficiency possible in each case are directly proportionate to the 
amount of oxygen required to produce the proper temperature. 

With coal gas you are all, no doubt, familiar. The same is also 
true of Pintsch gas. 

Water gas and its by-product, producer gas, is formed by pass- 
ing jets of steam through furnaces filled with coke which has 
been brought to a glowing heat. 

Blau gas is a form of liquefied illuminating gas produced by 
the distillation of mineral oils in red hot retorts. This is in a 
manner very similar to Pintsch gas. Chemically, it consists of the 
same elements as coal gas, but in essentially different proportions. 

A combination of oxygen and practically any heat carrying 
gas can be utilized for cutting metals, but as far as we know, in 
the present state of the art, no torch has yet been developed 
whereby welding can be successfully or economically done with 
any of the above combinations. From the standpoint of general 
service, therefore, all these other gases may be disregarded as 
either the operation is slower, the oxygen consumption is much 
larger, the cost is greater, or the work is more inefficiently done 
than with either hydrogen or acetylene. 

Historically, hydrogen should be mentioned first. It was dis- 
covered in 1766 by an English chemist — Cavendish. It is a 
primary gas, and is the very lightest substance known. It was 
named hydrogen, or water-former by Lavoisier, a French chemist, 



January, 1914 

from the fact that it was found so plentifully in water, and in 
fact, water is still the greatest source of its supply — the term 
H o O, no doubt, being familiar to you all. 

Acetylene was also discovered by an Englishman, Sir Humphry 
Davy, who detected it by the odor, while making some experiments 
with potassium in 1836. Some years later, Berthelot, a French- 
man, succeeded in making some of it by passing a jet of hydro- 
gen through an electric arc. In 1862, TVoehler, a German chemist, 
succeeded in producing it from a combination of lime, zinc and 
carbon, which he brought to a white heat. This was the fore- 
runner of calcium carbide. It was first liquefied by Cailletet, in 
1877, and Claude and Hesse succeeded in working out the process 
by which it is possible to dissolve it along about 1895. Acety- 
lene gas as we know it is formed by combining calcium carbide 
and water. Calcium carbide is the metal found in lime rock 
fused with a low-ash coke. The credit for the commercial de- 
velopment goes to an American, J. M. Moorehead, who in con- 
junction with Wilson successfully worked out the problem of pro- 
ducing it from lime rock, which they did down in North Caro- 
lina in 1892. 

To Moorehead, also, goes the credit for the development of the 
process whereby acetylene can be compressed into cylinders, along 
the line of the idea first laid down by Claude and Hesse. These 
cylinders are packed with porous asbestos and filled with acetone 
into which the gas is dissolved. Acetone is a form of denatured 
alcohol which possesses the peculiar property of being able to 
take to itself twenty-five times its own volume of acetylene gas 
for every atmosphere of pressure under which it works. 

Oxygen, however, is the real factor in the successful application 
of either hydrogen or acetylene. It is one of the primary ele- 
ments and also one of the most abundant. It comprises about 
eight-ninths of all the water, and about fifty per cent of all the 
rock in earth. It is also very prevalent in flesh and human tissue, 
sixty-six per cent of the human body being oxygen. In volume it 
is twenty-one per cent, and in weight eighty-eight per cent of 
the air. 

It was discovered in 1774 by Priestley, an English chemist, 
and very nearly so by Sheele. a Swede, in 1772; but he had not 
been quite able to prove his case, so the honors divide. 

In 1789, Lavoisier proved conclusively that it was the gas of 
combustion and that without it no combustion was possible. Guy 
Lassac worked out the law of combining gases by volume in 1808. 
By 1851 they had gotten so far as to try and manufacture it. In 
1877, Pictet, a Swiss, and Cailletet, a Frenchman, proved that it 
could be liquefied. By 1880, the electrical angle had been intro- 
duced, and finally came the atmospheric development. 

As a final result of about one hundred years of experiment and 
research, oxygen can now be produced successfully in three ways — 
chemically, by electrolysis and from the atmosphere. 

The chemical method consists of putting chemicals of various 
sorts, generally potassium chlorate and dioxide of manganese, 
into a retort, sealing them up and bringing them up to about, 
400 degrees of heat. Oxygen is set free at this point, properly 
washed and cleaned, and stored for service. 

The electrolytic process consists in passing an electric current 
through a given volume of water and setting free the hydrogen 
and oxygen of which water is composed. This is done by put- 
ting sulphuric acid in the water, which forms what is known as 
an electrolyte, and the action of the current then sets the gases 
free, the hydrogen following the negative pole and the oxygen the 
positive pole. 

The atmospheric process consists in taking it out of the air 
and separating it from the nitrogen by what a layman would 
call the "freezing" process. This is done by reducing the tem- 
perature of the atmosphere in given volumes under pressure to a 
point at which the oxygen liquifies. This is in the neighborhood 
of 320° below zero. The oxygen is then drawn off, expanded 
and compressed into cylinders ready for service. 

There are various methods whereby these separate ideas for 
making oxygen are carried out. Bassingault developed the first 
of the chemical processes in 1851, but Brin's process, which was 

developed later, seems to give more satisfactory service. Any 
of the chemical processes are much more expensive and the 
product less satisfactory for service than either of the others. 

The method worked out by Garuti, an Italian, seems to lead 
in the electrolytic line, the largest American plants such as the 
American Oxy-hydric Company of- Milwaukee and about 80 per 
cent of all the European plants using this process. 

There are various other developments of this electrolytic idea,, 
chief among which are those of Shuckert, Schmidt. Flamaud and 
Eenard, but Garuti's system has the advantage for two reason-: 

First— Lower amount of electric motive force required. 

Second — More perfect separation of the gases. 

There are also several types of the atmospheric process, in- 
cluding those of Knudsen and Claude. 

It remained for a German, however, Dr. Carl Linde, to really 
perfect the atmospheric process, which he did in 1S95. His idea 
or what is known as the Linde process is generally conceded to 
be the simplest, cheapest, most efficient, and to produce the purest 
oxygen of any of the atmospheric systems. 

Practically all the commercial oxygen used in this country and also 
a very large part of that used in Europe, where hydrogen pro- 
duction is not a factor, is the product of equipment working on 
the Linde principle. 

The development of the torch also played it- pair in the work- 
ing out of these various devices. Like many of the gas develop- 
ments, an oxy-hydric blow pipe was known to chemists for years 
before it branched out into other fields. The first man who seems 
to have made an effort to apply the idea practically was an Eng- 
lishman, by the name of Fletcher. He experimented with coal 
gas and oxygen in 1886, but either owing to the fact that he had 
nothing but coal gas to work on, or because his oxygen was poor,, 
he never made a success of it. 

The first man who really developed the idea was a Belgian 
by the name of Jottrand, who used it successfully to cut metal 
in 1888. He used a combination of hydrogen and oxygen. 

The next man to follow the idea and the first to use acetylene 
with oxygen was a Frenchman. Le Chatelier. This was about 
1895. Next came Fouche and Picard in 1901 and 1903; then 
Rodrigue-Ely and Gauthier, and then again Fouche 's later de- 
velopments in 1908. Up to the present time these include all the 
main ideas of the different types of torches in use. 

As to a comparison of the work done by the two separate com- 
binations of hydrogen and acetylene with oxygen, it is safe to 
say that each has a field in which it is supreme : cutting and weld- 
ing can be done with both ; hydrogen is most effective for very 
light welding, say under a sixteenth of an inch in thickness, and 
for very heavy cutting of say over ten inches in thickness. In 
the entire intermediate field, that is, all welding one-sixteenth and 
over, and all cutting up to ten inches, which range covers prac- 
tically all of the work done on railroad shops, acetylene is most 
efficient. In either case, however, successful welding depends on 
the following: 

1- — Purity of the gases. 

2 — Use of metal filler as near as possible to the same compo- 
sition as the metal to be joined. 

3 — Thorough fusion of the inside surfaces before adding ad- 
ditional metal. 

4: — Cleanliness of the parts. 

5 — Control of the mixture and size of the flame. 

There are also various features of torch design and construc- 
tion that might be entered into in comparison with the various 
classes of work to be done, but from a general standpoint of 
service demanded, any torch to be satisfactory should ijjelude: 

1 — Perfect interchangeability of parts. 

2 — Ease of adjustment. 

3 — Convenience of handling. 

4 — Constant gas consumption. 

5 — Constant pressure. 

6 — Largest possible opening at nozzle tip for each thickness 
of weld. 

The application of these devices to railroad service also pre 

January, 1914 



sents various problems. These problems are usually solved in 
accordance with the conditions under which the equipment has to 

Either of the three gases can be obtained for use in one of 
two ways. They can be generated on the ground for immediate 
use, or they can be generated at central plants and distributed 
in portable containers. In the general run of railroad work, the 
most widely adopted plan for the handling of either oxygen or 
hydrogen is to secure it in commercial cylinders from the nearest 
source of generation. The same thing can also be done with 
acetylene; for all work where the demand will not warrant the 
installation of a generator the dissolved or commercial cylinder 
process is used, but in the larger plants it is usually piped from a 
generator installed on the ground. 

These generators as built to-day are of two types: 

1. Water-to-carbide, in which water is brought in contact with 
the carbide, the volume of carbide being in excess of the volume 
of water during the first part of the operation. 

2. Carbide-to-water, in which the carbide is thrown into the 
water, the volume of water always being in excess of the carbide. 

Irrespective of types, however, it is generally conceded that 
successful generators embody the following points: 

1 — Low temperature of generation. 

2 — Complete decomposition of the carbide. 

3 — Maximum evolution of the gas. 

4 — Removal of all air from the generator before gas generation 

5 — Low pressure in all parts of the generator. 

6 — Continuous supply of gas, simplicity of mechanism and ease 
of recharging. 

As to the general use to which these various systems are now 
being put, it is safe to say that either one system or the other 
is rapidly making its way into every known branch of the metal 
working art. This is particularly true of oxy-acetylene. From a 
standpoint of volume, America leads the world, with Germany 
second, France third and England a rather poor fourth. 

In scientific research and special development, Germany leads 
all other countries. This is partly due to the fact that the Ger- 
man government has taken a hand in the work and established 
schools at various points, where the art is taught as one of the 
applied sciences. 

In all Of their leading industrial centers, such as shipyards, 
steel mills, gun works, etc., oxy-acetylene has become part of 
their regular equipment. In the manufacturing lines especially 
this system is greatly used. 

As one feature of the work over there, I might mention that 

piping of all classes and sizes is now being made by lolling from 
flat plate, and welding by means of the oxy acetylene torch. 
Piping is also being laid without the use of threads or flange 
joints. In this way they are enabled to use pipe of about half 
the thickness of our standard pipe, thereby saving greatly in 
material costs. To show what the German government thinks of 
this, it is only necessary to mention that at Cologne, in the new 
Palace of Justice building only recently completed, there is nearly 
seven miles of piping in which there is not a single threaded 
joint, all being welded by the oxy-acetylene method. 

Wonderful progress has also been made here in America. To 
Massachusetts belongs the credit of having installed the first 
plant in this country. This was at Quincy in 1905, by the Fore 
River Ship Building Company. This was only eight years ago, 
and to show how rapid has been the growth in the United States, 
I will cite the fact that in one of the latest battleships turned 
out at one of the navy yards, about $70,000 worth of the work 
was done with oxy-acetylene equipment. The 'work of raising the 
battleship Maine at Havana was also very greatly facilitated by 
the same means. 

Cut Iron 
to Suit 

Operation Mo. 2 
tteat Mo. 2 

By E. A. Murray, M.M., Chesapeake & Ohio Ry., Clifton Forge, 


The scientific management of railway shops is no more or less 
than the saving of unnecessary waste in time and material; or 
we might say, decrease the cost and increase the output. " In 
order to show what is being done in this direction. I will describe 
the method in which brake beam hangers are being manufactured 
at the above named shops, at what we consider the very low 
cost of one and one-half cents each. The cost, however, does 
not include shearing the stock to length and handling the finished 
product to material bins. 

The services of two men are employed: namely a machine 
operator and a heater. The stock is cut to length to suit the 
length of hanger desired. It is then heated and bent in a "U" 
shape, as shown in operation number one. It is again heated 
to a sufficient length at points marked A A. and both eyes are 
then bent in an opposite direction. In other words, the hanger 
is completed with two heats and three operations. This work 
is accomplished on a machine shown in the illustration. It was 
built in the shops at this point, and consists of a east iron 
off-set slab plate, to which are securely fastened two air cylinders 
(one cylinder is only used in the manufacture of brake beam 
hangers, the other being underneath the slab plate and used for 
other "purposes). The machine is equipped with a system of 


Tl?e ec/eb of esc/? Hanqer 
are Bent in opposite Directions 

Tool for Bending Iron 
Operation no. I. 

Plan of Bending Machine. 

Tool for Bending £~c/es 
Operation No. 2a/3 



January, 1914 

Bending Machine With "U" Former in Place 

operating leveis, which makes it very handy for the operator. 
The bending formers can be removed in an instant by simply 
lifting them off of the pins marked "B" "B." An air hose 
is also provided to remove the scale accumulation from the 
formers. The heating forge is located close by the bending 
machine. The general make-up of the machine can be observed 
by referring to the illustrations, and while I have visited a 
good many of the railroad smith shops throughout the country, 
I think this machine equally as good, if not better, than any I 
have ever been able to see. I would consider it a valuable machine 
to have in any railroad shop, as it can be used to great advan- 
tages in manufacturing coupler yokes, etc. 

The surprisingly low cost of the manufacture of brake beam 
hangers was made possible only by the manner in which our smith 
foreman, B. L. Woodrum, applied himself to the study of the 
subject of cost reduction and increased output, which should be 
t lie disposition of all foremen who are in the service of the rail- 

road companies. I would like to say also that the statement was 
made in one of the technical journals some time since to the 
effect that brake beam hangers were made at the Cleveland shops 
of the Erie at a cost of five cents each, which in my opinion is 
very high. 

The photographic illustrations show that the eyes were bent 
on the hanger before the hanger was bent into " U " shape. This 
is incorrect and a reversal of the usual procedure. The error was 
made in arranging the machine for photographing. 


It is difficult for many persons to understand why zinc is 
the best rust preventive for iron or steel, and they believe it 
is on account of its cheapness that it is so extensively used. 
They have an idea that lead, being a cheaper metal, would 
answer far better, and as it is more non-corrosive than zinc, 
would protect the iron better. This is not a fact, however, as 
will subsequently be explained. 

The very fact that zinc is corrosive metal does not affect its 
properties when applied as a coating to iron or steel. Indeed, 
if it did not corrode, it would not be of value for such a pur- 
pose. When iron or steel which has been coated with zinc is 
exposed to the atmosphere, a galvanic action is set up, although, 
of course, extremely slight. Any two dissimilar metals form 
a galvanic couple, but as zinc is the most electro-positive metal, 
the galvanic action between the zinc and iron is as great as 
could be obtained when iron is used for one of the metals com- 
posing the couple. 

The result is, therefore, that with the slight galvanic action 
set up on galvanized iron or steel, when exposed to the atmos- 
phere, a corrosion takes place. Did it not follow, then, there 
would be no protection. In this case, the zinc, being the electro- 
positive metal, suffers corrosion at the expense of the electro- 
negative metal iron. The effect is that the corrosion goes on 
with the zinc exclusively and iron is not corroded at all, pro- 
vided any zinc is left on the iron or steel. This condition 
takes place whether a light or heavy coating of zinc is present. 
The only advantage of a heavy zinc coating is that it will last 
longer, but under ordinary atmospheric conditions, where a 
slight amount of moisture is the only exciting liquid, the gal- 
vanic action is very small, and the zinc coating, be it ever so 
light, lasts a long time. In the case of sea water or air satu- 
rated with salt moisture, the corrosion, of course, is much more 
rapid, and a heavier zinc coating is required to resist it for a 
length of time. 

The reason for the protection of iron or steel by a zinc coat- 
ing is, therefore, on account of the fact that the zinc corrodes 
at the expense of the iron or steel by the galvanic action set up. 
Zinc, however, when exposed to the air, does not corrode rapidly 
or deeply, and, in fact, very lightly. This property is of great 
value, as the zinc coating does not corrode rapidly, even with 
the galvanic action set up, so that it lasts for a far greater 
length of time than would naturally be expected. The very 
tact, however, that the zinc corrodes at the expense of the iron 
is all that is necessary to protect the iron or steel, even though 
it be extremely slight. 

Other metals like lead or tin, on account of their not being 
electro-positive to iron, do not act like zinc. They act simply as a 
covering like a paint or varnish, and if portions of the iron 
happen to be exposed, even such as a pinhole, the iron begins 
to corrode. With a zinc coating, however, this will not take 
place. — Brass World. 

Bending Machine With Eye Formers in Place. 

The Railway Business Association held its annual meeting at 
the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, New York, on December 11, 1913. 
At the dinner two addresses were made, one by Howard Elliott, 
of the New York, New Haven & Hartford, and one by Governor 
Cox, of Ohio. There were over a thousand in attendance at 
the dinner. 

January, 1914 



Locomotive Boiler Inspection 

By Frank McManamy, Chief Inspector, Division of Locomotive 
Boiler Inspection, Interstate Commerce Commission 


When the locomotive boiler inspection law was passed by 
Congress, it was looked upon with considerable apprehension 
by most railroad officials, and many dire prophecies of its effect 
on the railroads were made. 

The prevailing impression at that time appeared to be that 
the law was impractical and unnecessary; that it would cost 
the railroads an immense sum of money and would benefit no 
one. Although the comparatively brief time it has been in force 
has not been sufficient to fully demonstrate all the benefits to 
be derived from its provisions, it is evident that the two and 
one-half years' experience with the law has materially changed 
the feeling towards it, and, I believe, has fully vindicated the 
motive of those who urged its passage, the wisdom of those 
who enacted it, and, I hope, has demonstrated the fairness of 
those who are charged with the duty of enforcing it. 

It could not reasonably have been expected that the enforce- 
ment of a law so far-reaching as the locomotive boiler inspec- 
tion law, governing as it does the condition of the motive power 
which is the very life of one of the most, if not the most, impor- 
tant industries of the country, could have been effected without 
some friction and some opposition. Neither could it reasonably 
be supposed that the conditions which, in the minds of those 
who urged it and those who passed it, made the law necessary, 
could be remedied without some expense. Nor could we expect 
that the uniformity of practice and of equipment which, local 
and service conditions considered, are so essential to safety, 
could be brought about without sacrificing some of our pet ideas 
or changing some practices whose chief claim to superiority 
lies in the fact that they have been in use a certain number of 

The fact that the locomotive boiler inspection law on the 
whole has been beneficial to the railroads as well as to their 
employes is now being generally admitted, and for that reason 
it is not my purpose tonight to spend time in discussing its 
value, because I believe that has been abundantly demonstrated; 
therefore, I will tell you first some of the things that have 
been accomplished by it, and will then analyze a few of the 
accident reports in order to show, if possible, some of the 
things that must be given attention in order to further promote 

A paper delivered before the Western Eailway Club. 

The accident records show that during the year ended June 
30, 1913, there was a reduction of over 60 per cent in the num- 
ber killed and ten per cent in the number injured by failures 
of locomotive boilers and their appurtenances, in comparison 
with the preceding fiscal year, or with any previous year of 
which a reasonably authentic record exists, and this, in my 
opinion, amply justifies every requirement of the law. 

The practice of conducting a rigid, searching investigation of 
all accidents to locomotive boilers and their appurtenances 
sufficiently serious to justify a report, with the sole object in 
view of determining the exact cause and having the proper 
remedy applied, has done much to reduce the list of casualties' 
and has directed attention to conditions which previously have 
been overlooked or ignored. The knowledge that such an inves- 
tigation will follow every accident is an incentive to the rail- 
road companies to maintain their equipment so that its condi- 
tion can not be shown to have caused accidents, and is also an 
incentive to the employes to perform their work in the most 
efficient and careful manner. 

The period since the law became effective has been too brief 
to permit a comparison to be made which will accurately show 
its value. It is believed, however, that in addition to the com- 
parison of the total number of injuries during the year ended 
June 30, 1913, with the preceding fiscal year, the following 
comparison of some of the most serious, as well as some of the 
most frequent, accidents during the first and last quarters of 
the fiscal year ended June 30, 1913, fairly represents the bene- 
fits which result from government supervision over the condi- 
tion of locomotive boilers and their appurtenances: 

-First Quarter- 

dents Killed 





-Last Quarter- 


Killed lured 
2 13 

1 11 


Crown sheet failures 18 

Flue failures 15 

Injector steam pipe failures 10 

Arch tube failures 5 

Water glasses bursting 36 .. 36 16 16 

Lubricator glasses bursting 11 .. 11 6 .. 6 

It will thus be seen that for the six classes of accidents 
referred to above which resulted in injury, 95 occurred during 
the first quarter and 51 during the last quarter. 

A better illustration, perhaps, of the improvement which has 
been brought about is that during the three months ended Sep- 
tember 30, 1912, there were 95 accidents of the classes men- 
tioned above, with 10 persons killed and 113 injured thereby, 

A Boiler Shell Which Was Blown Several Hundred Feet From the Scene of the Explosion. 



January, 1914 

Other Side of Boiler Shell Shown on Preceding Page. 

while dining the six months ended September 30, 1913, there 
were 94 accidents, with eight killed and 103 injured thereby. 

A brief digest of some of the more serious accidents shows a 
very decided improvement on the whole, but there are certain 
classes of accidents where, instead of an improvement, condi- 
tions appear to have grown worse. One illustration of this is 
the arch tube failures. During the year ended June 30, 1912, 
there were IS arch tube failures which caused injury, with 
uone killed and 23 persons injured thereby, and during the year 
ended June 30, 1913, there were 20 arch tube failures which 
caused injury, with three killed and 27 injured thereby. 

Investigation shows that of these 20 arch tube failures, 15 
were caused by improper application or neglect; one showed 
evidence of both; three were reported to have been defective, 
and only one showed a clear rupture without evidence of 
improper application, neglect, or defect in the tube.. This proves 
conclusively that with proper attention 80 per cent of these 
accidents could have been positively prevented, particularly in 
view of the fact that these failures did not occur immediately 
after the application of the tube, but in each case one or more 
subsequent inspections had been made and certified to, stating 
that the tubes were in good condition, when, as a matter of 
fact, they had not been properly inspected. 

It will, no doubt be urged that the increase in the number 
of locomotives in service which are equipped with arch tubes 
may account for the increased number of accidents, but as it 
has been shown that four out of every five arch tube failures 
result from improper application or neglect, they can not prop- 
erly be charged to the increased number of tubes in service. 

Tightening washout plugs under pressure is a practice which 
has caused numerous accidents, and a peculiar fact in connection 
with it is that in a majority of such cases this work was being 
done with the boiler foreman or roundhouse foreman present 
and either directing or performing the work. This class of acci- 
dents is positively preventable, and strict instructions should be 
issued and enforced never to put a wrench on a plug while there 
is pressure en the boiler. 

Another type of accidents which has shown an increase dur- 
ing the pas.* fiscal year is injector steam pipe failures. 

During the year ended June 30, 1912, there were 31 accidents 
of this type which caused injury, in which 38 persons were 

During the year ended June 30, 1913, there were 36 accidents 
of this type which caused injury, in which 47 persons were 

In 24 cases the failure occurred where the collar was brazed 
on to the pipe and was due either to defective brazing or to the 

fact that the pipe or the collar was too thin at this point. This 
is a defective condition which could not readily be discovered 
by inspection, but the fact that such failures invariably occurred 
at the same point should have led to an investigation that would 
have disclosed the cause. That this was not done is doubtless 
due to the fact that until the passage of the locomotive boiler 
inspection law there was no central organization by which all 
boiler accidents were investigated and where necessary data 
could be compiled showing conclusively where the weakness lay, 
aud that is one important duty that the federal locomotive 
boiler inspection service is trying to perform. 

In order that this condition may be properly remedied at its 
source, we have directed the attention of injector manufacturers 
and locomotive builders to this weak point, and they are at the 
present time earnestly striving through the efforts of a joint 
committee with which we are co-operating to have adopted a 
connection that will remedy the trouble. It is believed that a 
better connection has been designed and will be used on all 
new work, but it will require some time to change the thousands 
that are now in service; therefore, until that time comes, 
extreme care should be exercised in brazing these joints, and 
such work should not be done except at points where there are 
proper facilities and competent men to do the work. 

Another class of accidents in which there has not been an 
improvement is flue failures. During the year ended June 30, 

1912, there were 56 failures which caused injury, resulting in 
one killed and 62 injured, and during the year ended June 30, 

1913, there were 54 failures which caused injury, resulting in 
one killed and 63 injured. 

The results thus shown are so nearly equal that no lesson can 
be drawn from them, except that more attention should be 
given to the welding, fewer welds should be made, particularly 
on flues for high pressure power, more attention should be 
given to properly testing welded tubes, and a positive limit 
should be fixed for scrapping. 

The question of flue failures, although important of itself, has 
been mentioned principally because it leads up to what to me 
appears to be a more important question that right now should 
be given serious consideration by the mechanical departments 
of the various railroads, and by the department of the govern- 
ment with which I am connected, and that question is, Shall 
superheater tubes be welded? 

With the wonderful results claimed and in a measure obtained 
from superheaters, it appears to be a question of only a few 
years until practically all locomotives will use superheat. This 
will result in thousands of 5%" or 5*4" superheater tubes being 
used where now there are hundreds. To the men on locomo- 
tives, the collapse or failure of one of these large tubes amounts 
to about the same as a crown sheet failure, because in either 
case, death or serious injury is almost certain. Therefore, if 
we are to have the same number of failures of superheater 
tubes due to welding that we now have with the smaller tubes, 
the injuries resulting therefrom will, on account of the size of 
the tubes, doubtless be so much more serious that, in the inter- 

■. ■ \ A 

I '. 

Accident Where Entire Crown Sheet Came Down, Killing Two 

Persons and Seriously Injurina One. The Locoomtive 

Was Being Used as a Stationary Boiler. 

January, 1914 



Safety Valve Casing Showing Condition of Adjusting Screws. This 
Valve Caused an Explosion. 

est of safety, action will have to be taken possibly even to the 
extent of prohibiting welds in such large tubes. 

Do not misunderstand me in this. I am not making a posi- 
tive statement that "welds in superheater tubes will be prohib- 
ited, but that it is a matter which is being closely watched, and 
what action may be necessary will depend on future develop- 
ments, because a large percentage of such tubes now in service 
are comparatively new and have never been safe ended. Many 
shops where this work is being done are poorly equipped for 
handling it : adequate tests of welded tubes are in many 
instances not being made; and, as might be expected, there is 
a wide divergency of opinion as to the best method of doing 
such work. That the strength of a weld is practically an 
unknown quantity has been demonstrated times without num- 
ber. The fact that a number are tested and found good is not 
an indication of what the next one will do, and, for this reason, 
it is the generally recognized practice that where the highest 
degree of efficiency and reliability is required, welds are prohib- 
ited. It is the general practice not to permit the use of welded 
radials or other boiler staj-s. Almost all roads prohibit welding 
arch tubes. Safety appliance standards prohibit the use of 
welded brake shafts, yet in none of these things is reliability 
more essential nor failure more disastrous than in superheater 

A short time ago the question was brought up by some of 
the railroads as to whether they would be required to remove 

superheater tubes once in three years in accordance with rule 
10, which provides that "All flues of boilers in service, except 
as otherwise provided, shall be removed at least once every 
three years and a thorough examination shall be made of the 
entire interior of the boiler." It was urged that their super- 
heater tubes should be exempt from that requirement on account 
of being welded in and also because their boilers could be 
entered, thoroughly cleaned and inspected as required by the 
rule, without removing the superheater tubes. Careful consid- 
eration was given to the reasons on which their request was 
based and also to what to us seems to be a more important point 
which was not advanced, viz., that the removal of such tubes 
would in all probability result in their being safe ended and 
put back; therefore, to avoid that contingency and to remove, 
so far as possible, the occasion for welding these tubes, as well 
as for the reasons advanced by them, it was decided that: 
' ' Unless further investigation should prove that it is necessary 
to do so, superheater tubes need not be removed every three 
years, provided the tubes are in good condition and the boiler 
can be thoroughly cleaned and inspected without their removal. ' ' 
This privilege may not prove to be of as much importance as 
may at first appear, for the reason that present indications are 
that, except in rare instances, the life of such tubes will not 
exceed three years. 

Another question of considerable importance, which has re- 
cently been decided, relates to the removal of brick work in 
oil-burning locomotives, for the purpose of hammer-testing stay- 
bolts. This is an expense which should, if possible, be avoided, 
yet not at the risk of continuing locomotives in service with 
broken staybolts. Although bolts usually break next the outside 
sheet, it is not always the case. Therefore, it has. been con- 
sidered necessary in all rules for inspection to supplement the 
use of the telltale hole by the hammer test. It is believed, 
however, that if bolts behind brick work have a telltale hole 
their entire length, sufficient protection against broken bolts 
will have been provided. Therefore, when this question was 
taken up by some of the carriers, they were advised as follows: 

"If staybolts which are behind brick work on oil-burning 
locomotives, or behind grate bearers, have a telltale hole 3/16" 
in diameter their entire length, which is kept open at all times, 
the removal of the brick work or grate bearers each month for 
the purpose of hammer-testing such bolts, will not be required. 
This will not, however, relieve from making a thorough inspec- 
tion each time the brick work is removed, nor will it relieve 
from removing the brick work for an inspection when necessary. " 

There still appears to be some requirements of the rules which 
are not fully understood, or, at any rate, are not properly com- 
plied with, to which I desire to direct your attention: One is 
that simply hammer-testing staybolts does not by any means 
constitute a complete monthly inspection in accordance with 

Interior of Fire Box With Right Side Sheet Cut Away. The White 

Lines Denote the Burned Areas on the Crown 

Sheet and the Left Side Sheet. 



January. 1914 

Showing the Collapse of a Superheater Tube. 

the rules. Neither does the fact that a man has hammer- 
tested the staybolts of itself place him in possession of all the 
necessary information to enable him to properly certify to the 
inspection report: yet we find many instances of where the man 
who tested the staybolts certifies to the report when he has 
gone to some other point before the other work shown on the 
report was done, and as a matter of fact he does not know 
that it was ever done. 

Every item that is shown on the monthly inspection report 
is a part of the inspection and must be performed in accord- 
ance with the rules; washing the boiler, cleaning gauge cocks 
and water glass cocks, testing and repairing injectors, repairing 
steam leaks, and inspecting arch or water bar tubes which can 
only be properly done when the boiler is washed, are just as 
much a part of the monthly inspection as testing the staybolts. 
and should be performed at the time the monthly inspection is 
made, and the man or men who certify to the inspection report 
must have knowledge that such work has been performed. 

There also appears to be some doubt in regard to the proper 
construction of rules 30 and 36, relative to the interval between 
steam gauge and safety valve tests. This period is assumed by 
some to be anywhere between 90 and 120 days. This is a mis- 
take. In order that there should be a certain degree of flexi- 
bility in the rules, they were made to read that this work should 
be done at least once every three months, which means approxi- 
mately 90 days. The proper time to test steam gauges and set 
safety valves is each third inspection, and it should be done at 
the time the inspection is made, so that it may be properly 
certified to on the inspection report. If the monthly inspections 
are made at the required periods,, they will automatically take 
care of the interval between the quarterly inspections. 

Another matter that has not always received the consideration 
that it should is the location of the bottom water glass fitting. 
The opening to the boiler for this fitting should always be above 
the highest point of the crown sheet ; yet on a large percentage 

A Disastrous Explosion 

of locomotives they appear to have been located without much 
regard for the height of the crown sheet, the proper height of 
the lowest reading of the ylass being obtained by the use of 
nipples of various lengths. When this opening to the boiler is 
made below the highest point of the crown sheet, if the top 
water glass cock is closed or the opening restricted, water will 
show in the glass when there is none on the crown, and we 
have records which show that this has been the cause of more 
than one crown sheet failure; therefore, I desire to urge the 
importance not only of having the lowest reading of the glass 
the proper distance above the crown sheet, but also of having 
the fittings so applied that the glass can not under any circum- 
stances show water when the crown is bare, and this means that 
the fitting should be so designed and located that the proper 
reading of the glass can be obtained and the opening to the 
boiler kept above the crown sheet. The necessity of carefully 
checking the location of water glasses and gauge cocks was 
forcefully demonstrated a short time ago when one of our in- 
spectors found ten new Mikados which had just been received 
from the builders and placed in service with the lowest reading 
of the water glass just below the highest point of the crown 

As a means of reducing the number of plugs to be removed 
when boilers are washed, the practice of blanking washout open- 
ings appears to be meeting with considerable favor on some 

An Explosion Due to Defective and Insufficient Crown Bar Braces. 

Arrows Point to Defects in Casting. 

January, 1914 



roads, although in a number of instances investigation disclosed 
the fact that it was being done by the local officials or inspec- 
tors without the knowledge of the chief of the mechanical de- 
partment. It is doubtless true that in some instances, more 
washout openings than are actually needed have been provided, 
but we find that the opposite is more frequently the case, and, 
under such conditions blanking any of them is inviting trouble, 
yet we know this is being done. I believe the statement that 
more boiler failures are due to poor washing than to any other 
one cause can be demonstrated, and that there is no other way 
in which the mechanical department of any railroad can lay 
up so much future trouble for itself at such a small saving as 
by slighting the washing of boilers. 

The matter of blanking washout openings will be watched 
as closely as possible and when sheets begin to show indications 
of distress vigorous action will be taken, and if it should come 
at a time when considerable inconvenience is caused thereby it 
would seem that neither the inconvenience nor the cost of the 
repairs could be properly charged to the operation of the law or 
the action of the inspectors. 

A summary of the inspection work performed by the Division 
of Locomotive Boiler Inspection during the year ended June 30, 
1913, discloses the following: 

Xumber of locomotives inspected 90,346 

Number found defective 54,522 

Number ordered out of service 4,676 

The number of locomotives found defective as shown above, 
viz., 54,522, does not indicate that this number of locomotives 
were found to be in violation of the law, but they were found 
to contain defects which should be remedied before the locomo- 
tives were again placed in service. The number found in direct 
violation of the law is represented by the number ordered out 
of service in accordance with Sec. 6 of the law, which requires 
the district inspectors to issue a written order holding the 
locomotive for repairs when one is found that does not meet 
the requirements of the law or rules. No formal appeal from 
the action of any district inspector has been filed during the 
year. This, in view of the vast amount of work performed 
and the number of locomotives on which repairs were ordered, 
shows that while the inspectors have been diligent, they have 
also used discretion and good judgment in the enforcement of 
the law. It is believed that it also shows the existence of a 
spirit of co-operation and an earnest effort to comply with the 
requirements of the law on the part of a large majority of 
railroad officials. 

By J. A. Jesson. 

The illustration shows a safety WTench for dropping the doors 
of hopper cars. The wrench consists of a body A and a 
knuckle Al, which, it will be noted, can swing into the position 
shown by the dotted lines. After releasing the pawl and giv- 
ing the shaft a partial revolution the wrench will be released. 
With a solid wrench there is always danger that it will hang 
and fly off if the shaft revolves rapidly. The wrench was de- 
vised by the bridge and building department of the Louisville 
& Nashville and is in use on the coal chutes. 

Wrench for Hopper Cars. 


The two types of eight-coupled locomotives which are most 
commonly used in the United States are the consolidation 
(2-8-0) and Mikado (2-8-2). Service conditions must decide 
which of these two shall be employed for any given class of 
work. The Mikado type, because of its high relative steaming 
capacity, is on many roads replacing the consolidation in heavy 
through traffic, and is proving most successful; but the consoli- 
dation is still employed to excellent advantage in service which 
is within its capacity. 

The Grand Trunk Railway has recently placed in service 
twenty-five Mikado and three consolidation type engines, which 
were built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works. All these loco- 
motives are equipped with superheaters. The consolidations are 
used on the Detroit and Toledo Shore Line, which is compara- 
tively level, and they are well adapted to the conditions on this 
division. They have a considerably higher ratio of adhesion 
than the Mikado type locomotives, but their relative steaming 
capacity is lower, as the following data show: 

Mikado Consolidation 
Type Type 

Weight on drivers, pounds 204,700 190,600 

Tractive force, pounds 51,800 38,600 

Ratio of adhesion 3.95 5.18 

Total equiv. heating surface (sq. ft.) . . 4,804 3,030 

Cylinder volume, 2 cylinders (cu. ft.) . . 19.9 14.4 

Equivalent heating surface 242 210 

(Cylinder volume) 
Tractive force 10.6 12.7 

(Equivalent heating surface) 

In proportion to the cylinder volume, the heating surface 
of the Mikado type locomotive is 15 per cent, in excess of the 
consolidation; while in proportion to the tractive force, the 
increase is 20 per cent. In making this comparison each square 
foot of superheating surface is assumed to be equivalent to 
1% square foot of water heating surface. 

The two locomotive designs have many features in common. 
The boilers are of the extended wagon-top type with wide 
fireboxes, and they are equipped with brick arches and pneu- 
matically operated fire doors and grate shakers. In the Con- 
solidation type, the mud-ring is sloped sufficiently to secure a 
furnace throat 20 inches deep, thus providing room for the 
foot of the arch between the grate and bottom row of tubes. 
The depth of throat in the boilers for the Mikado type locomo- 
tive is 26% inches. In both classes the dome is of pressed steel 
made in one piece. This style of dome is strong and light, and 
is proving satisfactory in every way. 

All these locomotives have 14-inch piston valves, which are 
of the built-up type with cast iron bodies and bull rings, and 
malleable iron heads. The packing rings are of Hunt-Spiller 
gun iron, and this material is also used for the piston packing 
rings, and the cylinder and steam-chest bushings. The valves 
are driven by Walschaert 's motion. The link and reverse- 
shaft bearings, on each side of the locomotive, are combined in 
a single casting which is bolted to the guide yoke. The Mikado 
type engines are equipped with a screw reverse, while the usual 
lever is applied to the consolidations. 

The frames used in both classes are of vanadium cast steel, 
with single front rails under the cylinders. The Mikado type 
locomotives have the Cole design of main driving-box. with 
ll"x20" journals. With this construction, strong transverse 
braces are applied at the main pedestals. The frames are also 
braced transversely midway between adjacent driving axles. 
The front frame sections, under the cylinders, are made with 
downwardly projecting lugs, and to these is bolted a steel 
casting which supports the driving brake shaft and the radius- 
bar pin for the front truck. 

The tender frames for both classes have 13-inch channels 
for the center sills and 10-inch channels for the side sills. 
The wheels are of forged and rolled steel. Those used under 
the tenders for the consolidation engines have vamadium con- 



January. 1914 


for the Grand Trunk Railway System. 

tent, while in the 

case ol 


Mikado type 

locomotives the 



tender wheel: 

i are heat treated. 


5%", 0.150" 

" .", 0.150" 

The tables 

contain the 

principal dimensions of 

these two 

2". 0.125" 

2". 0.125" 

types of locomotives. 

Number 5% 

", 26; 2", 207 

5%", 32; 2". 240 








4'-8y 2 " 

Heating Surface — 




Fire box 

165 sq. ft. 

219 sq. ft. 


Piston, 1-1" diam. 


14" diam. 


2162 sq. ft. 

3400 sq. ft. 

Boiler — 

Firebrick tubes 

28 sq. ft. 

31 sq. ft. 





2355 sq. ft. 

3650 sq. ft. 




• n ate area 

50.6 sq. ft. 

56.5 sq. ft. 

Thickness of 


& w 

%" & 11" 

Driving Wheels — 

Working pressure 

180 lbs. 

175 lbs. 

Diameter, outside 




Soft coal 

Soft coal 

Diameter center 






Journals, main 

ft V' x 12" 


Fire Box — 

Journals, other 






Wheel Base — 













Depth, front 



Total engine 



Depth, back 



Total engine & tender 



Thickness of 







Thickness of sheets, 





On driving wheels 

190,600 lbs. 

204,700 lbs. 

Thickness of 




crown %" 

Total engine 

215,200 lbs. 

272.100 lbs. 

Thickness of sheets. 




y-2 n 

Total engine & tender, about 

370.000 lbs. 

443,000 lbs. 

Water Space — 





Wheels, number 






Wheels, diameter 










Tank capacity 

8,000 gals. 

9000 gals. 




Fuel capacity 

10 tons 

15 tons 


5%" & 2" 

5%" & 2" 




Mikado for the Grand Trunk. 

January, 1914 




The general layout of the repair shops of the National Trans- 
continental Railway at Quebec, P. Q., shows that not only has 
convenience of operation been the general principle governing 
the design, but future needs have also been provided for. Each 
shop is capable of extension without interfering with any 
other and any department can be increased separately as occa- 
sion may require. 

There are eleven buildings in all, of various dimensions, each 
suitable for the special work to be done in it. These buildings 
consist of a locomotive, erecting, machine and boiler shop 
(under one roof), forge shop, freight car shop, power house, 
planing mill, dry kiln, store, lumber shed, forge stores and scrap 
bins, oil house and office building for executive staff. The total 
area covered is about five and one-half acres. 

In the erecting shop there are eighteen pits, placed trans- 
versely, over which a 120-ton crane lifts locomotives into, and 
removes them from, their respective positions. A 20-ton crane 
operates over the same area at a few feet lower level and car- 
ries small material and makes many light and rapid lifts. 

The "transverse-pit layout" has the advantage of doing 
away with many side doors in the building for the "in-and- 
out" movement of locomotives. There are two doors, con- 
veniently placed, through which engines and material enter and 
leave. This arrangement is economical in the matter of heat- 
ing. It does awav with the necessitv of a transfer-table with 
all its inconvenience from snow and ice. The practically un- 
broken sidewall permits the use of jib cranes, one serving the 
fronts of two locomotives, being capable of lifting smokestacks, 
main valves, smoke box doors and rings, etc., etc. The use of 
these very handy cranes would be most difficult if the wall of 
the shop had been cut up into a series of doors. 

The cross-section of the shop shows the position of the cranes. 
The large crane is carried on a series of built-up columns, so 
that the heavy load is central over the line of foundations. As 
one crane does the work of lifting and placing each locomotive, 
there is no chance of confusion such as might occur when two 
cranes are used and Avhere two men do the work. The single 
powerful crane has also the advantage over the usual twin 
crane arrangement in economy of first cost and maintenance. 

All the overhead cranes are provided with effective safety 
appliances. One of the most important prevents the load from 
being "over-wound" by the lifting drum, either by accident or 
otherwise. It consists of a device which, when the maximum 
lift has been reached, automatically opens a switch on the 
hoisting circuit and so cuts off the current, thus suddenly re- 
moving the driving power. The cessation of the current im- 
mediately brings into powerful action a gravity operated brake, 
which is normally held out of service by the flow of current. 

The direction in which the midway crane operates is a new 
departure in railway shop construction, which has been brought 
out by W. J. Press, mechanical engineer of The Commission, and 
it secures substantial advantages. The midway is laid out so 
as to be alongside of the shops and not at the ends of the build- 
ings as is frequently the case. The object of this arrangement 
is that when material is brought by the midway crane from the 
storehouse, forge shop or foundry to the machine, erecting or 
boiler shop, it is placed at the door nearest to the machine 
on which the material will be handled, or to the engine upon 
which it will be used. In this way the delivery of material is 
not concentrated at one spot at the extreme end of the build- 
ing. It avoids distribution from a congested area, and it ob- 
viates the "long haul" through the shop. Material is laid 
down at a point as near as possible to its destination, and 
economy of time and labor, as well as facility in handling, is 
thus secured. 

The system of placing machines is such that the movement 
of material will be in one direction and the distance over which 
any locomotive "part" is carried, will not be unnecessarily 
lengthened by journeys forward from one machine and back 



January, 191+ 


ACt 40 aC' I2& I6Q' 

- • eb's' 

Locomotive Shop 
60e'W > ISP'4" 



General Layout of Leonard Shops. National Transcontinental Ry. 

to another. The continuous one-way movement of material 
saves time and labor and prevents interference. 

The pits in the locomotive shops are supplied with steam, 
compressed air, hot and cold water. Depressions in the pit 
walls carry the pipes. By this arrangement the working space 
in the pits is not restricted and the pipes are not where they 
can be easily damaged by workmen dropping material on them, 
and thus while being quite safe, they are out of the way. 

The forge shop and the boiler shop are placed as near as 
possible to the power house. This is important, for in the case 
of the forge shop, where hammers are operated by live steam, 
the short distance between boiler and hammer reduces con- 
densation and delivers steam where it is required with small 
loss. A similar condition holds good in a sense, for the de- 
livery of compressed air to the boiler shop machinery. The 

nearer the source of supply, the less the pipe friction involved 
and the smaller the losses due to the forcing of air through 
the pipes. 

Industrial tracks form convenient means of communication 
between the various shops. The buildings, cars, engines and 
supplies are protected by a water-system arranged to be readily 
put in use in case of fire. A further protection is 'afforded by 
reason of the use of concrete and steel in the various structures. 

The shops are situated at Quebec and have been named after 
Major E. W. Leonard, chairman of The National Transcontinen- 
tal Eailway Commission, under whose administration they were 
projected. The outlay has been carefully supervised so that 
excellent results will be attained and full value received for 
the money expended. 

The whole plant has been laid out under the supervision of 

Elevation of Erecting Shop, Leonard Shops of the National Transcontinental Ry. 

January, 1914 



Gordon Grant, chief engineer, in such a way that the latest 
and most modern railway practice has been provided for, and 
the design will be second to none in the country. 

The permanent and substantial character of the shops and 
the size of the whole plant will be of material advantage to 
the city of Quebec by providing steady employment for a con- 
siderable number of men the year round. The contract for 
this important piece of work was awarded to Joseph Gosselin 
of Pt. Levis, Que. 

The design and laying out of the plant, the relative size, 
arrangement and position of the buildings and the selection of 
the machinery and appliances has been entrusted to W. J. Press, 
mechanical engineer of The Commission, who has had charge of 
similar work at the Transcona shops of the National Trans- 
continental Eailway near Winnipeg. The Transcona shops are 
now being operated and in general plan, kind and quality of 
equipment they are of the most up-to-date type. The Transcona 
and the Leonard shops when completed will embody the latest 
design and the most modern practice, enabling them to be oper- 
ated with a very high degree of efficiency. Altogether they 
will form a most valuable addition to the second of the great 
national "cross-continent" highways of Canada. 

By F. W. Bentley, Jr. 

The shipment of air pumps between main or division shops 
and outside roundhouse points is, of course, an expedient and 
a necessary practice in the maintenance of this part of the 
air brake equipment on any road. The 9 ^2 -inch pump, the 
most commonly used compressor, is under the best conditions an 
unwieldy part to handle safely, but when necessary to hur- 
riedly load or unload them on or off a baggage car they are 
a sore proposition to the trainmen; and sometimes a dan- 
gerous one. 

The above sketch is descriptive of two single handle irons 
which are readily bolted to the pump on its delivery from the 

, fTT 




- 1 . 

■ 3 

^a — 

— ST 










Two of 



2Q K 




Handy Device for Handling Air Pumps. 

shop, and whieh make its shipment a far safer and easier 
task for all who are forced to handle it during the course of 
its consignment. The handles on the repaired pump are then, 
of course, applied to the old pump and go back with it to the 
main shop. 

"Safety first" is indeed a good slogan, and from the expe- 
rience and in the opinion of the writer it cannot be inci- 
dentally more forcibly applied than in the use of the simple 
detachable grab irons for handling such pumps during their 
hurried train shipments from point to point on the road. 


The cost of freight car repairs and the influence of light ca- 
pacity cars on the cost of repairs is a very live subject today, 
and in view of this fact the following figures are of especial 
interest. These figures are authentic and are based on the 
operation of one of our large transcontinental roads for the 
fiscal years between June 30, 1904, and June 30, 1913, the 
former being the earliest date that complete data was available. 
The percentage of light capacity cars destroyed by accident to 
the total number destroyed by accident during the fiscal year 
1907 and the fiscal year 1913 was as follows: 

Capacity. 1907. 1913. 

25 tons and under 65% 13% 

30 tons ' 29% 78% 

All over 30 tons 6% 9% 

From the above it is evident that the light car contributed 
to the increased cost in the past. A larger proportion of 25- 
ton cars were destroyed by accident in 1907 than in any other 
year. The smaller proportion destroyed in 1913 was undoubt- 
edly due to the fewer number handled. This is evident from 
the fact that in 1904 on this road 30 per cent of the cars owned 
were 25 tons and under, while in 1913 the percentage of 25-ton 
cars was .74 of 1 per cent. The percentage of 30-ton cars 
owned in 1904 was 40 and in 1913 it was 26.2. 

The total cost for both repairs and renewals for the years 
1904 and 1913 was as follows: 
Per car owned — 

1904 $ 86.99 

1913 107.84 

Per freight car mile — 

1904 71c 

1913 , 83c 

These figures show an increase in the cost per car owned 
of 23.97 per cent and per freight car mile of 16.9 per cent. 
The cost increased, notwithstanding that the average age of 
equipment on this road is now somewhat less than formerly, 
the average age being 9.01 years in 1904 and 8.48 years in 
1913. The proportion of steel equipment has also greatly in- 
creased, being 11.6 per cent in 1904 and 60.3 per cent in 1913, 
an increase of 48.7 per cent. 

However, another factor also increased and that was the in- 
crease in the average capacity of the car. In 1904 it was 
30.57 tons and in 1913 42.45 tons, an increase of 38.83 per cent. 
The average tare weight was 13.55 tons in 1904 and 17.55 tons 
in 1913, an increase of 29.81 per cent. 

The cost on a basis of combining car movement with tons 
capacity and tare, representing use and size of equipment, and 
given on a basis of 1,000,000 miles per ton of capacity, was 
89 cents in 1904 and 63 cents in 1913, a decrease of 29.22 per 
cent. The cost new per unit of equipment has also increased 
as reflected in cost at M. C. B. price per car of average capacity 
in 1904 and 1913, as follows: 
For 1904— 

30-ton wooden box car $ 647.50 

Average tare weight, pounds 29,500 

Cost per ton capacity 21.58 

Cost per pound of tare 2.2c 

For 1913— 

40-ton steel underframe car $1,167.50 

Average tare weight, pounds 35,100 

Cost per ton capacity 29.19 

Cost per pound of tare 3.33c 

This shows an increased cost per ton capacity of 35.3 per 
cent, and an increased cost per pound of tare of 51.4 per cent. 
The cost for repairs and renewals based solely on capacity 

and tare were: 

Per ton of capacity Per ton of tare. 

1904 $2.84 $6.31 

1913 2.54 6.03 

This shows a decrease of 10.6 per cent in the cost per ton of 
capacity and 4.4 per cent per ton of tare. 



January, 1914- 
















40 £ 










Fig. 1. 

A fair basis for comparison would be ou a gross ton mile 
basis, but the road had no data for 1904, and so the cost was 
compared for the 1907 period, which was the period during 
which the largest number of 25-ton ears and under were demol- 
ished. A comparison on this basis shows the cost in 1907 to be 
ti'2.86, as compared with $21.22 in 1913, showing a decrease in 
the cost of repairs and renewals on a gross ton mile basis of 
7.22 per cent. 

Basing judgment on the above figures, the mechanical head 
of this road concludes that the larger, heavier and more expen- 
sive freight car of the present time has greatly increased the 
aggregate cost for repairs, but that on any basis combining busi- 
ness handled and size of equipment that the cost per unit 
has decreased. 

Interesting statistics with regard to freight car repairs are 
also given in the diagrams shown herewith. These are actual 

Fig. 2. 

results from another large transcontinental system operating in a 
different territory from the one first mentioned. Figure 1 is a 
combination chart giving the number of revenue cars in service 
together with their mileage, the latter being represented by the 
upper line with its succession of jagged peaks. The lower portion 
showing the number of thousands of revenue ears is a cumulative 
chart. The lower edge of the large black space indicates the 
number of 20 ton cars in service at any time, while the upper 
edge of this space indicates the number of both 20- and 30-ton 
cars. Therefore the vertical distance between these lines at any 
point measures the number of 30-ton cars in service at that time. 
The number of 40- and 50-ton cars are shown in the same manner. 
Thus on July first, 1913, there were in service 3,000 Twenty-ton 
cars, 38,000 thirty-ton cars, 44,000 forty-ton cars and 4,500 fifty- 
ton cars making a total of 89,500 cars of all classes 

The road has no 50,000 pounds capacity cars. It will be noted 
that the 20-ton cars have been steadily retired for the past four 


, 100 






Fig. 3. 

Fig. 4. 

January, 1914 



and a half years and that at the present rate they will all be 
retired in about a year and a half. The chart also shows a 
slight decrease in the number of 30-ton cars since the first of 
this year, while the most marked increase has been in the number 
of 40-ton cars. 

Figure 2 shows graphically the number of couplers pulled out 
and broken on the various divisions of this road and also gives 
the ear mileage. It includes both home and foreign cars and 
means broken couplers or anything which allowed couplers to puli 
out, such as broken rivets and pockets, split sills and split draft 
timbers. It will be noticed that on one of the divisions 600 
couplers were pulled out in January, 1913, and that the number 
pulled out in 1912 and 1913 is startlingly high, there being about 
five times the amount of damage done in this way as was done 
in 1909. The larger percentage of the trouble was caused by 
split sills and broken bolts, practically all of which occurred on 
cars that were built previous to 1909. 

These cars were in just as good shape as ever but could not 
stand the heavy service. After looking at this diagram it is 
interesting to know that this road now purchases very few more 
couplers than in 1909. 

Figure 3 shows the couplers applied on the various divisions. 
Most of these couplers were reapplied because of pockets having 
been broken and rivets broken or pulled out on account of 
split sills. The car mileage is also given in this figure. 

Figure 4 gives a record of draft timbers applied which bears 
out the information given in the other charts. The charts are 
made up from entirely different sources, one from material used 
and the other from inspectors' reports of failures. 

On a basis of the statistics shown in figure 1 the percentage 
of cars of various capacities owned by this company in 1909 and 
in 1913 are as follows: 

Capacity 1909 . 1913 

20 tons 17.9% 3.3% 

30 tons 67.4% 42.5% 

40 and 50 tons 14.7% 54.2% 

The growth in the percentage of 40- and 50-ton cars is marked 
but nevertheless this record has a larger percentage of light 
capacity cars in service that the road mentioned in the first 
cars are of 30-tons capacity and only .74 of one per cent are of 
25 tons or less. 

It will be noted in figure 2 that the heavy increase in pulled out 
and broken couplers begins at about the time when figure 1 shows 
a decided increase in the number of large capacity cars in 
service. A larger number of heavier cars in service of course 
means heavier trains and heavier power. With light capacity 
cars in service under conditions which they had not been de- 
signed to meet, it is not surprising that this increase in damage 
to them has occurred. The placing of a few of these smaller cars 
in a train of heavy cars, subjects their coupler and draft ap- 
pliances to strains many times greater than those encountered 
when these ears were built. The car department of this road 
is therefore in favor of the retirement of light capacity box 
cars from interchange and the statistics as shown in the charts 
clearly uphold this point of view. 


By John Hewitt. 

At the present day we cannot but notice the growing 
scarcity of good mechanics, and also, that in the present age, 
with all its invention and systems, there does not seem to be 
much more system in the training of apprentices than when I 
was a boy. 

The technical colleges are turning out a great many stu- 
dents, but as a general rule, they do not seem to find the con- 
necting link between theory and practice. 

In a great many cases, were the average apprentice with 
his grammar school education given the same show that these 

boys are, he would go far ahead of them, in every day shop work, 

I have studied the apprentice system in both contract and 
railroad shops and the same systems seem to prevail in both. 
As a general rule, he is turned loose to put in four years in 
different departments, and at the end of that time, he is 
turned out as a mechanic, but is he one? 

If he is bright and of a studious nature, he will develop 
into a thinking man and will come out of his apprenticeship 
fairly equipped to hold his own with the journeyman, but if 
of a drifting nature and with no one to start him thinking, 
so much against him. 

The question comes who is really the greatest looser? True,, 
the boy is not what he should be, but taken from the money 
end, I believe the company who hires him is the greatest 

You w r ill naturally say, "I do not have to hire an inefficient 
man. ' ' All well and good, but what are you going to do 
when they are all about the same standard .' 

Through lack of systematic training, you have turned out in- 
efficient mechanics, they in turn go to a shop where the same 
lack of system is in vogue, and that shop's men come to you. 

I do not know a place where a small outlay would bring 
such results as in the proper training of apprentices. I be- 
lieve railroad shops suffer more than other shops, on account 
of the roving disposition of their mechanics. 

The making of a railroad mechanic is different from the 
making of any other class of workman. Ke is a peculiar 

It is an easy matter to use a specialist in a large shop, but 
in roundhouses or small shops he is of no use and it is into 
this class that a great many of the inefficient mechanics go. 
Taking all these conditions into consideration, you can not 
help but form your own solution of the problem. 

First, I would suggest that you take the best all around 
man you have and make him the apprentice instructor. He 
should have the faculty of teaching and at the same time 
the faculty of a master. 

There should be a course of study laid out, comprising a 
study of the whole locomotive, that would explain every part 
and its relation to other parts also its needs and uses. The 
apprentice should be called upon to make out a labor slip, 
that should go to instructor, naming the kind of work and time 
spent on it, each day. I would suggest an examination each 
month and the credit or demerits marked on all work he had 

Great care should be taken in choosing boys for apprentice- 
ships, and at the beginning I should make it thoroughly under- 
stood that at least two nights per week should be devoted to- 
study at some evening school or study class conducted by the 

The reasons for the labor slips are these: It would pive 
the instructor definite knowledge as to the boy's work. Many 
a boy does not get the chance he should have, and it is hardly 
to be expected that a boy, with a boy's mind, will put himself 
out to be interested in the concern that don 't seem to have 
any interest in him. 

A boy learns most of his trade from the man he is put to 
work with, and whether or not the man will instruct him or 
use him for a helper to a large extent determines how much he 
will learn. The instructor should be the man in this case 
to tell the boy the whys and wherefores. 

In conclusion, I would like to see a system brought about, 
whereby an apprentice would serve his time, not by the number 
of days altogether, but in passing by a certain number of 
merit marks from year to year, until his apprenticeship was 
ended. There is no reason why a boy in his fourth year 
should not be more valuable than seventy-five per cent of the 
mechanics of todav. 



January, 1914 


At the request of the general manager, the mechanical depart- 
ment of the Canadian Northern Ry. recently made a compara- 
tive fuel test between class M-l-a engines, without superheaters, 
and class X-l-a engines, with superheaters. The tests were 
made on the Rainy River subdivision, which extends in a 
southeasterly direction from Winnipeg, and runs were made 
from "Winnipeg to Rainy River, a distance of 153 miles. The 
tonnage rating over this division is as follows: 










Rainy River 




Car Limit 




Car Limit 

Both class M-l-a and class X-l-a engines were of the consoli- 
dation type burning bituminous coal, their general dimensions 
and specifications being as follows: 

very lightly loaded than they do when loaded to a reasonable 
extent. All coal used, of course, was very carefully weighed. 

The results of the tests are shown in the table. It will be 
noted that the results are all in favor of the larger class, N-l-a, 
engine equipped with superheater. Tests C and E were made 
under almost similar conditions eastbound, and tests B and F 
westbound. These are closely representative of the average 
performance of these engines with approximately full tonnage. 
In connection with eastbound tests C and E it will be seen 
that the superheater engine only burned 72.2 pounds of coal per 
1,000 ton-miles, as against a consumption of 133.5 pounds per 
1,000 ton-miles for the smaller engine. "With westbound tests 
B and F the superheater engine burned 59.9 pounds, as against 
110.4 of the smaller engine, the ratio remaining approximately 
the same in both directions, the difference in figures indicating 
the heavier grades encountered by the eastbound traffic. 

At the time of the tests one of the oldest and best engineers 
said that with the class M-l-a engine he could always tell by 
the vibration when passing over bridges in the night, but that 
with the class N-l-a engine he frequently ran over culverts and 
short bridges in the dark without feeling them at all. 


Max. tract effort 34,200 lbs. 

Type of boiler Ext. wag. top 

Firebox 114% in. x 41% in. 

Xumber of tubes 300 2-in. 

Weight on front trucks 20,900 lbs. 

Weight on drivers 152,200 lbs. 

Total weight of engine 173,100 lbs. 

Total weight, engine and tender 141,300 lbs. 

Wt.. engine and tender, in W. 314,400 lbs. 

Light weight of tender 57,300 lbs. 

Water capacity of tender 6,000 gal. 

Coal capacity 12 tons 

Firebox heating surface 172 sq. ft. 

Flue heating surface 2,128 sq. ft. 

Total heating surface 2,300 sq. ft. 

Length of tubes 14 ft. in. 

Grate area 33.1 sq. ft. 

Boiler pressure 200 lbs. 

Factor of adhesion 4.45 

45,000 lbs. 
Ext. wag. top 
64% in. xllOif in. 
262 2-in., 26 5% in. 
40,000 lbs. 
190,000 lbs. 
230,000 lbs. 
145,500 lbs. 
375,500 lbs. 
61,500 lbs. 
6,000 gal. 
12 tons 
180 sq.ft. 
2,650 sq.ft. 
2,830 sq. ft. 
15 ft. 3 in. 

49 sq.ft. 
180 lbs. 








Sept. 11th 
Sept. 13th 
Sept. 15th 
Sept. 16th 
Sept. 19th 
Sept. 21st 



Tons Over 
Ruling Grade 







Total Time 







Actual Run- 
ning Time 

Lbs. Coal 

Lbs. Coal 
per 1,000 

The class M-l-a engine was built in 1907 by the Canadian 
Locomotive Co. and the class X-l-a about four years later by 
the Canadian Foundry Co. The class X-l-a engine was equipped 
with the Locomotive Superheater Co.'s type A top header super- 
heater, and since the test the pressure on this engine has been 
increased to 200 pounds also. 

Six single trips were made, two with the M-l-a engine and 
four with the X-l-a engine. Both engines were handled by 
the same engine crew, with a road foreman in charge in each 
■case. The ton mileage was arrived at by multiplying the total 
tonnage of the train, exclusive of the engine, by the mileage 
between reducing and picking-up points. No important factor 
was overlooked. Considerable trouble was experienced in ob- 
taining tonnage, however, and it will be noted in the case of 
test "A" that the class X-l-a engine only had about one-third 
of a train and the relative fuel consumption was very high, 
vlearly showing that engines burn relatively more fuel when 

The conclusions reached by the test are that the class N-l-a 
superheater engines steam better, ride better, and curve much 
better than the class M-l-a engine, and that the larger engines 
are less injurious to the track in proportion to their weight. 

For the first time in 15 years there is a decrease of 83.86 miles 
in main line mileage of railroads in Louisiana, due to the fact 
that the tap lines have been going out of business under a 
ruling made by the Interstate Commerce Commission that they 
are not common carriers, and therefore not entitled to a division 
of rates on through hauls. It is true that the commission was 
reversed by the United States Commerce Court, but so far has 
not led these roads to resume business. The total main-line 
mileage of the state at this time is 3,973.26, and spurs and 
branches, 1,283.79; which, with yard tracks, sidings, etc., gives 
a grand total of 6,860.04 miles of all tracks. 

January, 1914 




The Roundhouse as the Cartoonist Sees It. 

Home-Made Horizontal Multi-Spindle Frog Drill. 


In the frog and switch shop of the Call Switch & Frog Com- 
pany, of Denver, Colo., the method of drilling frogs was considered 
too slow and tedious an operation. As no machine adapted to 
the purpose was easily obtainable, a home-made machine which 
would drill all frog holes at one operation was designed by Ira 
Call, president of the company. 

The machine is shown in the accompanying illustration. Seven 
horizontal spindles driven by a Morse chain operate simultaneously 
in drilling the bolt holes in the frogs which are clamped on the 
table in the assembled position. The use of the machine has 
reduced the cost of frog manufacture in this plant very con- 
siderably and the simplicity of the design is such as to make 
the machine an economical adjunct to any shop having frog work 
as a part of its output. 



January, 1914 

The Grand Trunk Railway System has added to its ear equip- 
ment recently a large number of steel ears of improved designs, 
comprising several thousand all steel hopper cars, 2,000 steel 
frame box cars and 250 steel underframe automobile cars, a 
brief description of which will no doubt be of interest at this 
time as an illustration of the fact that this road is providing 
equipment to properly take care of its traffic. 

Hopper Cars. 

These cars are specially adapted to the transportation of coal 
and coke, being self-cleaning and having doors which are easily 
and quickly opened or closed by means of a device whielf is 
positive in action as well as safe against accidental discharge 
of la. lino. An illustration of the car is shown herewith. They 
were built by the Pressed Steel Car Company, are designed to 
carry 100,000 pounds of coal with an addition of the usual 10 
per cent overload, and have been giving excellent service. 

Pressed shapes, plates and structural material have been 

connected by two 5-inch channels, placed back to back, to 
which the operating arm of the door gear is connected. The 
operating device, which is known as the "Lind Gear," con- 
sists of levers and cams, is positive in action and when in the 
closed position the doors cannot be accidentally opened and 
lading discharged along the tracks. 

The trucks are of the arch bar type with rolled channel top 
arch bar, 5 feet 6 inches wheel base, 5 a j by 10-inch journals; 
pressed steel truck bolster and brake beams; malleable iron 
journal boxes and gray iron wheels being used. 

All safety appliances are in accordance with the require- 
ments of the Interstate Commerce Commission and the Canadian 
Railway Commission, in order to permit use of ears in service 
between United States and Canada. 

The general dimensions of cars are as follows: 

Length inside of body 30' 0" 

Width inside of body 9' 6" 

Width over side stakes 10' 1M>" 

Length over end sills 31' 6" 

Steel Frame 40 Foot Box Car, Grand Trunk Ry. 

used to the best advantage to obtain as light a ear as possible, Height from rail to top of body 10' 0" 

consistent with good practice, for the service required. The Height from rail to top of brake mast 10' 9" 

center sills, which extend from end sill to end sill, are made Length of drop doors in clear 2' 4%" 

of 10-inch 20-pound channels, reinforced at top with cover Width of drop doors in clear 3' 4%" 

plates, and at bottom with 3% by :'.'-._,-inui angles. Thfe side Weight of car body 20,600 lbs. 

sills extend from bolster to end and are made of pressed steel Weight of two trucks 16,400 lbs. 

10 inches deep. Ten-inch 15-pound channels are used for end Light weight of car 37,000 lbs. 

sills and are attached to side sills by means of gussets and Percentage of paying load to total weight of car and 

malleable iron push pockets. The body bolster consists of a lading 75 f r 

% -inch web plate, reinforced at top with a bent plate, and Two thousand steel frame box cars of 60,000 pounds capac- 

at bottom with 3% by 3-inch angles, and an 18 by %-inch j tv we re recently completed at the McKees Rocks works of the 

tie plate, the center plate and brace being made of malleable Pressed Steel Car Company, and are showa in the illustration, 

iron. „ These cars have steel under and upperframes and carlines, with 

The corners of car are further stiffened by means of diag- wooden floor, roof and sheathing, 
onal braces made of 5 by 3-inch angles extending from body The center sills are 15-inch 33-pound channels and the side 

bolster at center to end sills at corner of ear. The side, end sills 8-inch 11^4-pound channels, all extending from end sill to 

and floor sheets are made of %-inch plates reinforced with end sill. The end sills are 10-inch 15-pound channels connected 

flanges and angles, the sides being stiffened vertically by to side sills by means of gusset plates and pressed steel push 

seven pressed steel stakes per side, two inside gussets at cross pockets. 

Tidge and two channel braces extending across car near the The 'body bolsters are built integral with underframe and 

top from side sheet to side sheet. are made of four pressed steel diaphragms and one cast center 

There are four doors, hung in pairs, each two doors being brace each, reinforced at top and bottom with 15 by a s-inch 

January, 1914 

































January, 1914- 





32 989 





- loanifTiu 









•*■"' ■-ty««--W ""-: - ■ .«i 

Automobile Car. Grand Trunk Ry. 

cover plates. The underframe is further strengthened, trans- couplers, vertical twin spring draft gear with key attachment 

versely, by two cross bearers, made of pressed steel diaphragms, to couplers, roller side bearings, inside metal roof and all safety 

with top and bottom cover plates, 13 inches deep at center appliances in accordance with the Interstate Commerce Com- 

sills and 7 inches deep at side sills. Also by three shallow mission requirements. 

diaphragms made of 5 by 6%-inch channels. The side posts The trucks are of the arch bar type with 4*4 by 3-inch 

and braces are made of 3-inch 6.7-pound Z bars and the end journals and 5 feet 2-inch base, equipped with pressed steel 

posts of 4-inch 8.2-pound Zs, securely riveted to the side and bolsters, cast steel center plates, M. C. B. brake beams, steel 

end sills and plates. back shoes, malleable iron boxes and 625-pound gray iron 

The floor boards are made of yellow pine 1% inches thick, wheels, 

resting directly on side sills and bolted to intermediate Z bar The general dimensions of car are as follow>: 

stringers, being supported at center by yellow pine stringers Length inside of car 36' 0" 

resting on top of center sills. The side sheathing, or lining, Width inside of car 3' 6%" 

is made of yellow pine 1*2 inches thick, bolted to Z bar posts Height from floor to carlines 8' OV2" 

and braces with %-inch bolts; the end lining being made of Width of door opening 6' 0" 

1%-inch yellow pine bolted to end and corner posts. There Height of door opening 7' 7%" 

are two center side doors, one on each side of car made of Length over end sills 37' 4%" 

yellow pine. Width over side sills B' 9%" 

Cars are equipped with Westinghouse air brakes, cast steel Width over eaves 9' 3%" 




WIETH 10 f- 
ITCICHT 37201 LS! 

Hopper Car, Grand Trunk System. 

January, 1914 



Height from rail to top of floor 4' 2%" 

Height from rail to roof at eaves 12' 7%" 

Height from rail to top of running boards 13' 5" 

Height from rail to top of brake mast 13' 11%" 

Weight of car body 23,000 lbs. 

Weight of two trucks 12,300 lbs. 

Total light weight of car 35,300 lbs. 

Automobile Cars. 

The 60,000 pounds capacity automobile cars which were built 
for this company by the Western Steel Car £ Foundry Company 
at its Hegewisch, 111., plant, are also illustrated herewith and 
are of the following dimensions: 

Length over striking plate 41' 8" 

Length over running boards 42' 0%" 

Length inside 40' 0" 

Height from floor to carline 8' 6" 

Height from top of rail to top of floor 3' 8" 

Height from top of rail to eaves 12' 8 -ft" 

Height from top of rail to top of running board.... 13' 6" 

Height from top of rail to top of brake mast 14' 0" 

Height of side door opening in clear 8' 1%" 

Width of side door opening .' 9' 0" 

Width inside of body 8' 6%" 

Width over eaves 9' 6" 

Width over side sills 9' : v t " 

Center to tenter of truck 30' 6" 

Height of end door opening in clear 8' 1%" 

Width of end door opening in clear 7' 9%" 

The steel underframe of these ears is principally of the 
structural type composed of plates and shapes, except for 
the bolster and cross bearer diaphragms, which are pressed 
steel. The superstructure is of a wooden type with diagonal 
tie rods in the side, and each side is fitted with double side 
doors set off center. One end is fitted with double hinged 
end doors with a vertical operated locking device. The roof 
is of the inside metal type and the car is braced longitudinally 
by diagonal braces fitted into the side plates and carlines. 

One thousand gondola cars are now being turned out by the 
Pressed Steel Car Company for the Grand Trunk Railway 
System and an additional order of 3.000 box cars is soon to be 
turned out by the Western Steel Car & Foundry Company. 


When the boss swings through the office like a tornado, rip- 
snorting among the desks — looking for the fellow who made the 
mistake — you begin to shrink inside ; your hat slips down over 
your ears and you can turn around in your suit without taking 
it off. It does make a fellow feel uneasy around the nerve 
centers when he did slip a cog and the boss is storming along 
the line, looking for some unlucky cuss upon whom he can vent 
his spleen. 

Takes a big man to "fess up" at a time like that. You've 
got to have a pile of courage to face the raving monster — but 
it's got to be done. A little lie might save you — but the big 
man will stick to his principles if it costs him his job. He'll 
' ' fess up. ' ' 

Be true to your better instincts. Who's afraid of losing a 
job that can be lost by being manly — courageous — honest and 
clean. Better be out of that kind of a job than in it. A job 
like that is a wet blanket on your finer sentiments — your worth. 

At any rate — don't let fear drive you to deception at the 
expense of the better qualities within you. Speak out — say it 



The electrical specification, design and manufacture of the 
Panama Canal centralized control system may properly be 
regarded as one of those undertakings which, from an en- 
gineering standpoint, not only arouses a lively interest but also 
presents an opportunity for much valuable instruction. The 
interest results mainly from the size of the canal project itself, 
and the instruction from a consideration of the methods em- 
ployed to insure the passage of even the largest ships afloat 
across the Isthmus with speed and safety. The complete opera- 
tion of the canal locks, terminals and auxiliary equipment 
utilizes electrical energy throughout, with the present excep- 
tion of the Panama Bailroad, the electrification of which is 
under contemplation. 

The specifications for the entire generating, lock controlling 
and distribution system for operating the Panama Canal were 
prepared under the supervision of Mr. Edward Schildhauer, 
electrical and mechanical engineer, Isthmian Canal Commission, 

COMPARATIVE PROFILES of the western lines of eight trans 
continental lines show that the Cadanian Northern has a maximum 
grade of .7 per cent with a maximum elevation of 3,706 feet. 
The Grand Trunk Pacific comes next with a maximum grade of 
1.0 per cent and a maximum elevation of 3,719 feet. The Santa 
Fe has the steepest grade, it being 2.6 per cent. 

Elect, and Mech. Engineer, Isthmian Canal Commission. 

assisted by a staff of able electrical engineers, including Mr. 
C. B. Larzelere, who was closely identified with the lock control 
problems, and Mr. W. B. McCann with the generation and dis- 
tribution of power. These specifications exhibited great care 
and painstaking engineering. They contained every safeguard 
that expert engineers could suggest, were exact and explicit in 
regard to the results required, yet gave proper range in the 
details of accomplishment. 

Generation and Distribution. 

The power system for the operation of the locks, towing loco- 
motives, lights for the locks and buildings, and motors not 
directly connected with the lock control, is composed of: 

A 7,500 kv-a, 2,200 volt hydroelectric power plant at the Gatun 

A 4,500 kv-a 2.200 volt Curtis turbo-generator electric power 
plant at Miraflores for emergency, lately used to supply power for 
construction work ; 

A double 44,000 volt transmission line across the Isthmus, con- 
necting Cristobal and Balboa with the two power plants; 

Four 44,000-2.200 volt substations, stepping down at Cristobal 
and Balboa, and up or down at Gatun and Miraflores, depending on 
which of the two plants is supplying power ; 

Thirty-six 2,200-240 volt transmission stations for power, trac- 
tion and light at Gatun, Pedro Miguel and Miraflores locks; 

Three 2,200-220-110 volt transformer stations for the control 
boards at the locks; 



January, 1914- 

Stations at Cristobal and Balboa for coal handling plants, 
machine shops and dry docks. 

The system of connection throughout employs a double bus, 
double switch scheme, with provision for disconnecting any oil 
switch for cleaning or repairs without interrupting the circuit. 
In the power house and the four 44,000-2,200 volt substations, the 
oil switches are solenoid operated and are installed in concrete 
cells, above which are concrete fireproof compartments containing 
the two sets of buses. In the thirty-six transformer stations in 
the lock walls, the oil switches are hand operated. All 2,200 volt 
oil switches have disconnecting switches, so arranged that live 
parts are completely covered. 

For the hand operated switches, a pipe framework supports 
vertical metal guides which carry the oil switch operating 
mechanism and slate base forming a section of the switchboard 
panel. On the guides a lever and toggle mechanism is mounted, 
by which the oil switch and slate base may be raised and lowered. 
Above the oil switch and mounted on the pipe framework a sta- 
tionary cast iron base carries the disconnecting switch studs and 
insulators. The high tension leads run to the tops of the dig- 
connecting switch studs, and the bottom of each stud is equipped 
with contact fingers. On the top ' of each oil switch stud is 
mounted a contact blade. When the oil switch is raised, these 
blades engage the contacts on the bottom of the disconnecting 
switch studs, which thus in the closed position form extensions 
of the oil switch studs. The disconnecting switch contacts are 
surrounded by insulating shields which prevent accidental contact. 
When the oil switch is lowered, it is completely isolated from 
the circuit. When the oil switch is raised, it always goes to a 
fixed height where it is latched. An interlock prevents the oil 
switch from being raised or lowered unless its contacts are open, 
precluding the circuit being closed or opened by the disconnecting 

switch. In some instances another interlock makes two single- 
throw switches a double-throw switch and prevents both switches 
being closed at the same time. 

For solenoid operated switches, the same form of disconnecting 
switch is used; but the solenoid is stationary and the connecting 
mechanism to the oil switch has a vertical slotted link which allows 
the oil switch to be raised and lowered without being disconnected 
from the solenoid mechanism. A mechanical interlock prevents the 
raising or lowering of an oil switch while in the closed position. 

The instrument and control board for the Gatun generating 
station is of natural black slate, as are all the switchboards for 
the power system. It is totally enclosed by means of grille work 
with doors at each end. The switchboards for the transmission line 
substations are of the vertical type, with control apparatus and 
mimic connections symmetrically arranged on the middle section 
of the panels. The rear of the board is enclosed by means of 
grille work with doors at each end. 
Power Supply and Control Panels for Lock Machinery Motors. 

Current for the lock machinery and towing locomotives is trans- 
formed from the 2,200 volt system in the immediate vicinity of 
where it is used. There are a total of thirty-six transformer sta- 
tions, for all locks, each containing duplicate 200 kv-a. 3-phase 
2,200-240 volt transformers for power and one single-phase 25 kv-a. 
2,200-220-110 volt transformer for lighting. The stations, nor- 
mally fed from the 2.200 volt buses in the 44,000-2,200 volt sub- 
stations, can also be operated from the power plants; the sta- 
tions at Gatun locks from the Gatun hydro-electric station ; and the 
stations at Miraflores and Pedro Miguel from the Miraflores 
emergency steam plant. 

The motors are started and controlled by contactor panels lo- 
cated near them, the contactors of which handle the main motor 
currents. These contactors are controlled from the central control 

Centralized Control Board for Miraflores Lock. 

January, 1914 



Control House at Gatun. 

house. The smaller motors, including those for cylindrical valves. 
auxiliary culvert valves and miter forcing, are started by being 
thrown directly on the line. Two double-pole contactors are used, 
one for forward and one for reverse. In the case of larger motors 
for miter gate moving, rising stem valves and guard valves, a 
starting point with resistance in two legs of the three-phiise cir- 
cuit is provided. 

In all cases the contactors are operated from the control boards 
by three wires, one for forward, one for reverse and a common 
return. In the case of panels having a smiting point, the period 
during which the motor remains on the resistance is automatically 
controlled by a dashpot, so that the starting operation at the con- 
trol house is the same, simply energizing a forward or reverse 
wire as the case may be. The control connections are arranged in 
such manner that each individual machine may be controlled lo- 
cally. This arrangement provides for emergency operation should 
the control circuits from the central control house be out of order. 
Location and Operation of Lock Machinery. 

From an operating standpoint the machinery was placed below 
the coping of the lock walls, thus affording a clear space for 
maneuvering ships and protecting the apparatus from the weather 
without erecting numerous houses. 

The miteriug gates consist of two massive leaves pivoted on the 
lock walls which operate independently of each other. A pair of 
gates is located where each change of level occurs and divides the 
locks into 1,000-foot chambers. In addition to these gates, at 
lake and ocean ends are duplicate pairs of gates used as guard 
gates. To handle the vessels of various sizes with the minimum 
use of water, mitering gates of the same description as those 
above are installed, dividing 1,000-foot locks into two compart- 
ments. These gates are termed intermediate mitering gates. When 
the mitering gates are closed they are what might be termed 
clamped in this position by a device called a miter forcing ma- 

On the top of all mitering gates a foot walk with hand rails is 
provided. "When the gates are opened and in the recesses provided 
for them in the lock walls, these hand rails would interfere with 
the passing of the towing locomotives, except in the case of the 
lower guard gates. The hand rails are therefore made to be 
raised and lowered. This is done by a motor under the foot walk, 
controlled from the lock wall. Near the approach to each foot 
walk a controller is located in the lock wall flush with the sur- 
face, this controller being operated by a foot push. If the gates 

are closed and the hand rails are down, aud it is desired to cross 
on the gates, the foot push is pressed and the hand rails are 
raised by their motors. This is true not only of the hand rails 
on the nearer gate leaf, but of the hand rails on the farther leaf 
as well. After passing across, one can, if one desires, press the 
foot push on the other side and both hand rails will be lowered. 
Or, if one leaves the hand rails up and the gates are opened by 
the operator in the control house, they will be automatically low- 
ered so as to be out of the way when the gate is in the recess. 
When the gates are again closed, the hand rails will automatically 
rise again if the foot controller has been operated in the mean 
time. The hand rails cannot be raised when the gates are opened,, 
and no harm results if the foot switch is operated while the gates 
are in the closed position. 

The filling and emptying of the locks is accomplished by three 
culverts, one in the middle wall and one in each side wall, the flow 
of water being controlled by rising stem valves. They are located 
in the culverts at points opposite each end of each lock so that 
the culvert can be shut off at any desired point for filling a lock 
with water from above, or upstream, or for emptying it by allowing 
it to flow out and down to the next, lock. Lateral culverts conduct 
the water from the main culverts, under the lock chambers, and 
up through openings in the lock floors. 

The rising stem valves are installed in pairs, and each pair is 
in duplicate; also each culvert is divided into two parallel halves 
at these valves by a vertical wall. This arrangement reduces the 
size of each valve and makes it more easily operated, each valve 
being 8 by 18 feet. One pair of duplicates is left open as a 
guard, or reserve pair; the other pair is used for operating, so 
that in case of an obstruction in the culvert or accident to the 
machinery, the duplicate pair can be used. 

At the upper ends of the culverts at the side walls, the dupli- 
cation is accomplished by three valves in parallel, called the guard 
valves. They perform service exactly similar to the rising stem 
valves, except that three valves in parallel in this case must con- 
form to the same laws as the two in parallel in the other case. 

The culvert in the middle wall must serve the locks on both 
sides, and to control this feature cylindrical valves are placed in 
the lateral culverts that branch out on each side. There are ten 
of these on each side of the culvert at each lock. 

At the upper end of each set of locks there are two valves in 
the side wall for regulating the height of water between the upper 
gate and upper guard gate, as it is desired to maintain the level 
of the water between these gates at an elevation intermediate be- 
tween that of the lake above and that of the upper lock when 
the upper lock is not at the same level as the lake. These valves 
are called the auxiliary culvert valves. 

Centralized Control and Indicating System. 

The control boards are installed in control houses located on 
the middle walls at points which afford the best view of the locks, 
although this view is not depended on to know the position of 
the gates or other apparatus, as all are provided with indicators- 
on the control board. The control boards are made approximately 
operating miniatures of the locks themselves, and are arranged 
with indicating devices which will always show the position of 
valves, lock gates, chains and water levels, in the various lock 
chambers; and with the exception of such machinery as needs only 
an "open" or "closed" indication, the indications will be syn- 
chronous with the movement of the lock machinery. 

For such indication, appliances with commutators, multiple eon- 
tacts or ratchet mechanisms would not be suitable because of the 
many contacts and small pieces in their construction; and par- 
ticularly because devices of this character move step by step and 
would not indicate all points in the movement of the main ma- 
chinery, such indications being more or less approximate, accord- 
ing to the number of steps in the indicating devices. The indi- 
cators on the Panama control boards were developed especially for 
this undertaking, and show accurately and synchronously every 
movement of the machinery to which they are connected, whether 
in the extremes of travel or at any intermediate point. 



January, 1914 

A complete synchronous indicator consists of a transmitter lo- 
cated at and operated by the machine in the lock wall, and a 
receiver operating an indicator at the switchboard in the control 
house. Both transmitter and receiver have a stationary and a 
rotating part. The stators have three-phase windings with leads 
from three corresponding equidistant points brougt out and con- 
nected together, but not connected to a source of power, the stator 
coils being energized by induction from the rotors. The rotors 
are bipolar and are connected in multiple and energized from a 
110-volt, 25-cycle, single-phase source. 

The movement of the lock machinery and with it the connected 
transmitter rotor produces a field in the transmitter stator polar- 
ized in the direction of the rotor axis, which induces voltage in the 
stator coils. This voltage is transmitted by the three-phase con- 
nection above mentioned to the receiver stator coils and duplicates 
in them but in the reverse direction, the same conditions of polar- 
ity and voltage as present in the transmitter. The rotor of the 
receiver being energized by the external source in the same di- 
rection as that of the transmitter, is reacted upon by the polar- 
ized receiver stator until the magnetic axes coincide and the rotors 
of both transmitter and receiver are in the same relative position. 
Any difference in the position of the transmitter and receiver 
rotors causes a difference of potential between the stator wind- 
ings with a consequent flow of current and resultant torque, which 
again moves the receiver rotor to the same relative position as 
that of the transmitter rotor. The receiver rotor follows closely 
and smoothly the movement of the transmitter rotor, and conse- 
quently imparts to the position indicator a movement identical 
with the movement of the lock machine, although on a scale re- 
duced to the requirements of the control board. A brief descrip- 
tion of the individual synchronous indicators follows. 

In the case of the mitering gates, the vertical operating shaft 
is connected to a shaft which operates the transmitter machine. 
The latfer shaft is threaded and carries a nut on which is mounted 
a rack. The rack engages a gear on the rotor shaft, and this turns 
the rotor as the gates operate. The mitering gate indicator com- 
prises a pair of aluminum leaves, shaped to correspond to the 
plan view of the top of the gate, which travel horizontally just 
above the top of the board, the hinge ends being connected to 
shafts extending down through the surface of the board, where 


Rising Stem Valve 

Water Level 

they are geared to the receivers by means of bevel gears. When 
the miniature gates are completely opened they are covered by 
shields to give the effect of the gates folding back into recesses 
in the lock walls. 

As the rising stem valves occur in pairs, theft position indi- 
cator machines occur in pairs also. The transmitter rotor is 
driven by a shaft and gearing similar to that described for the 
mitering gates. Each indicator is similar to a small elevator, a car 
being used to indicate the position of the valve gate. Both front 
and back of the shaft is fitted with opal glass marked with black 
lines for the %, Vo and % positions. A small aluminum cage 
moves up and down in each compartment. A drum for operating 
the cord which raises and lowers the cage is located underneath 
the control board and is operated by the receiver through a suit- 
able train of gears. To make the indications visible from points 
up and down the control board, the elevator shaft under each car 
is always illuminated and the portion above is dark. 

Water Level Indicators. 

The specifications covering the water level indication required 
an accuracy of 1-20 of a foot, or 1-10 of 1 per cent in actual water 
level. In the transmitters and receivers for the machines described 
previously, the rotors turn less than 180 degrees with an inherent 
lag of 1% per cent between transmitter and receiver rotors in 
this distance, which obviously prevents this arrangement from 
being employed to give the water level indication. 

It was found that if the rotors were revolved ten complete revo- 
lutions, the required accuracy could be obtained; but since this 
arrangement makes it possible for the rotors to be in synchronism 
every 180 degrees, or in twenty different positions for the entire 
travel, the indicators would not indicate correctly if for some rea- 
son the transmitter rotors were turned more than one-half revolu- 
tion with the power off. Therefore, the required accuracy was 
obtained by two sets of transmitters and receivers, one set con- 
nected to a fine index in which the rotors make ten complete revo- 
lutions and the other set connected to a coarse index operating 
less than 180 degrees. 

The fine index is a hollow cylinder carrying a pointer, the length 
of the cylinder being such that when an aluminum ball represent- 
ing the coarse index, which can be depended upon for coarse in- 
dication, is within the limits of the cylinder, the reading of the 
fine index is correct within the limits specified. The scales are 
illuminated by lamps in both base and top caps of the indicator. 

For water level indication, wells 36 inches square in the lock 
walls with communication to the lock by a small opening at the 
bottom of the well to dampen surges contain a welded steel box 
float, 30 inches square by 9 inches deep. A non-slipping phosphor 
bronze belt transmits the movement of the float to a sheave fitted 
with pins on the transmitter mechanism, the pins registering with 
holes punched in the belt. The sheave shaft is carried in ball bear- 
ings with oil cups for lubrication and drainage cocks at the bot- 
tom of the bearings. 

The position of the miter forcing machine is not indicated by 
synchronous indicators, but its open and closed positions are shown 
by red and green lights and a mechanical indicator on the control 
board representing the machine. 

Control Boards Bepresent Locks in Miniature. 

The control boards are of the flat top benchboard type, 32 inches 
high by 54 inches wide, built in sections, with total lengths as 
follows : 

Gatun 64 feet 

Pedro Miguel 36 feet 

Miraflores 52 feet 

The side and center walls of the locks are represented by cast 
iron plates and the water in the locks by blue Vermont marble 
slabs. The outer edge of the board is surrounded by a brass trim 
rail, and the sides are enclosed with steel plates which can be 
readily removed for inspection of the board. The control board 
is supported by a wrought iron framework resting on base cast- 
ings, which are in turn supported on the operating floor of the 
control house. 

January, 1914 




2200-Volt A. C. Instrument and Control Board. 

Special Climatic Requirements. 
To withstand the humid atmosphere of the Isthmus, every in- 
sulated part, such as solenoid, relay, circuit breaker and other coils, 
was impregnated with non-hygroscopic compounds. All small parts 
were made either of brass, copper, Monel metal, bronze, or of 
sherardized iron or steel. Mica and treated asbestos lumber were 
used largely in place of fiber or wood. 

Interesting Manufacturing Details. 
Nearly two thousand special drawings were required in their 
fabrication, and there were also involved the following unusual 
quantities of materials: 

Special slate bases 1,300 

Small castings 160,000 

Screw machine parts 1,200,000 

Copper rod and bar 58,000 ft. 

Asbestos lumber 9,000 sq. ft. 

New patterns 650 

New jigs, templates, tools, etc 625 

Porcelain parts 18,000 

Special bus supports 6,800 

Gal. pipe (framework) 21,000 ft. 

Special gears 2,300 

Special instruments 640 

Miscellaneous sherardized pieces 300,000 

Cases for boxing 4,150 

The combined weight of the centralized control boards for Gatun, 
Pedro Miguel and Miraflores is about thirty-nine tons. In their 
construction there is employed — 

More than 2% miles of interlocking rod. 

About six million feet of control leads — made up in five and 
■eight-conductor cables. 

Seven hundred and thirty-two motors. 

Four hundred and sixty-four switches. 

All of the lock machinery motors, control panels, centralized 
control boards, power station generating apparatus, switchboards, 
transmission line substation equipments, coaling stations, and prac- 
tically the entire electrical equipment for the wharf terminal 
cranes and for the extensive permanent repair machine shops were 
manufactured by the General Electric Company. 

E. C. LaCoss succeeds C. L. Perrin as foreman of the Atchison, 
Topeka Sr Santa Fe at Vaughn, N. M. 

E. T. Mullen succeeds Charles Johnson as foreman of the 
Atchison, Topeka 4" Santa Fe at Seligman, Ariz. 

A. J. Cunningham has been appointed foreman of the Atchison, 
Topeka Sr Santa Fe at Barstow, Cal., succeeding C. D. Mack. 

F. W. Boardman succeeds W. Sennott as master mechanic of 
the Baltimore 4' Ohio at Eastside, Philadelphia, Pa. 

M. T. Nash has been appointed general locomotive foreman of 
the Baltimore Sr Ohio at Holloway, O. He succeeds H. Ainscough. 

G. A. Schaiffn succeeds J. J. Foley as general locomotive fore- 
man of the Baltimore 4~ Ohio at Weston, W. Va. 

E. E. Hoover succeeds J. A. McGuire as general locomotive 
foreman of the Baltimore 4~ Ohio at Holloway, O. 

E. J. Creel has been appointed general locomotive foreman of 
the Baltimore Sr Ohio at Painesville, O. 

F. T. Summers succeeds J. H. Agar as general car foreman of 
the Baltimore Sr Ohio at Garrett, Ind. 

J. D. Beltz has been promoted to road foreman of engines 
of the Baltimore Sr Ohio with office at Pittsburgh, Pa. 

G. N. Gage has been appointed assistant road foreman of 
engines of the Baltimore Sr Ohio with headquarters at Kock- 
wood, Pa. 

F. S. Deveny has been appointed road foreman of engines of 
the Baltimore Sr Ohio with office at Chicago Junction, O. 

J. C. Basford has been appointed road foreman of engines of 
the Baltimore Sr Ohio with office at Philadelphia, Pa. 

J. P. Haran has been appointed general foreman of the Balti- 
more 4' Ohio South Western with office at East St. Louis, 111. He 
succeeds J. F. Kane. 

J. W. Neill succeeds J. P. McAnany as master mechanic of the 
Canadian Pacific with office at Moose Jaw, Sask. 

George Logan has been appointed general foreman of the 
Chicago Sr North Western at Clinton, la., succeeding C. D. 

W. H. Halsey succeeds George Logan as general foreman of 
the Chicago Sr North Western at Missouri Valley, la. 

L. Chapman succeeds W. H. Halsey as shop foreman of the 
Chicago Sr North Western at Chadron, Neb. 

John J. Murphy succeeds L. Chapman as shop foreman of the 
Chicago Sr North Western at Norfolk, Neb. 

Herman Witte has been appointed shop foreman of the Chi- 
cago 4~ North Western at Fremont, Neb. He succeeds John J. 

C. K. Fryant has been appointed shop foreman of the Chicago 
4" North Western at Wyeville, Wis., succeeding G. Schimming. 

Frederick A. Delano has been elected president of the Chi- 
cago, Indianapolis Sr Louisville, to succeed Fairfax Harrison, re- 
cently elected president ofi the Southern. Mr. Delano was born 
at Hong Kong, China, September 10, 1863, graduated from Har- 
vard University and began his railway career in 1885 as ma- 
chinist apprentice in the shops of the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy, at Aurora, 111. For two years he was in charge of the 
bureau of steel rail inspection tests and records; from April, 
1889, to July, 1890, assistant to the second vice-president of the 
same road, and from July, 1890, to January 31, 1899, superin- 
tendent of freight terminals at Chicago. He was superintendent 
of motive power of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy from 
February 1, 1899, to July 1, 1901, and general manager from 
July, 1901, to January 10, 1905. In March, 1905, he became- 
consulting engineer to the War Department and the Philippine 
Commission and was elected first vice-president of the Wabash 
on May 1, 1905. In October, of the same year he was chosen 
president. He was also president of the Wheeling & Lake Erie 
E. B. from May 1, 190.">. to 1908 and since May, 1905, has been 



January, 1914 

F. A. Delano. 

president ol the Wabash Pittsburg Terminal Ry. He has been a 
receiver of the Wabash Railroad since December. 1911. until Ms 
present appointment. 

C. W. Jones has been appointed general manager of the first 
district of the Chicago, hod Island $ Pacific with office at Des 
Moines, la., succeeding W. M. Whitenton, resigned. 

F. J. Easley has been appointed assistant general manager of 
the first district of the < h cago, Bock Island 4' Pacific with office 
at Des Moines. la. He succeeds T. H. Beacom, promoted. 

T. H. Beacom h:>s been appointed assistant general manager of 
the third district of the Chicago, Rock Island t}- Pacific with office 
at El Reno. Okla. He succeeds ('. W. .Jones, transferred. 

R. W. Pritchard has been appointed assistant superintendent 
car department of the Chicago. Hock Island 4' Pacific with office 
at Chicago. 

R. C. Hyde, master mechanic of the Chicago. Bock Island 4' 
Pacific, has been transferred from El Dorado. Ark., to Manly. 
la., succeeding F. W. Williams, resigned. 

W. J. Eddy lias been appointed master mechanic of the Chi- 
cago, Bock Island 4' Pacific, at El Dorado. Ark., succeeding R. 
I . Hyde. Mr. Eddy was formerly inspector of tools and ma- 
chinery at Chicago. 

William Garstang. general master car builder of the Cleveland. 
I cinnati, Chicago § St. Louis, retired from railway service on 

William Garstang. 

the first of the year, after having served -jO years in the mechanical 
department. Mr. Garstang was born in England in 1851 and in 
1862 did his first work in railroading by carrying water for 
the contractors on track laying work between Fort Erie and 
Niagara. In December. 1863 he entered the mechanical depart- 
ment as a machinist apprentice on the Cleveland & Erie at 
Cleveland, O. He remained here six years, in the meanwhile 
attending night school. Following this period, he spent eleven 
years as machinist and general foreman of the Atlantic & Great 
Western and the Xew York, Pennsylvania & Ohio; three years 
as general foreman on the Pennsylvania and five years as master 
mechanic of the Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati & Indianapolis 
^now the Big Four). In 1SSS he was appointed superintendent 
of motive power of the Chesapeake & Ohio and in 1893 accepted 
a similar position on the Big Four. A year ago his title was 
changed to general master car builder and he has since served 
largely in an advisory capacity. Mr. Garstang was president 
of the American Railway Master Mechanics' Association in 1894 
and 1895 and has been connected with that association about 
thirty-five years. For the past twelve years he has been chairman 
of the Master Car Builders' committee on standard wheels. 

J. P. Griffin, road foreman of engines of the Chicago 4' Alton 
at Slater, Mo., has resigned. 

Geo. McLean has been appointed car foreman of the Chicago 
Great Western at Oelwein, la., succeeding W. R. Lutem. 

G. F. Hennessey has been appointed general car and locomo- 
tive foreman of the Chicago, Milwaukee 4' St. Paul at Marion, la. 

Frank R. Joxes has been appointed foreman of locomotive 
repairs of the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis 4' Omaha with office 
at Omaha, Neb. 

F. I. Plechner has been appointed assistant purchasing agent 
of the Great Northern with office at St. Paul, Minn. 

.1. B. Haslet has been appointed locomotive foreman of the 

hern at Breekenridge. Minn. He succeeds Wm. Krier. 

J. P. Cooney has been appointed locomotive foreman of the 

Great Northern at Casselton, X. D., succeeding J. T. Murtinger. 

Oscar Anderson succeeds W. E. Johnston as car foreman of 
the Great Northern at Skykomish, Wash. 

John Kruttschnitt has been appointed mechanical inspector 
of the Ulii \ral with office at Chicago. 

Frank McManamy has been appointed chief of the division 
of locomotive boiler inspection of the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission, succeeding the late John F. Ensign. 

Wm. Baker has been appointed road foreman of engines of 
the Lehigh Valley with office at Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

J. I. Keiper succeeds John Roney as road foreman of engines 
of the Lehigh Valley at South East on. Pa. 

H. Kugler has been appointed road foreman of engines of 
the Lehigh Valley at Buffalo. X. Y. 

L. W. Englehart succeeds B. F. Gram as traveling engineer 
of the Minneapolis, St. Paul 4' Sault Ste. Marie with office at 
Glenwood. Minn. 

E. W. Hartolgh has been appointed car foreman of the 
Missouri, Kansas $ Texas with office at St. Louis, Mo. 

C. B. Randall succeeds W. A. Curley as master mechanic of 
the Missouri Pacific at Yan Buren, Ark. 

W. A. Curley succeeds W. J. McKiernan as master mechanic 
of the Missouri Pacific with office at Monroe, La. 

F. H. Edmonds has been appointed traveling car inspector of 
the Missouri Pacific with office at Little Rock. Ark. He succeeds 
C. F. Mase. 

I". Mase succeeds J. Bowman as general foreman car de- 
partment of the Missouri Pacific with office at Argenta. Ark. 

M. R. Ducey succeeds D. E. Moodie as storekeeper of the 
Mobile 4' Ohio at Meridian, Miss. 

John H. Peyton has been elected president of the Xashville. 
Chattanooga 4' St. Louis, succeeding the late John W. Thomas. 
Jr., effective April 1, 1914. Mr. Peyton is assistant to the 
president of the Louisville & Xashville. 

January, 1914 



W. F. Owex has been appointed receiver of the New Orleans, 
Mobile 4' Chicago with office at Mobile, Ala. Mr. Owen was 
formerly president and general manager. 

J. W. Sasser succeeds J. E. Gould as superintendent of motive 
power of the Norfolk Southern with office at Norfolk, Va. 

M. S. Montgomery has been appointed road foreman of 
engines of the Northern Pacific with office at Duluth, Minn. 

W. V. Wicks has been appointed road foreman of engines of 
the Northern Pacific with office at Jamestown, X. D. 

S. Olsox, general shop foreman of the Oregon Short Line, has 
been transferred from Ogden, Utah, to Pocatello, Ida. 

J. E. Stoxe has been appointed general shop foreman of the 
Oregon Short Line at Ogden, Utah. 

J. M. Hexry, as announced in our last issue, has been ap- 
pointed superintendent of motive power of the western Pennsyl- 
vania division of the Pennsylvania. Mr. Henry was born in 
Altoona, Pa., October 10, 1S73. He graduated from Purdue 
University, and started work for the Pennsylvania in 1889, as 
messenger. He worked as machinist in the Altoona machine shops 
during his vacations while at college, and after he graduated, 
in 1900, he went to work as machinist. He was made inspector 
in 1901 and in 1902 was made assistant engineer of motive 
power in the office of the superintendent of motive power on the 
old Philadelphia and Erie railroad. He was appointed master 
mechanic in 1903, and served in that capacity on the Elniira, 
Eastern, Willi amsport, Buffalo and Philadelphia Terminal divi- 
sions. He was promoted to superintendent of motive power on 
December 1. 1913. 

J. D. Wallex has been appointed car shop foremau of the 

Pennsylvania at Oil City, Pa., succeeding J. F. Lichtenfels. 

W. C. Lixder succeeds J. E. Buff as ear shop foreman of the 
Pennsylvania at Shire Oaks, Pa. 

A. H. Shoup has been appointed car shop foreman of the 
Pennsylvania at Cresson, Pa. He succeeds D. Hengstler. 

J.. J. Deitche has been appointed general foreman of the Pere 
Marquette at Chicago succeeding E. W. Hartough. 

F. J. Harper has been appointed traveling piece work inspector 
of St. Louis 4' San Francisco with headquarters at Springfield, Mo. 

J. M. Davis, general superintendent of the Southern Pacific at 
San Francisco, has resigned, effective January 1. It is said that 
he will become general manager of an eastern road. 

J. OToxxor has been appointed master mechanic of the 
statoi Island Eapicl Transit, with headquarters at Clifton, N. Y. 
The position of assistant master mechanic has been abobshed. 

M. Merrymax lias been appointed general storekeeper of the 
Western Maryland, with office at Hagerstown, Mil. 


A. B. Phillips, general foreman of the Denver 4' Bio Grande, 
at Salt Lake City, Utah, died on December 6. 

D. A. Joxes, president of the Mississippi Eiver 4" Bonne Terre, 
died on December 7 at St. Louis, Mo. 

B. Boutet, assistant interchange inspector at Cincinnati, died 
on November 15. 1913. He was a brother of Henry Boutet. 

J. W. Thomas, Jr., president and general manager of the 
Xashville, Chattanooga 4' St. Louis, died on December 17, at 
Nashville, Tenn. He was 57 years of age. Death was due to 

mang^fe ISI&nufacturens 


The Delaware. Lackawanna & Western has recently installed in 
its Kiser Valley shops at Staunton, Pa., a Chicago Pneumatic 
2.500-foot, two-stage compressor, equipped with Corliss cross com- 
pound steam cylinders and designed for the highest steam economy 
and resulting minimum fuel consumption. 

The illustration shows the compressor on the testing floor of 
the Franklin, Pa., shops of the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co., it 
being the practice of the company to completely assemble and 
thoroughly test all machines previous to shipment. 

This unit has steam cylinders 19 in. and 31 in. in diameter, re- 
spectively, for the H.P. and L.P., the L.P. air cylinder being 28 
in. and the H.P. 17 in. in diameter, with a common stroke of 26 in., 
the free air displacement being 2.500 cu. ft. per minute at 135 
R.P.M.. which is the maximum speed for which the air and steam 
valves and parts are designed. Steam and exhaust valves are of 
the Corliss type, operated by a simple system of links connected to 
wrist plates, which in turn are driven from eccentrics on the crank 

shaft, the entire valve gearing of the machine being simplified 
as far as possible or practicable and operating quietly at the 
highest speeds. 

Variable delivery of air to meet the demands is at all times 
provided for the application of a sensitive speed governor and 
air pressure regulator operating on the steam valve gear to mo- 
mentarily change the point of cut off by a sufficient amount to 
allow the compressor to assume the speed to correspond to the air 
load. As this load is constant per stroke the M.E.P. and conse- 
quently the point of cut off at the steam end is practically con- 
stant regardless of the speed this gives an opportunity for the em- 
ployment of compound cylinders exactly proportioned for the 
steam conditions, and permitting of economies far exceeding those 
of constant speed engines. 

A minimum power consumption is obtained by a carefully de- 
signed air end. which, as shown in the illustration, includes a very 
large intercooler. through the employment of which air is deliv- 
ered to the H.P. cylinder at very nearly the temperature of the 
atmosphere, this being the ideal condition in the economical com- 
pression of air. 

Friction losses in this type of % compressor are reduced to a 
minimum, due to the employment of large pins and bearings 
throughout, the maintenance of perfect alignment through the 
use of continuous sole plates beneath the cylinders, the exclusion 
of dust and dirt by the enclosed construction, and particularly to 
the unexcelled system of positive lubricating at all speed--. 

Heavy Cross Compound Two-Stage Compressor. 


Although the vacuum cleaner has proved itself a valuable piece 
of apparatus in the home, it is a device which proves especially 
adaptable for the cleaning of railway coaches. The Thurman 
Vacuum Cleaner Co., St. Louis, Mo., has placed on the market 
a combined compressed air and vacuum method of cleaning which 
is an improvement on the straight vacuum method. When the 
car has reached the terminal yard, a hose from the yard air 
line is taken into the car and attached to the dust tank shown 



January, 1914 

in the illustration. This tank can easily be carried by one 
man and it therefore requires but 25 feet of one inch 
vacuum hose. 

The compressed air is first used to blow cinders and dust 
out of the crevices as the vacuum tools cannot reach them in 
out of the way corners. After this work is done the compressed 
air hose is attached to the vacuum producer and the cushions, 
bedding and floors are cleaned by suction. The cost of the 
apparatus is low and the equipment includes all tools necessary 
to properly clean passenger cars. 

The "type A" outfit is made of pressed steel in two parts, to 
which is attached the aspirator or vacuum producing apparatus. 
The aspirator has an orifice Ys" in diameter, through which the 
compressed air passes and produces a large inrush of air with at 
least 12 inches of vacuum mercury column. The dust screening 
apparatus on the inside of this tank consists of a novel arrange- 
ment of the cloth so as to get a large area in a small space. The 
tank is emptied from a screw hand hold at the bottom. The bul- 
letins explain how the system works. A compressed air supply of 
from 60 to 75 pounds is ample, about 20 cu. ft. per minute being 
required for each cleaner. 

On many interurban electric lines the air supply is obtained 
from the air brake pump when the car is in the terminal; while 
on steam roads, the air supply is obtained from the pipe line in 
the terminal yards. 

The Chicago & Alton, Louisville & Nashville, Grand Trunk 
Pacific and some other roads have been using these devices for 
about five years. On the Chicago & Alton, at the St. Louis yards, 
it is claimed that one man can clean fourteen regular passenger 
coaches per day. The system is also in use on the Wheeling and 
Lake Erie, Delaware & Hudson, M. K. & T., Imperial Railways of 
Russia, International Sleeping Car Company, Paris, France, and 
many other roads in this country and Europe. 


A gasoline motor car for railway passenger service, a number 
of which have been in successful operation for several years, 
is shown in the accompanying illustrations. 

The car is radically different in design from others which 
are manufactured commercially in that, while direct mechanical 
drive is employed, the engine is mounted on the car body and 
is not subjected to the more or less severe vibration of the trucks. 

The automobile principle of transmission is employed as will 
be seen by inspection of the drawing. The drive consists of a 
steel shafting in two sections running directly from the gasoline 
engine to the transmission on rear truck. The first portion of 
this shafting is suspended between two 7" I beams running 
entire length of car, and is supported upon babbitted journal 
boxes, which in turn are securely bolted to the 7" members. The 
second section is a short shaft with toggle and slip joints at 
either end to take care of the side, and up and down motion 
of the truck. This shafting and toggle joints are of such heavy 
construction as to allow of continuous service without attention, 
excepting to keep shaft boxes and joints filled with grease. 

Connection between the engine and shafting is by means of a 
split, steel baud clutch lined with a non-burn material, located 

Compressed Air- Vacuum Car Cleaner Operating on Car Seats. 

in an accessible position in engine room, and actuating upon a 
cast steel pulley. Clutch operation is by hand or foot lever, 
allows of absolute clearance of the band when in release position 
without drag, a maximum amount of slip without burning, and a 
positive lock when thrown into holding position. 

Connection between the shaft and driving axle is by means 
of an axle mounted transmission, allowing of four selective type 
speed changes, in either direction, without reversal of the engine. 
The transmission is built up of three east steel casings securely 
bolted together, of a design to allow of easy access to the driving 
gears. The transmission is suspended upon the front axle of 
rear truck in the same manner as found in electric motor axle 
suspension, with journal boxes cast integral with the steel case 
and removable journal brasses. The third point of suspension is 
by steel nose support resting upon hardened flat steel members. 
The spur and bevel gears used in transmission are cut from 
high carbon cast steel or steel forgings, as has been found best 
suited to their position and the work imposed upon them, heat 
treated and hardened. The transmission drive shafts are ma- 
chined from solid billets of forged steel and heat treated. These 
shafts are supported at ends in roller bearings. All of the drive 
gears run in a bath of oil, the case being oil tight and dust 

Following is a table showing conservative figuring covering the 
cost of operating Hall-Scott type M-6, 150 H.P. gasoline motor car 

1*1 I. Ill' H IU \ 





< <l W I' V \ N 

Hall-Scott Composite Motor Car. 

January, 1914 



Hall-Scott Motor Car With Trailer. 

equipment, using distillate for fuel: 

Cost per mile for distillate $0,023 

(Figuring distillate at 8c per gallon, and operation of 
three miles on one gallon.) 

Cost per mile for lubricating oil 008 

(Figuring lubricating oil at 40c per gallon.) 

Cost per mile for operators 044 

(Figuring salaries to conductor and motorman at $200.00 
per month.) 

Cost per mile repairs and renewals 010 

(Figuring $50.00 per month for all repairs and renewals 
to car body, trucks, and power plant.) 

Cost per mile for depreciation 025 

(Figuring 10 per cent per year on cost of car at $14,000.) 

Total operative cost $0.11 

It is especially noteworthy that this four speed change trans- 
mission allows of a remarkable flexibility in control, the handling 
of a heavy tonnage of rolling stock in yard switching, handling 
trailers over grades, and other heavy work which has heretofore 
been thought impossible for the motor car, and at the same time 
provides a high gear ratio so that the car may be operated at a 
high speed for level track work. 

The car bodies are constructed according to the specifications 
of the railway companies and the cars are entirely built in the 
shops of the Hall-Scott Motor Car Co., which are located at 
West Berkeley, Calif. The offices of the company are in the 
Crocker Bldg., San Francisco, Calif. 

and when to this feature is added in combination self -oiling bear- 
ings, replaceable handles and removable bushings or bearings, 
the result would justify the claim of the manufacturer that 
nothing has been left undone to reach the ideal of truck con- 

The St. Louis Truck & Manufacturing Company is offering 24 
standard models of 2-wheel trucks and 30 standard models of 
4-wheel trucks that embody these important features. The nose- 
piece and side bars are forged in one piece of open hearth steel, 
thereby forming one solid frame, having no welds to weaken and 
break under load and no bolts to loosen. The crossbars are made 
of high carbon angle steel hung over sides of truck frame and 
riveted to it, and form a pocket for the short wooden handlebars. 
These wooden handlebars are held in place without being bolted 
or drilled, thus getting the full strength of the fibre of the wood 
and absorbing the vibration of the truck before it is communi- 
cated to the hands of the operator. The pedestals are provided 
with removable bushings or bearings, and the entire truck is so 
constructed as to provide for iustantaneous repair with the use 
of a wrench only, and without putting it out of service for a 

These trucks are in service on many railroads, and are being 
marketed through the Kelly-Derby Company, Chicago, and The 
Van Nest Company. Xew York City. 


The manifest superiority of steel trucks for heavy warehouse 
duty as compared to those made of wood has been demonstrated. 


In the running gear of a locomotive the necessity for reliability 
in the fastenings of the rods, is, of course, paramount. The Grip 
Nut Company, in the development of a knuckle pin nut has been 
subjected to criticism, but the experience of such railways as have 

Plan and Elevation of the Chassis of the Hall-Scott Motor Car. Showing Power Plant and Transmission Arrangement. 



January, 1914 

All Steel Trucks. 

adopted the grip nut for application to the pins has been such as 
to dispel all fear of its failure. 

One road has had its engines equipped with grip nuts in this 
application for more than a year, and the advisability of the 
practice was determined after numerous experiments, the success 
of which removed all doubt as to the safety of the equipment. 
It is stated that twelve railways now have from one to fifteen 
engines, each, so equipped. 

Grip Nut Designed for Locomotive Knuckle Pins. 

The nut as designed for knuckle pins is illustrated herewith. 
In application it is set up ayainst a thin nut of standard thread. 
While it is not necessary to jam the nut in turning it on, the rail- 
ways in some cases have made this the practice. The resistance 
to removal is so great in either case that there can be no chance 
foi it- working off with the vibration of the moving parts. 

^fi^Sellingf >Side 


Edward l\ Williams, formerly disbursing officer of the Panama 
Canal and treasurer of the Canal Zone, has been elected treasurer 
of Mc< lord & Co. 

The Railroad Wateb & Coal Handling Co. has been formed, 
with offices at 537 South Dearborn street, Chicago. The officers are: 
M. D. Miller, president; T. S. Leake, vice-president, and W. F. 
Leake, secretary and treasurer. Each of the officers has had a 
large amount of railroad experience. Mr. Miller having had twenty- 
six years' experience in railroad water service; T. S. Leake thirty- 
three years ' experience with buildings and coal chutes, and W. P. 
Leake twenty-two years' experience with buildings. The firm 
will construct water and coaling stations, make investigations con- 

cerning water supply, design treating plants and handle a general 
line of pipe and fittings, water tanks, gas engines and pumps. 

R. E. Derby has severed his connection with the Kelly-Derby 
Co., Chicago, and will engage in another line of business. 

W. A. Allen, formerly with the Carnegie Steel Co., has been em- 
ployed as commercial engineer for the R. D. Nuttall Company. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Robert M. Smith, formerly general sales manager of Mudge & 
Co., has opened a sales agency in New York City. 

L. M. Wood has accepted a position as sales manager of the 
Menominee Elec. Mfg. Co., Menominee, Mich., manufacturers 
of fans, vacuum cleaners and small motors. He was formerly 
with the Wesco Supply Co. 

T. A. Griffin, president of the Griffin Wheel Company, Chi- 
cago, has been elected chairman of the board of directors, and 
W. H. Snedaker, local manager of the company's plant at Tacoma, 
Wash:, has been elected a vice-president, with office at Tacoma. 

F. L. Whitcomb has been elected president of the Griffin Wheel 
Co., with office at Chicago, 111., succeeding Thomas A. Griffin. Mr. 
Whitcomb was born at Worcester, Mass., and was connected with 
a wool house in Boston from 1882 to 1884. Later he engaged in the 
boot and shoe business at Cleveland, 0. From 1886 to 1888, he was 
in the purchasing department of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa 
Fe at Topeka and Chicago. He has been with the Griffin Wheel 
Co. since 1888 and was general sales agent until 1909. In 
1909 he was elected vice president, which position he held until 
his recent appointment. 

The American Mason Safety Tread Company, of Boston, was 
awarded a gold medal at the International Exposition of Safety 
and Sanitation, held during December in the Grand Central 
Palace, New York City. 

The Pittsburgh Steel Products Co., of Pittsburgh, Pa., has 
opened an office at 1933 Railway Exchange Building, St. Louis, 
Mo. It will be in charge of A. F. McCoole, manager of sales, 
and C. F. Palmer, supervisor. 

The Solvay Process Co. has moved its New York office from 
100 William street to the 42nd Street building, Madison avenue 
and 42nd street. 

J. W. Hibbard, treasurer of the Grip Nut Company, with 
office at 500 Fifth avenue, New York, retired from the business 
of that company on November 1 and is taking advantage of this 
opportunity to take a much-needed rest and will spend a year 
or two in travel in an endeavor to improve his health. 

T. N. Jacob, of East St. Louis, 111., the chief engineer of the 
East Side Levee and Sanitary District of that city, from its 
organization, has resigned to engage in private practice, with 
office at the Cahokia building, East St. Louis, 111. 

The Railway Utility Company. Chicago, has discontinued its 
branch office in Vancouver, B. C. 

The Hyman-Michaels Company of Chicago has secured a con- 
tract for 300 tons of 80 pound rails to be used in the concrete 
construction of the U. S. sub-treasury vaults now being built at 
San Francisco. This firm makes a specialty of taking railway 
scrap material and putting it into shape in its own plant. The 
plant is completely equipped with cranes, acetylene cutting appa- 
ratus and shears, and recently a standard inspection bureau has 
been installed in connection with the rail department. The 
1 1 yman -Michaels Company is composed of the Block interests of 
the Block-Pollak Iron Co. 

John P. Xeff has been elected a vice-president of the American 
Arch Co. Mr. Xeff was born at La Fontaine, Ind., May 2. 1>74. 
In 1S95 he was graduated from the mechanical engineering de- 
partment of Purdue University and entered the service of the 
Chicago & North Western as a special apprentice. During the 
greater part of his special apprenticeship he was in charge of the 
locomotive testing plant where a very considerable amount of re- 
search work was being carried on. Following this he served as a 
machinist; assistant roundhouse foreman at Chicago; division 
foreman of the motive power department at Waseca, Minn., Octo- 
ber, 1899, to May, 1901 ; master mechanic at Huron, S. D., May. 

January, 1914 




Alan Lichtenhein. 

Ralph G. Coburn. 

1901. to September, 1902; master mechanic of the Western Iowa 
division, with headquarters at Boone, Iowa. September, 1902, to 
July. 1904. In 1904 he left railroad service to take a position as 
engineer of tests of the American Locomotive Equipment Com- 
pany. In 1906 he was made mechanical engineer of that com- 
pany, and succeeded to a similar position with the American Arch 
Company when it was formed in 1910. In March, 1912, he was 
made assistant to the president of the American Arch Company, 
which position he held until his recent election as vice-president. 

Frank A. Purdy, who was recently appointed sales manager of 
the Gold Car Heating & Lighting Company, and the Canadian 
Gold Car Heating & Lighting Company, joined the sales force 
of the former concern in 1905. When the latter company was 
organized, January 1, 1907, he was appointed its manager and 
has held that position until his recent promotion. 

William L. Allison has been elected a vice-president of the 
American Arch Co. Mr. Allison was born near Salisbury. X. C . 
March 20, 1876. He was educated at the Davis Military School, 
Winston-Salem, X. C. and received a United States Military 
Academy appointment, but did not graduate. He entered the 
government service as United States deputy marshal, which posi- 
tion he held for three and a half years. From March, 1898. to 
January, 1904, he was employed by the Baldwin Locomotive Works 
in various capacities, the last year of his service with that com- 
pany being as engineer of tests. From January, 1904. to August, 
1909. lie was mechanical engineer of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa 

Fe. witli headquarters at Chicago. In 1909 he became identified 
with the Franklin Railway Supply Co.. and for two years was 
mechanical manager, with office at Xew York. Since that time 
he has been western sales manager, with office at Chicago, and has 
also been western sales manager of the Rome Merchant Iron Mills 
and the Economy Devices Corporation, and general western sales 
manager of the American Arch Co. 

Walter H. Coyle has been elected second vice-president of the 
Franklin Railway Supply Co. Mr. Coyle was born at Salamanca, 
X. Y.. December 27, 187S. Four years later his family removed 
to Meadville. Pa., and Mr. Coyle was educated in the public schools 
of that place. After leaving school he was for eleven years in 
the service of the Erie Eailroad in various capacities in the 
mechanical and traffic departments. In January, 1905, he became 
identified with the Kent Manufacturing Co., Kent, Ohio, and in 
June of the same year entered the mechanical department of the 
Franklin Railway Supply Co., with headquarters at Franklin, Pa. 
In June. 1911, he was made assistant to the vice-president, with 
headquarters at Xew York, and was placed in charge of the sales 
department of the central territory, which position he held until 
his election as second vice-president, as noted above. 

Ralph G. Coburn has been appointed eastern sales manager of 
the Franklin Railway Supply Co., with headquarters at New York. 
Mr. Coburn was born at Boston in 1882. He graduated from 
Harvard in 1904. and entered the service of the American Glue 
Co. He remained with that company about four years, being 

J. P. Neff. 

Frank A. Purdy. 

Walter H. Coyle. 



January, 1914 

in charge of its western factories and having his headquarters at 
Des Moines, Iowa, and Chicago. On May 1, 1909, he opened the 
Chicago office of the Franklin Bailway Supply Co., as resident 
sales manager. On June 1, 1911, he was made assistant to the 
vice-president, in charge of eastern-southern territory, with head- 
quarters at New York, which position he held until his appoint- 
ment as eastern sales manager. 

Alan Lichtenhein has been promoted to Canadian sales man- 
ager of the Franklin Bailway Supply Co., with office at New York. 
Mr. Lichtenhein was born May 24, 1887, and is a graduate of 
both Williams College and the Harvard Law School. Upon the 
death of his father, who for many years occupied a very promi- 
nent position in the Canadian railway supply field, he entered the 
service of the Franklin Railway Supply Co. in Canada, and now 
succeeds to his father's position in charge of Canadian sales of 
that company. 

E. M. Chadwick, formerly with the Fairbanks Co., has been 
appointed manager of the Buffalo branch of Manning, Maxwell & 
Moore, railway and machinists' tools and supplies and electric 
traveling cranes; and D. A. Hamilton, formerly with the Beed 
Prentice Company, of Worcester, Mass., has been appointed 
assistant at Manning, Maxwell & Moore's Detroit branch. 

At the First International Exposition of Safety and Sanitation, 

Frank M. Gilmore. 

held recently in New York, the American Abrasive Metals Com- 
pany was awarded a gold medal diploma for its Feralun Safety 
Treads which have extensive uses for anti-slip surfaces where 
people must walk. 


Frank M. Gilmore, president of the E. D. E. Co., died at his 
home in Chicago on December 18, of Bright 's disease. Mr. Gil- 
more was born 49 years ago, at Boston, Mass., but had made 
his home in Chicago for the past 22 years. A considerable 
portion of this time was spent with H. W. Johns-Manville Co. 
About two years ago he left this firm to organize the E. D. E. 
Co., dealing in car insulation and refrigerator car specialties. 
He was well known in the railway field, especially through the 
South and Southwest, where he traveled for many years while 
with the H. W. Johns-Manville Co. His death was sudden and 
his many friends will greatly miss him. 

Bobert C. Totten, president of the Nickel Chrome Chilled Car 
Wheel Co., has passed away. Mr. Totten was born in Pitts- 
burgh on January 6, 1833, and lived in that city most of his 
life. His father was one of the earliest founders in Pittsburgh 
and organized the old Fort Pitt Foundry. In 1850, Mr. Totten, 
at the age of 17 years, entered the foundry and continued in 
that business until about 1891. Since that time he had been 

engaged to a greater or less degree in the study of metallurgy, 
in connection with improvements in chilled iron castings. 

Edward L. Adreon, SR., vice-president of the American Brake 
Co., died at his home in St. Louis on- December 29. Death was 
sudden and was due to the bursting of a blood vessel in the 
stomach. Grief over the recent death of his son, E. L. Adreon, Jr., 
undoubtedly had affected him also. 

Mr. Adreon was born in St. Louis on December 23, 1847, and 
was educated at Wyman's St. Louis University. He entered the 

E. L. Adreon. Sr. 

office of the comptroller of the city of St. Louis in 1865 and re- 
mained there twenty years, being twice elected to the office of 
comptroller during the period from 1877 to 1885. From April, 
1887, to 1910 he was vice president and general manager of the 
American Brake Co., and since that time has been vice president 
of the company. Since 1888 he has also been southwestern man- 
ager of the Westinghouse Air Brake Co. 

In the past he has held the following offices: Secretary and 
treasurer, Westinghouse Automatic Air & Steam Coupler Co.; 
director, Adreon & Co.; president, Bailway Supply Manufacturers' 
Association; president, Emery Pneumatic Lubricator Co.; vice 
president and director, Broadway Savings & Trust Co. He was a 
member of the following organizations: Business Men's League, 
Manufacturers' Association, Latin-American Club, St. Louis Be- 
publican Club, Noonday Club, Mercantile Club, St. Louis Club, 
Missouri Athletic Club, Adirondack League, Sons of the American 
Bevolution, St. Louis Railway Club, Aero Club, Air Brake Asso- 
ciation, Masons, A. O. U. W., and Legion of Honor. 

Mr. Adreon combined in a most eminent degree the qualities 
necessary to the successful manager. In addition to his thorough- 
ness, his insistence on prompt and correct work, he had the human 
qualities that endeared him to his subordinates — geniality, kind- 
ness, magnanimity. He inspired them with enthusiasm and loy- 
alty, and there are few if any managers who have been able to 
get out of their employees so much work done in the same devoted 
spirit. They might not have done it for an impersonal company, 
but they did it gladly out of their personal regard for Mr. Adreon. 
His dealings with the patrons of the company were always marked 
by fairness and liberality, and the good impression thus made on 
the railroad and locomotive companies of the country has been a 
business asset beyond computation. Without in the least dis- 
paraging the able labors of others, it must be set down as a fact 
that to Mr. Adreon more than to any one man is due the success 
and present high standing of the American Brake Co. For a 
quarter of a century he was with it as its guiding spirit; to it he 
gave the best endeavors of his life, and it stands a living monu- 
ment to his genius, energy and devotion. 

February, 1914 




The World's Greatest Railway Mechanical Journal 

Published at the World's Greatest Railway Center 

Established 1878 


WILLIAM E. MAGRAW. Pres. and Treas. 
CHAS. S. MYERS, Vice-Pres. L. F. WILSON, V. P. & Editorial Director 


J. M. CROWE, Mgr. Central Dial. KENNETH L. VAN AUKEN, Editor 

DALTON R1SLEY, West. Mgr. 

Office of Publication : Manhattan Building, Chicago 

Telephone, Harrison 4948 
Eastern Office: So Church Street, New York 

Telephone, Cortlandt 5765 

Central Office: House Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Address all editorial and business communications to the Com- 
pany, at Chicago. 

A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, car equipment, 

shops, machinery and supplies. 
Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are solicited. 
Subscription price, $2.00 a year; to foreign countries, $2.50, free of 

postage. Single copies, 20 cents. Advertising rates given on 

application to the office, by mail or in person. 

In remitting, make all checks payable to The Railway List Company. 

Papers should reach subscribers by the 16th of the month at the 
latest. Kindly notify us at once of any delay or failure to 
receive any issue and another copy will be very gladly sent. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter June 18, 1895, at the Post Office 
at Chicago, Illinois, Under Act of March 3, 1879. 

Vol. XXXVIII Chicago, February, 1914 No. 2 

Editorial — 

Locomotives Tests in Service 41 

Train Handling 41 

Industrial Railways 42 

Keeping on the Subject 42 

Statistics for Mechanical Officials 43 

Twenty Years Ago This Month 43 

Compensation of Labor on British and American Railways 43 

Statistics for Mechanical Officials 45 

40-Ton Electric Locomotive, G. P. & H. Railway 47 

Brake Cylinder Head Holder 47 

Locomotives in England in 1913 48 

Large Sectional Firebox 49 

Conservation of Natural Resources Through the Electrification 

of Railways 50 

Reinforcing Wooden Box Cars 54 

Freight Train Handling 55 

Replacing the Vacuum 59 

Leverage Applied to a Fire Door 59 

Tire Turning Test 60 

Tender Derailments 61 

Increasing Shop Output 62 

The Freight Car Question 63 

Shops Kinks. Canadian Northern Ry 65 

Method of Lagging Boilers 66 

A Modern Car Repair Shop 67 

Electric Locomotive Equipment Design 69 

Handy Tool Wagon for Thermit Work 70 

Gauge for Setting Eccentrics 71 

The General Foremen's Association 73 

Man Failure 73 

Wheel Sliding 74 

A Useful Document 75 

"Safety First" on the Grand Trunk 75 

Pennsylvania Lunch Car 75 

Making Car Men Efficient by "Vocational Instruction 76 

Upsetting Locomotive Drawbars 77 

Safety in Pennsylvania Shops 77 

New Books 77 

Personals 79 

Among the Manufacturers 80 

Planer Installation. Burnside Shops, I. C. R. R 80 

Motor Driven Mud-Ring and Flue Sheet Drill 81 

High Speed Hack Saw 82 

Adjustable Spacing Collar 82 

Ralco Plug and Receptacle 83 

Wine Socket Washer for Grab Irons 83 

Galvanized Steel "Wire Hose Bands 83 

Non-Strain Eye Protectors 83 

New Literature 84 

The Selling Side '.'.'.'. 85 

Obituary 86 

Locomotive Tests in Service. 

The tests of locomotives as run on testing plants have 
resulted in the obtaining of much valuable data which has 
assisted in the improvement of design. Many of these tests 
are laboratory experiments and could be carried on nowhere 
else. But others are such as could be carried on while the 
locomotive is in service, and certain of them could be made 
perpetual. In the efforts for economy in fuel, firemen have 
been instructed as to best methods in performing their duties, 
but it is impossible to produce absolute and * indisputable 
evidence that certain methods are economy-producing ones and 
not simple hobbies of persons in authority, unless the coal is 
checked carefully at both ends of the trip, and even then 
unequal conditions may be found in explanation of results good 
or bad. 

In large power plants an absolute check on firemen is obtained 
through an analysis of the stack gases; this being made a con- 
tinuous process. At first thought such a system would seem 
impractical of application to locomotives. By means of a 
simple outfit, however, a sample of the front end gases can be 
obtained in such a manner as to form an average for the trip. 
An equally simple analyzer installed in the roundhouse can then 
be used to show the results of the trip in the nature of the" 
gases passed off. This system gives an absolute check upon 
the results of different methods of firing and, by comparison, 
upon each fireman. Moreover, it produces the evidence which 
obviates argument. The results of the analysis may be posted 
daily and a rivalry among firemen thus created. Where poor 
results are consistently obtained from man or machine the 
trouble can be easily located and corrective measures immedi- 
ately applied. 

In the operation of mechanically fired or oil-burning engines, 
the system above mentioned would be of great value in making 
adjustments of the apparatus. It would also produce evidence 
as to the condition of arches, tubes and front end apparatus 
in all cases. 

It is, in brief, not at all improbable that certain tests of this 
nature are too generally considered as practical only in the 
testing plant in comparing and improving designs for new 
power, whereas they could often be used in raising and main- 
taining standards of economical operation. 

Train Handling. 

All railways which have for the past few years kept pace 
with the times in the adoption of heavier power each year have 
met with serious embarrassments, in the handling of the conse- 
quent long trains. Draft gear troubles have increased alarm- 
ingly and the handling of trains by engine crews has neces- 
sarily been placed under much closer supervision than in the 
past. One of the difficulties of the situation, however, seems 
to lie in the fact that there are few who can be found to 
supervise properly. The problems of both air brake and draft 
gear manufacturers in developing equipment to stand the rough 
handling of trains by enginemen who cannot understand or 
will not work according to the rules of good practice, are 
impossible of solution. 

A paper covering this subject was read by F. B. Parmer 
before the Western Eailway Club on January 19. In the paper 
Mr. Farmer has presented suggestions and rules governing the 



February, 1914 

operation of long freight trains, "which have been found to work 
very satisfactorily. He places emphasis upon the importance 
of calling for detailed reports of each break-in-two from both 
engineman and conductor, and presents forms for these reports. 
The paper is published in abstract on another page of this issue. 
By calling for detailed reports from the enginemen, Mr. Farmer 
hopes to impress upon them a sense of responsibility not other- 
wise felt. 

There can be no doubt that the frequence of recurrence of 
break-in-two troubles may well be viewed with alarm, and 
unless definite action is taken in reducing their frequency the 
further increase in the length of trains and consequently in 
the development of heavier power will be considered imprac- 
ticable. Those lines which make a practice of refusing to 
haul small and light cars are not free from trouble of this kind, 
and it might be safely stated that draft gear damage is not 
greatly reduced. There is a logical reason for this — a combina- 
tion of faulty inspection and careless handling will destroy the 
best of draft gear even if it does no worse. 

Enginemen must be shown wherein their methods are wrong 

and by actual demonstration. And it is an unfortunate fact 
that, owing to the rapid strides in the design of heavier pt . er, 
there are not enough skilled demonstrators. This may be 
illustrated by the experience of a certain large road which 
required reports from enginemen and which was consequently 
attributing about 90 per cent of its break-in-two troubles to 
burst air hose. That was the notation on each report. And 
until it was demonstrated by a bright young road foreman 
that a burst air hose need never cause a break-in-two, this 
excuse was accepted. In proving his point this man hauled 
many long freight trains without draft gear trouble even when 
faulty air hose frequently set the train brakes. His alertness 
in promptly shutting off steam and lapping the engineer's 
valve when he felt the drag of an unexpected application inva- 
riably saved breaking in two. Thereafter the officers of this 
road refused to accept the "burst hose" excuse. 

Another excuse, frequently given by enginemen who are 
required to make out reports, is faulty inspection which allows 
him to leave a terminal with draft gear which has previously 
been damaged. This excuse is now no longer accepted on the 
above-mentioned road. Incoming as well as outgoing trains are 
"stretched" by clubbing a few brakes at the rear end and 
working the locomotive. "Long necks" are located and the 
damage can thus be charged to the crew which brought the 
train in or to the switching crow which handled it, as the test 
may show. If no "long necks" are allowed in an outbound 
train, a break-in-two cannot be charged to previously defective 
draft gear. Another advantage which is gained by stretching 
outbound trains before leaving the terminal is that of locating 
serious air leaks which are not evident until the slack is pulled 
out. In cold weather the rubber of the hose and connection 
gasket is stiffened and when the train has stood for some time 
with the slack "bunched" an attempt to pull out will develop 
leaks which will cause the brakes to set after the train has 
perhaps traveled for some distance. If the slack is pulled out 
against hand brakes tightly set at the rear end and then an 
inspection is made the leaks can be located by the same inspec- 
tion that locates "long necks." 

If enginemen are, in standard practice, to make out detailed 

reports it is necessary, if proper- results be obtained, that they 
shall be studied by men who are qualified to actually demonstrate 
where the excuses are not acceptable and to teach better 

Industrial Railways. 

The American people are as a class fair minded and the 
methods used by the daily press in treating certain subjects often 
causes doubt in the mind of the thinking man as to its proper 
representation of the public in this country. Those associated with 
the railways probably have more reason than those associated with 
any other industries to wonder at the attitude of the press in 
treating upon subjects which concern the railways. 

It is only recently that articles appeared simultaneously in 
the leading daily papers of the country to the effect that several 
of our largest systems have been caught in a species of "re- 
bating. ' ' It would not be surprising, if it were possible to know, 
if hundreds of thousands of minds had formed the opinion, based 
upon these items, that the railways are still open to criticism with 
respect to such matters. 

It is only in later issues of these same newspapers, if at all, 
that it is explained that the railways themselves instigated an 
investigation on the part of the Interstate Commerce Commission 
into the particular species of rebating above referred to. It is- 
well known among business men that the larger industrial con- 
cerns have built and maintained their own railways for the pur- 
pose of obtaining allowances from the large railway systems in 
the form of switching charges and per diem rates on cars. The 
advantages of this practice on the part of large manufacturers 
have been so great as to encourage a very large increase in the 
number of railway companies incorporated to operate plant tracks 
and locomotives, and have led to a situation which has become 
embarrassing in several respects. 

The Pennsylvania, the New York Central, the Baltimore & Ohio 
and the Erie have filed briefs on this subject with the Interstate 
Commerce Commission for the purpose of obtaining a ruling as to- 
the legality of the practice, and it is probable, as a result, that 
all allowances for the performance of this class of service will be 
abolished. There was absolutely no secrecy about any phase of 
the subject, as has been publicly stated by Samuel Eea, president 
of the Pennsylvania system. It is plain to see, therefore, that 
another grave injustice has been done the railways generally by the 
method used by the daily press in handling the subject. The 
probable outcome of the matter will be the disbandment of most 
of the railway corporations formed for the purpose of operating 
manufacturing plant tracks, as there will be no further incentive 
for their existence. 

Keeping on the Subject. 

Within a few months the open season for railway conventions 
will be with us again. Men from every department of railway 
activity will journey to various meetings to obtain new ideas, 
to get inspiration and to make new friends. AYithout doubt the 
man who conscientiously attends the sessions of his association 
is going to be a more valuable man for the railway company, and 
those at the heads of mechanical departments should encourage 
attendance on the part of their men. 

However, it frequently happens that those who take part in 
the discussions are so full of ideas that quite often they wander 

February. 1914 



away from the subject which is under discussion. In order that 
a convention may obtain the greatest amount of good out of its 
proceedings, the members should be required to confine them- 
selves strictly to the subject before the house. Those who are 
to preside at meetings during the coming summer can do a great 
deal to make the sessions of their respective associations of greater 
value by insisting that one subject be handled at a time. 

Not only do individuals have a tendency to stray away from 
the subject, but the associations as a whole occasionally do the 
same thing. The committee on subjects can do a great deal of 
good in many cases by seeing to it that the association itself 
sticks to the subject to which it is devoted. Criticism has some- 
times been directed at some associations because the subjects 
taken up were outside of or beyond their field, and frequently 
the criticism has been justified. It is indeed very proper for men 
to study problems with which they may come in contact in the 
future, but this should be done outside of an organization which 
is devoted to the work of a particular set of men. Let subject 
committees consider first just who are members of the associa- 
tion and what they are doing — then go ahead and decide on sub- 
jects in which they are directly interested every day in the year. 

enfq^ans y^o This Montii 

Statistics for Mechanical Officials. 

We present on another page an interesting article on ' ' Sta- 
tistics for Mechanical Officials," by Ernest Cordeal. It is true, 
as stated in the article, that ' f if a high degree of efficiency is 
to be maintained in the operation of a railroad, the mechanical 
department must bear the largest share in its accomplishment." 
In no department can statistics and records be used to such good 
advantage as in the mechanical department, for it in reality is 
the manufacturing end of railroading. 

However, statistics are not of very great value to the busy 
superintendent of motive power unless they are put into such 
shape that he can tell at a glance, almost, how his costs, perform- 
ances, etc., are running. A diagram will convey more to the 
mind in a minute than the actual figures will convey in fifteen. 
Mr. Cordeal gives a number of interesting points with regard to 
the form of chart adapted to convey the information quickly and 

Eepresentatives of Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co. of New 
York, who built the Orient railroad shops at Wichita, Kan., are 
drawing plans for increasing the capacity of the shops. The 
present shops now employ 200 men and if enlarged under the 
plans now being made, the payroll would provide for 1,800 men. 

The Oregon-Washington Eailroad & Navigation Co. will ask 
for bids for a $575,000 steel swing bridge across the city water- 
way at Tacoma, Wash. 

The Pennsylvania Lines West are considering plans for grade 
crossing elimination at Lima, O. 

The Seaboard Air Line will soon begin work on important ter- 
minal improvements at Savannah, Ga., which, it is said, will in- 
volve an expenditure of $500,000. 

Railroads entering Spartanburg, S. O, are preparing to erect a 
union station there. 

Work will be started in the spring by the Nashville, Chatta- 
nooga & St. Louis on the East End viaduct at Chattanooga, Tenn. 

The Norfolk Southern will build an engine house at Raleigh, 
N. C. 

(From the Files.) 

F. N. Hibbits has been appointed master mechanic of the Erie 
at Rochester, N. Y. 

It was recently stated in the daily press that President Rein- 
hart, of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, had been presented, 
by the Pullman Palace Car Company, with an elegant private 
car. President Reinhart desires to have it known that neither 
the Pullman company or anyone else has presented him with a 
private car or anything else. 

The Lehigh Valley has introduced a dining car on its through 
train to the West. 

Jerome metallic packing, manufactured by C. C. Jerome, of 
Chicago, has been made standard on the Illinois Central loco- 

The corporation organized to build a railway from North 
Dakota to the Gulf was sued by its young lady stenographer for 
an unpaid salary balance of $15, thus puncturing the scheme. 

The Austrian railway authorities have issued a circular to 
private railway companies urging experimentation in the elec- 
tric lighting of cars. 

The Grand Trunk is considering the substitution of electric 
locomotives for the special hard coal-burning steam locomotives 
now operating through the St. Clair tunnel. 

The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific plans to use compressed 
air to clean its coaches. 

The Chicago Railway Equipment Company, lessees of the 
National Hollow Brake Beam Co., has certified to an increase of 
capital stock from $150,000 to $250,000. 

The Wabash will make a trial on one of its locomotives of the 
Lewis valve gear after a design furnished by J. B. Barnes, super- 
intendent of motive power. The gear is reported to be oper- 
ating with success on the Vandalia. 



With wages one-sixth to one-half the scale forced on American 
railways by successive arbitrations at the point of the strike 
bayonet, British railways, with the approval of Parliament, have 
been permitted to meet small advances in the pay of employes 
Avith increased passenger fares and freight rates. 

Hitherto it has been difficult to present in convincing form the 
disparity between British and American railway wages so as to 
show in their true contrast the fundamental differences existing 
in economies of construction and operation. This difficulty has 
been removed by the report just made by the British board of 
trade presenting terms of settlements in railway wage disputes 
during two years' operation of the amended railway conciliation 
scheme. At a time when the relation of railway wages to rail- 
way rates has become of such engrossing interest in this country, 
it renders possible the measurement of American railway pay by 
British standards presented in the following statement showing 
the daily rate awarded British employes compared with 1912 aver- 
age earnings per man in the United States: 

Great Britain United States 

Minimum Maximum Average 

Enginemen $1.15 $2.18 $5.02 

Firemen 73 1.46 3.03 

Conductors 77 ' 1.42 4.29 

Trainmen 63 1.42 3.02 

Herein are set forth the actual earnings of four great classes 
of American railway labor in 1912, to which further additions 
have already been granted, compared with the new-won scale of 
British employes. For enginemen and firemen the services are 
almost identical, but conductors and trainmen here differ some- 
what from the nearest British counterpart. American earnings, 
including overtime and extras, are used, it is true; yet their use 
against the British maximum is more than fair, for this is far 



February. 1914 

above the average. Actual earnings, computed as the American's, 
would be roughly a mean between minimum and maximum. Ac- 
cording to latest determinations, in fact, $1.86 daily was the aver- 
age earnings for engineers, $1.11 for firemen and $1.26 for pas- 
senger guards. 

As British railway wage rates, devoid of all extras, have been 
impossible of ascertainment through lack of published figures, the 
chief value of the present report to the student of foreign rail- 
ways lies in its exact data on actual scales of pay. Yearly Eng- 
lish compilations, presenting only for a selected week the actual 
compensation paid by 27 companies in the United Kingdom, show 
only the average earned per man; there are available now, how- 
ever, specific rates awarded the individual classes of employes in 
219 wage disputes with additional information as to present 
conditions of service on British railroads. 

Of the 219 settlements 107 were arrived at by agreement be- 
tween deputations of the men and the companies alone; 93 by 
agreement between the two sides of conciliation boards without 
assistance of a chairman and 4 by such agreement with mediation 
of a chairman. Only in 15 cases was a chairman 's decision re- 
quired after efforts at agreement had failed. In each award the 
scale is to stand as a rule from 2% to 3 years. The highest 
wage rate awarded to any class of railway servants was $2.18 
daily or $13.08 weekly granted to engine drivers. This is to be 
compared with an average actual earning record in 1912 of $5.02 
daily for enginemen of the United States; yet this British maxi- 
mum wage not only is far beyond the generality of railway wages 
in the United Kingdom, but, as will be seen, it is in itself excep- 
tional for even railway engineers. There are American roads 
where the daily compensation of enginemen averages $5.50. 

Next highest in the wage scales set are signal fitters and tele- 
graph wiremen, but the rate is that set for foremen of the class 
in London. So also, with few exceptions, other wage awards 
which attain to the region of $8.00 per week apply to foremen, 
the leading member of a gang, to some special member or apply 
only in the London district. From an average maximum far be- 
low that figure rates of payment drop to the $2.18 per week which 
in one ease was awarded to a porter in southwestern Scotland. 
This too is an exception. Conciliation boards seem to have set 17 
shillings per week ($4.13) as the general minimum for adult em- 
ployes (although the minimum is broken also in certain cases of 
brakemen. carmen and vanguards, carriage and wagon examiners, 
checkers, engine cleaners, gatekeepers, greasers, number takers, 
permanent way men and shunters) and for "lads," as junior 
employes are termed, considered as apprentices, a minimum wage 
of 7 shillings ($1.70). For "lads" the maximum seldom is over 
£1 ($4.87) weekly. 

As may be judged by the wide divergence between minima and 
maxima, unlike the practice in the United States no general wage 
rate applies to the same grade of railway labor. Two reasons ex- 
plain the diversity: first, employes performing the same class 
of work with similar records of service vary widely in rate of pay 
because of difference in living conditions; secondly, employes per- 
forming the same class of work under similar living conditions 
vary widely because of difference in records of service. A gradu- 
ated scale applies universally, in other words, itself adjusted to 
special conditions of special territories. 

Lowest wage scales apply as a rule to Ireland, Scotland and the 
rural parts of England. Highest scales, on the other extreme, 
arise in the large cities where living costs are greater. So. in 
1912. average weekly earnings of railway servants in Ireland were 
$5.04. in Scotland $5.91, and in England and Wales $6.80, the aver- 
age for the United Kingdom being $6.65. The high record, $13.08, 
already mentioned in the ease of engine drivers, applies to drivers 
of only a few long-distance trains on the Great Central Eailway 
who reside permanently in London. Such men, receiving 3 shil- 
lings ($.73) per week extra in consideration of their metropolitan 
living expenses, so attain their exceptional rate. 

It is from the graduated scale, however, that one best appreci- 
ates the slow, laborious ascent which marks the British railway 
servant 's rise in the wage scale. Beginning at the set minimum. 

his advance almost universally is at the rate of 1 shilling (24 
cents) per week annually toward the maximum of the grade, 
reached not unusually after from 15 to 20 years. The maximum 
of $8.50 for brakemen is attained on the North Staffordshire 
Kailway after IS years of service, which began at $4.61. The 
similar maximum for passenger guards is reached on the same 
road in the ' ' twenty-second year in charge of trains. ' ' In that 
period the guard has risen from 24 shillings to 35 shillings per 
week, that is, from $5.83 to $8.50, a weekly addition in 22 years 
of $2.67! 

Money wages, it is true, constitute not the whole of the British 
railroad man 's compensation, yet other allowances total almost 
nothing. A special investigation of 1907, results of which were 
published recently, showed 204,237 adults and 15,915 lads re- 
ceiving free uniform and other clothing; applied to all employes 
this was worth 8 cents per week for adults and 6 cents per week for 
lads. Free or reduced rent to 14,337 adults averaged for all em- 
ployes 2 cents per week. Other allowances were of even smaller 
consequence. The British railway man is. moreover, allowed an 
annual holiday with pay varying with class of work and length 
of service from 3 to 6 days per year. Ordinarily, also, when 
require'! by work to lodge away from home temporarily, employes 
have been awarded "lodging allowances," which vary from 12 
cents to 85 cents nightly. 

It is significant, however, that in most cases where the bonus 
question has come up such extras in reward for added effort or 
efficiency are abolished at the request of the men in favor of the 
fixed advances demanded. 

Though hours of labor differ among the many classes almost as 
widely as do wages, ranging from 4T to 72 hours per week, the 
ten-hour day seems to be regarded as standard. Brakesmen work 
ten hours a day; engine drivers and firemen, 10 to 12: gatekeepers, 
9 to 11 ; goods guards, 10 to 12 ; and passenger guards, 10 to 11. 
Permanent way men work from 55% in summer to 47 in winter, 
with Saturday half-holiday. Overtime, as a rule, is paid as time 
and one-quarter and Sunday, Good Friday or Christmas as time 
and one-quarter to time and one-half. Rare eases of double Sun- 
lay time occur. 

What has been the total effect of these wage increases, already 
the cause for a rise in rates which has left few British railway 

charges untouched? Twenty-seven companies, employing more 
than 90 per cent of the railway servants of the United Kingdom, 
show these results: 

Average Weekly Earnings of British Railway Servants 1903 to 


First week Number employed Average weekly 

in December. in selected week. earnings per head. 

1903 448,944 $6.04 

1904 446.197 6.08 

1905 449.923 6.14 

1906 458.579 6.17 

1907 479,314 6.27 

190S 459.753 6.07 

1909 459,968 6.16 

1910 463.520 6.25 

1911 473,168 6.48 

1912 482,905 6.65 

Advanced wages granted toward the close of 1911 by many of 
the important companies, followed by additional increases on other 
railways in 1912, brought a rise of 23 cents in the average weekly 
earnings per man for 1911 and a further rise in 1912 of 17 cents 
per week! The 1912 average is 38 cents higher than that for 
1907, another year of good trade. 

American railways, paying an average wage of $733 per year, 
confronted by demands for 20 per cent advances and awards of 
7 per cent, would seem to bear at least as heavy a burden as did 
their British counterparts, since compensated with public approval 
for their 2.6 per cent increase to a yearly wage of $346. — Bureau 
of Eaihrau News and Statistics. 


Statistics for Mechanical Officials 


By Ernest Cordeal. 

The operating expenditures of a railroad may be roughly di- 
vided into two classes. First, those items which are compara- 
tively fixed or in other words are not subject to decrease by 
improved efficiency of operation. Under this head would be 
considered such accounts as include the salaries of general 
officers, superintendents of the various departments, wages of 
dispatchers, station employes, engine men, trainmen and switch- 
men, also the accounts which cover depreciation and renewals. 
Second, those items in which economy may be affected by 
improved efficiency of operation. Under this head would be 
included all the repair and supply accounts. 

Under the first classification many of the accounts are prac- 
tically fixed regardless of the volume of business handled. This 
applies to the supervision accounts and the depreciation ac- 
counts. Expenditures for renewals depend upon administrative 
policy. The wages of dispatchers and station men are fixed 
within certain limits of variation. The wages of train, en- 
gine and yardmen vary directly with the amount of business 
handled. It is obvious that the accounts under this head do not 
present a field for the reduction of operating expenses, pre- 
supposing a fixed quantity of traffic to be handled. 

Under the second head, on the other hand, are found the 
accounts which must bear the burden when improved economy 
of operation is desired. By dividing the total operating ex- 
penses of a railroad into two classes as outlined it will be 
found that approximately 50 per cent falls into the first class. 
An analysis of the remaining 50 per cent which falls into the 
second class reveals the fact that fully three-quarters of the 
total is included in the accounts which are handled by the 
mechanical department. Under this head are included the 
maintenance of equipment accounts covering repairs to loco- 
motives and cars and the transportation accounts covering 
fuel, lubricants, supplies and handling of equipment. 

It is therefore apparent that if a high degree of efficiency 
is to be attained in the operation of a railroad, the mechan- 
ical department must bear the largest share in its accom- 

Efficient, economic operation may be accomplished by con- 
tinuous, competent supervision of expenditures included in 
the second class. In order that such supervision may be given 
it is essential that mechanical department officers, from the 
superintendent of motive power to round house foreman, be 
provided with accurate, current data reflecting performance 
in the various activities under their supervision. 

Not only should records of current expenditures be provided, 
but further certain standards of performance should be estab- 
lished so that the actual figures may always be considered in 
their relation to the results expected. 

The principal accounts with which the mechanical depart- 
ment has to deal, following the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission's classification, are as follows: 

Maintenance of equipment. 

Account 25 — Steam locomotives — repairs. 

Account 31 — Passenger train cars — repairs. 

Account 34 — Freight train cars — repairs. 

Account 46 — Shop machinery and tools. 

Account 72 — Enginehouse expenses — yard. 

Account 73 — Fuel for yard locomotives. 

Account 75 — Lubricants for yard locomotives. 

Account 81 — Engine house expenses — road. 

Account 82 — Fuel for road locomotives. 

Account 84 — Lubricants for road locomotives. 

Account 85 — Other supplies for road locomotives. 
Each one of the accounts enumerated is of such nature that 
constant, intelligent supervision of the expenditures there- 
for must be exercised in order that the cost of operation may 

be maintained at the practical miniuium. The necessary data 
to assist and support such supervision should be furnished, 
first, as promptly after the end of accounting periods as pos- 
sible, and second, in as brief and comprehensive form as pos- 

The men who hold supervisory positions in the mechanical 
department are without exception loaded with a burden of 
cares and responsibilities which leaves them little time for the 
study of long, intricate statements or reports. Columns of 
figures, no matter how skillfully arranged, give up the salient 
facts only upon diligent study. 

The graphical chart when properly designed presents the 
best, most complete solution of the problem of placing the per- 
tinent facts before the interested parties in the most concise 
and definite form requiring the minimum of effort for their 
digestion. Charts should be so constructed as to throw the 
facts in the face of the reader. A graph which must be pon- 
dered over before it divulges the information which it con- 
tains is no improvement over columns of figures. The prime 
object, then, in the designing of graphical charts for the as- 
sistance of mechanical men should be to so simplify the form 
that the fact or facts presented are comprehensible with the 
minimum of mental effort. 

The facts which should be brought out in the charts are: 

First — The actual monthly expenditures to the various ac- 

Second — The cumulative average of the months contained in 
the fiscal period. 

Third — The relation of the actual figures to a prearranged 

Exception may be taken by some authorities on the sub- 
ject to the expediency of showing actual monthly charges 
without reduction to a unit basis whereby the expenditures 
are shown in relation to service rendered. For instance, they 
would demand that locomotive repairs be reflected as a cost 
per engine mile or per gross ton mile. Undoubtedly the cost 
per gross ton mile is the most equitable figure for comparisons 
of performance as between different roads, between different 
divisions of the same road, or between different periods of 
time, but such data as a guide for the supervision of current 
expenditures is practically useless. The supply accounts may 
be expected to follow very closely any variation in the volume 
of business handled, the handling accounts will also follow in 
a lesser degree, but the repair accounts may and frequently 
will be effected inversely. Undoubtedly the most economic 
repair costs may be obtained by adherence to a policy of oper- 
ating locomotive and car shops uniformly throughout the year, 
insuring the maximum yearly output with the minimum cap- 
ital investment in buildings and equipment, permitting the 
retention of a steady trained force of workmen and insuring 
the best condition of rolling stock at all times. However, 
whether the shops are operated uniformly or spasmodically 
in an attempt to regulate expenses to the variations in income, 
monthly repair costs per unit of service for the same period 
are of little value. Aside from the questionable value of 
monthly unit costs such a basis for use in conveying the neces- 
sary information to mechanical officials adds a complication 
which defeats to a large extent the purpose of the data, not 
only must simplicity be sacrificed but longer delays in com- 
piling the data are unavoidable. 

The use of the cumulative average should require little ex- 
planation. By this means monthly fluctuations are equalized 
and the general tendency of expenditure either upwards or 
downwards is indicated. The cumulative average is prefer- 
able to the twelve months average for the reason that while 
the former considers only expenditures for the present year 
the latter is influenced by the figures representing the months 



February, 1914 

of the previous year until the twelve month period has been 
completed when the last month of the previous year is elimin- 
ated. In a progressive world the records of past performance 
would be of little interest unless, perhaps for the emphasis 
of past errors to be avoided in the future. The comparison 
of present with past performance is as a rule a valueless make- 
shift. Efficiency should not be based upon what has been done 
but upon what should be done. 

In order that it may be known what relation the performance 
of the present bears to the best possible attainment, in order 
that a definite mark may be established a record to be striven 
for, standards of performance should be prearranged. Such 
standards may be built up from the expected unit costs. The 
variation in the quantity of business handled from year to 
year is rarely so great as to render impracticable the setting 
of a fixed standard expenditure to cover any of the accounts 
under consideration. 

A number of chart forms are here illustrated for the pur- 
pose of establishing the superiority of this method of pre- 
senting pertinent information. In addition to the form suggested 
as the best on account of its simplicity and the prominence 
with which the salient points are brought out, other more 
complicated forms are shown in order that certain comparisons 
may be drawn. 









500O IOOOO 15000 ZOOOO 



Fig. 1. 

The first chart illustrated is that recommended for use. The 
arrangement of this chart is simplicity itself. The scale of 
amounts is given a prominent place at the top of the chart 
making it a matter of ease to determine the charges repre- 
sented by the lines in the body of the graph. The monthly 
charges are represented by the open blocks and the cumula- 
tive averages by the solid blocks. The standard representing 
the result which is expected, is indicated by the vertical line 
which in the case illustrated calls for a monthly expenditure 
of $15,000 or more correctly for a total expenditure for the 
year of $180,000 it being understood that monthly fluctuations 
will occur which should, however, balance up in the average 
so that the final block representing the average monthly 
charges for the twelve months will fall close to the standard 

This form of chart may be understood at a glance. When 
the figures for each succeeding month are added, together with 
the average, the graph becomes a perpetual memorandum to 
mechanical officials appraising them constantly and without 
effort on their part of the exact standing to date of each 
account represented. 

Cost of Locomotive Repairs per 
1000 Oro55 Ton Miles - 






Fig. 2 





— . 



■ - 

The second chart reproduced, illustrates a form often used 
and one which has certain advantages for certain purposes. 
The straight lines of this form share with the first graph the 
factor of simplicity which is absent in following examples 
where the curved or broken line is used. The chart as drawn 
introduces the double standard of cost and amount of business 
handled. As a historical record of performance or as a means 
of advising the higher officials of the tendency of unit costs 
from month to month and from year to year, this form is 
acceptable. As a chart to be put in the hands of officers in 
charge of a single division or point for their guidance in the 
every day conduct of affairs, it is far inferior to the first for 
the reason that the pertinent fact, of so much actual money 
spent, is not indicated with sufficient clearness. 




Fig. 3. 

The third form illustrated, while it makes use of the monthly 
actual expenditures and can readily be completed by the addi- 
tion of the line indicating the standard allotment, is not 
nearly so easily comprehended as the other forms. The curve 
or broken line in itself a thing more complicated fails to con- 
vey ideas with the abrupt, uncompromising clearness of the 
straight line. The twelve month average has been used in this 
chart to illustrate its disadvantages. 

It will be observed that owing to the exceptionally low 
charges for the months of September to March the average 
line rises but little above $15,000 at the end <fi the chart 
although the expenditures for the months from April to Octo- 
ber range from $15,700 to $17,200. Again the average line 
rises for the last month on the chart although the charges for 
that month are well below any of the preceding eight months 
the increase in the average being due to the fact that the 
previous November which is dropped when the current month 
is added, was abnormally low. The official who had watched 
carefully this average line and congratulated himself upon the 
fact that it had not risen above the standard allowed, would 
having been distinctly disappointed when with the last month's 
figures in, the average for the current year had appeared above 
the standard. No such false impressions as this would be pos- 
sible when the cumulative average is used instead of twelve 

Cost of locomotive Repairs per IOOO 
Gross Ton Miles 




"^T / ^ r= "" "" "v T ""* ~ ~ — \^~> \ *" 



The fourth illustration combines the bad 
second and third without retaining the good. 

features of the 
The curved and 

February, 1914 



broken lines again hinder the rapid accurate reading of the 
chart while the introduction of the double standard of money 
and work performed renders the chart useless as an assistant 
to the man on the work. The twelve months' average completes 
the task of rendering the chart impracticable. 

In consideration of the foregoing graphs it should not be 
understood that the forms which are designated as inferior 
for the purpose in hand may not have certain uses. It is sim- 
ply as a means of conveying pertinent statistics to practical 
mechanical men that their usefulness is questioned. 

Tire turning 45.00 

Motor axle bearings 30.00 

Unit switch control 50.00 

Trolley parts, wheels, harps, poles and bases 110.00 

Brake shoes 270.00 

Miscellaneous 30.00 


The Gait, Preston & Hespler Ry., Preston, Ontario, placed the 
40-ton Baldwin-Westinghouse locomotive -herewith illustrated in 
service on November 20, 1910, and since that date it has been 
in continuous operation, twenty-four hours every day, except 
Sundays, averaging about 150 hours per week. This service in- 
cludes hauling practically every kind of freight in standard 
steam railway rolling stock, between the Canadian Pacific lines 
at Gait, Berlin and Waterloo, a distance of from 12 to 14 miles. 

Although the haul is not long, there are a number of 2% to 
2%% grades from one to two miles long. The maximum number 
of cars hauled in one train is about 25, the average number be- 
ing 15, and the tonnage per train is about 200 tons, or on four 
trips of road per day, 2,000 tons. 

It is hardly possible to estimate exactly the total mileage, as 
the greater part of the.. time, 16 hours per day, the locomotive is 
in switching service. No record is kept of the tonnage and 
mileage, but the switching mileage would easily equal half, if 
not three-quarters, of the road service. 

This locomotive is equipped with four Westinghouse No. 
308-B-2 commutating-pole, 600-volt railway motors, rated at 120 
h. p., and unit switch control. 

The locomotive is given one-half hour inspection every 2-1 
hours, and about five or six every Sunday, when making light 
repairs, such as applying brake shoes, changing wheels for tire 
wear and inspection of motors, airbrakes and control equipment. 
Tires have been turned twice since this locomotive went into 
service, and the total repair account to date is given below: 
Air compressor (principally due to armature and field 

trouble due to low trolley voltage) $170.00 

Total (from November 30, 1910, to July 14, 1913) . . .$705.00 

The total, $705.00, for repairs on this locomotive, covering a 

period of over 2y 2 years, is considered a very good record by 

the operating company, in view of the large amount of service 



By J. A. Jesson. 

In removing and replacing the non-pressure head and piston 

the head will usually spring away from the cylinder and it 

requires considerable force to hold it in position while replacing 

the head bolts. 

The sketch shows a simple device that will overcome this 
objectionable feature and will prove a valuable addition to the 
brake cleaner's kit. 


Brake Cylinder Head Holder. 

It consists of a yoke A, which fits over the crosshead and 
against the cylinder head. Pin B fits in the brake pin hole, and 
set screw C holds yoke in position after adjustment to head. 

THE SOCIETY of Railway Associations' Secretaries was 
formed at a meeting held in New York City on November 22, 
1913. Another meeting will be held early in February. 

40-Ton Baldwln-Westlnghouse Locomotive— G. P. & H. Ry. 



February, 1914 


Looking back at the locomotive year in the United Kingdom 
there are seen points which, although not novel to readers of 
the Bail way Master Mechanic, will bear recalling as indica- 
tions of the lines of improvement followed. Take for example 
the introduction of an engine designed on the Stumpf principle. 
This steam cylinder had been very interesting to British locomo- 
tive engineers. It came along at a time when most of the 
people who devote attention to railway matters were prepared 
to regard the possibilities of improving the reciprocating steam 
engine as virtually non-existent; it is an instance of the result 
of school research work applied directly to an industry whose 
own practical men have fallen somewhat into the grooves of 
routine, and it is one of those rare cases of radical novelty in 
steam engine design being adapted immediately to the locomo- 
tice. The Stumpf engine was only announced in 1912 and early 
in 1913. Vincent L. Kaven, the chief mechanical engineer of 
the North-Eastern Eailway, had the principle embodied in and 
working an express passenger locomotive. 

In the Stumpf cylinder piston valves admit steam to the 
cylinder, but the outlet for exhaust steam is through ports 
around the middle of the cylinder, the piston itself acting as 
an exhaust valve. The piston being very long, these ports are 
not uncovered until the end of the stroke is reached in either 
direction. It will be observed that the steam has a direct 
passage through the cylinder, instead of turning back to 
exhaust through the same port by which it entered. This means 
that hot incoming steam does not meet walls cooled by out- 
going exhaust steam; consequently there is less loss by con- 
densation and improved economy. 

During the year the North-Eastern Eailway 's dynamometer 
car has been attached to a number of goods and express passen- 
ger trains hauled by the Stumpf engine between Newcastle and 
York. The weight of the passenger train was from 212 to 
411 tons (one ton equals 2,240 pounds), and of the freight 
trains from 632 to 1,054 tons. The booked speed of the passen- 
ger trains varied from 48.6 to 51.6 m. p. h. and that of the 
freight trains averaged 24 m. p. h. The engine was quite 
capable of hauling the trains to the booked speed. The average 
coal consumption was 2.93 pounds per horsepower hour, and the 
average water consumption 20.71 pounds per horsepower hour. 
These averages are taken from the figures of ten express passen- 
ger runs from Manchester to York and four passenger and six 
goods runs from York to Manchester. 

Few remarkable designs have been seen this year. The six 
wheels coupled passenger express engine is gradually improving 
its ascendency over the four-wheeled coupled. Super-heating 
is now so common that it has almost ceased to be interesting to 
the public. 

During the latter part of 1912 C. J. Bowen Cooke commenced 
building a four-cylinder passenger engine of the 4-6-0 type, and 
in January of this year the Sir Gilbert Claughton, shown in the 
illustration, was put into service. The cylinders are 16 inches 
diameter by 26 inches stroke, fitted with piston valves 8 inches 
diameter, and all driven on to one axle. This arrangement of 
cylinders gives a more perfect balance than is possible when 
the cylinders drive on to separate axles. The valve gear used 
is Walschaert's applied to the outside cylinders, the valves of 
the inside cylinders being worked from the outside cylin- 
der valve spindles through rocking levers at the front end of 
the valve chests. Superheated steam is used, the pressure being 
175 pounds per square inch, and the superheat ranging from 
630 degrees to 650 degrees. The boiler is of the Belpaire type, 
the mean diameter of the barrel being 5 feet % inch and the 
length 14 feet 5% inch. The firebox outside casing is 9 feet 6 
inches long and the width 5 feet 7% inches at the top and 
4 feet 1 inch at the lower part of the box between the engine 
frames. The total heating surface of all the tubes is 1,987.8 
square feet, and the firebox heating surface is 161.2 square feet, 
with 30.5 square feet of grate area. The coupled wheels when 
new, with 3 inch thickness of tires, are 6 feet 9 inches diame- 



























February, 1914 




The front of the engine is carried on a four-wheeled 

radial truck, having wheels 3 feet 3 inches diameter. The weight 
of the engine in working order is nearly 78 tons, of which 59 
tons are distributed on the coupled wheels, the maximum weight 
on one pair of wheels being about 20 tons. The tender carries 
3,000 gallons of water and seven tons of coal, and weighs iD 
working order about 39 tons. At the present time ten of these 
engines are in service. 

A test run was made with one of these engines (Ealph 
Broeklebank, Xo. 1,159) between Euston and Crewe, on the 2d 
November last, with a train of empty main line coaches and the 
dynamometer car, the weight of which was 435 tons, and with 
engine and tender the total weight was 552 tons. The distance 
of 158 miles was covered in 159 minutes. This included three 
slacks and one stop, equal to about 6?i minutes. The mean 
horsepower at the engine draw bar was 855. The average indi- 
cated horsepower taken at 25 points was 1,358 and the maxi- 
mum was 1,617 horsepower. Besides the above mentioned class, 
20 engines of the George V class, 16 of the Prince of Wales 
class, and 28 of the 0-8-0 freight engines, all fitted with super- 
heaters, have been built. 

With the electrification of parts of the London, Brighton and 
South Coast line, and the consequent acceleration of the passenger 
service, it became necessary to have more powerful steam engines 
to deal with the freight trains expeditiously. A special class 
of engine has been designed for this purpose and, second to the 
Stumpf experiment, it may be regarded as the most interesting 
locomotive production of the year. Designed by Mr. Billinton, 
the chief locomotive engineer of the above mentioned railway, 
the engine is of the Mogul type — i. e., having a leading pony 
truck with one pair of wheels, six-coupled driving wheels ami 
no trailers. In addition to being a new type on this line, the 
engines have several interesting details. The Belpaire fire- 
box appears for the first time on the Brighton line, instead 
of the ordinary round top crown which has been standard prac- 
tice up to the present. The boilers are fitted with superheaters 
of 21 elements. The feed water, which is heated in the tender 
tank by exhaust steam, is drawn from near the upper surface, 
where it is hottest, by means of a float feed arrangement, and 
delivesed to the boiler by a Weir pump which stands on the 
platform on the left hand side of the firebox. A No. 10 
Gresham combination hot water injector is also fitted. The 
safety valves have an attachment by which blown off steam is 
turned into the tender tank instead of wasting its heat in the 
atmosphere. The slide valves are of the piston type, 10 inches 
diameter with internal admission, and operated by Stephenson 
link motion. The reversing shaft is provided with a clutch, 
operated by compressed air, in order to steady the motion and 
relieve the thrust on the reversing gear when the engine is 
working. The cylinders are fitted with a new type of combined 
vacuum and water relief valve. The piston rod metallic pack- 
ing is enclosed in an air-cooled sleeve, and is of the non-floating 
type. Forced lubrication to the cylinders and piston valves is 
provided by a mechanical lubricator, which possesses the novel 
feature of being valveless. The weights are compensated 
between the pony truck and leading wheels, also between the 
driving and trailing wheels. The pony truck is center-pivoted, 
the weight being carried on two transverse laminated springs 
supported at the ends by heart-shaped links, which allow of the 
necessary side play on a plane parallel to the rail surface. Train 
heating apparatus is also fitted to the engine in case of its 
being used on passenger trains. The Westinghouse brake fit- 
tings^ are of the standard quick-acting type, with reservoir 
capacity for heavy service. The leading dimensions are as 

Cylinders 21 in. diameter by 26 in. stroke 

Piqfon valves . . . . j 10 in. diameter 

Coupled wheels 5 ft. 6 in. diameter 

Pony wheels 3 ft. 6 in. diameter 

Bigid wheel base 15 ft. 6 in. diameter 

Engine wheel base 23 ft. 9 in. diameter 

Engine and tender base .".47 ft. 11 in. 

Length over buffers 57 ft. 5 in. 

Center of boiler from rail 8 ft. 6 in. 

Working pressure 170 lbs. per sq. in. 

Heating surface — 

110 tubes, 2%, in. diameter 790 sq. ft. 

21 tubes, 5% in. diameter 366 sq. ft. 

Firebox 139 sq. ft. 

Total 1,295 sq. ft. 

Superheated tubes 279 sq. ft. 

Total 1,574 sq. ft. 

Grate area 24.8 sq. ft. 

Maximum weight of engine in working order 63% tons 

Maximum weight of tender in working order 41% tons 

B. W. Urie, the chief mechanical engineer of the London and 
South- Western Railway, has been building ten mixed traffic 
engines of the 4-6-0 type, four with Bobinson superheaters, four 
with Schmidt, and two using saturated steam. Some of the lead- 
ing particulars are: outside cylinders, 21 in. by 28 in.; Wal- 
schaert valve gear; coupled wheels, 6 ft. diameter; tractive 
effort at 80 per cent boiler pressure 24,700 pounds. The heating 
surface with Schmidt superheater is 2,320 square feet, with Bob- 
inson superheater 2,254 square feet, and with no superheater 
2,192 square feet. The grate area is 30 square feet and the 
working pressure is 180 pounds. 


The accompanying illustration shows the interior of the largest 
Jacobs-Shupert sectional firebox yet bailt. The photograph was 
taken during the process of construction, and before the back 
head and door sheet had been applied. There are twenty men 
seated about the table within the firebox. It is one of a lot of 
fireboxes being built for the Philadelphia & Beading to be applied 
to its I-8-A Consolidation locomotives. These locomotives are 
designed to burn anthracite coal, and hence the large grate area 

Largest Jacobs-Shupert Firebox Built. 

is required. These particular fireboxes will be equipped with the 
Gaines arch or bridge wall, so as to form a combustion chamber 
between the bridge wall and the back flue sheet. The firebox 
consists of fifteen channel shaped sections, each section being 10 
inches wide over all. The firebox is 13 feet 2 inches long and 
8 feet 8 inches wide, inside dimensions, and the distance from the 
bottom of the mud ring to the center of the crown on the inside 
is 5 feet 1 inch. It is expected that these fireboxes will be in 
service by next spring. 



February, 1914 



By G. Percy Cole, Electrical Engineer, Canadian General Electric 
Co., Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 

Reviewing the examples of the steam roads that have electrified 
their terminals and sections of their main lines, one is struck 
with the fact that few, if any, undertook the electrification from 
entirely an economic standpoint, and on account of the financial 
return expected on the money so expended. Municipal laws look- 
ing to the abatement of smoke have been largely the cause of 
past electrification. Up till recently, the consensus of opinion has 
been that such changes in motive power would, for some time to 
come, only be compelled by local conditions and ordinances, and 
that there were no inherent advantages in electrification to war- 
rant its adoption under such conditions, other than the elimina- 
tion of the smoke nuisance, and the ability of the electric loco- 
motive to accomplish some special work not possible with the 
steam locomotive. 

Recent developments in the art of applied electricity are gradu- 
ally altering this state of affairs. A few years ago the discussions 
centered around the feasibility of heavy electric traction. The 
few important electrifications have shown results quite in accord 
with the calculations and estimates, and demonstrated conclusively 
that technically satisfactory operation of heavy railways by elec- 
tricity is possible. The question then becomes an economic one. 
As approximately 70% of the revenue derived from the operation 
of railroads is obtained from the transportation of freight, we 
can understand why the managers of some of the Western roads 
are studying from the standpoint of economy alone, the applica- 
tion of the electric locomotive for main line operation over the 
mountain divisions. Economies effected on these divisions, where 
the cost is high, will have a large bearing on the total net revenue. 
Due to the advance in the art, we now find that propositions which, 
only a few years ago, could not be considered within the economic 
range for electrification, are highly attractive and commercially 

We hear a great deal nowadays about the conservation of our 
natural resources. It is only a few years ago that the mention of 
the word conservation simply resulted in a mental picture of 
somewhat vague, semi-official measures enacted to save our re- 
maining forests from the ravages of the lumberman's axe. Now 
we save the forests by eliminating the spark-shedding locomotive! 
Thanks to the press of all civilized nations and the conservation 
commissions appointed in the various countries, the term "Con- 
servation" has broadened very materially until now it embraces 
such subjects as utilization of water power, preserving the fer- 
tility of farm lands, assuring a continual supply of fur-bearing 
animals, the bettering of hygienic conditions of our cities, and 
other kindred subjects. To quote the words of Premier Borden: 

"It means preservation, not waste; efficient development, not 
locking up these resources; the reasonable uses of them having 
regard to the nation's interests; and last, but not least, the par- 
ticipation by the people in all the advantages and benefits." 

If our modern day civilization stands for anything, we must 
consider not only the material, but the labor side of conservation. 
It must be evident that the more efficient the operation of the 
country as a whole, the more rapidly must it add to its wealth 
and diminish the amount of labor which individuals have to ex- 
pend in order to live at a certain standard. This efficient working 
of the country, to a large extent depends upon the proper use of 
its natural resources in the form of material and labor, and the 
elimination of all waste in both of these which can possibly be 
brought about. 

If it is right for the nation, is it not also the duty of the in- 
dividual to strive towards the more economical use of these re- 
sources, which it is only just to conserve for future generations? 
We must, however, not lose sight of the fact that ' ' true engineer- 
ing is based on economies. ' ' 

Notwithstanding all our great hydro-electric power develop- 

* A paper before the Canadian Railway Club. 

ments, a large part of our power supply is still obtained from 
the energy of coal. Look at the labor spent in and about raising 
and distributing the coal which we are now using up at such an 
alarming rate; and which we would save under more economical 

Then there is the vast army of workers who are employed in 
cleaning up the dirt produced by our present methods of using 
coal. The daily routine of every household shows what a large 
proportion of domestic labor is devoted to this. There is also 
the enormous amount of labor of the people connected with actual 
operation of burning coal for all its various uses, which labor, 
under a more efficient system, could be turned to better account 
in the interests of the country. 

We recently noticed in the papers, in connection with the dis- 
cussion of the "smoke nuisance" in this metropolis, one of our 
Controllers was reported as stating that the pall of smoke hang- 
ing over the city and contributed by the large factories, railway 
locomotives and power houses, was a sign of the prosperity of 
the country; leading us to infer that the rate at which we can 
use coal is a measure of our industrial activity and prosperity. 
This would be true, perhaps, if we were using our coal with rea- 
sonable economy; but this is certainly not true of what we are at 
present doing. 

Taking all the uses of coal into consideration, S. L. Ferranti 
has shown that we are getting back an amount represented by 
useful work of one kind and another, of much less than 10% of 
the latent energy in the coal. It is in the process of transforma- 
tion of coal into work in the form of heat and power that this 
great loss occurs, as the process is a most difficult one,, and re- 
quires the highest scientific and practical skill to carry out with 
even moderate economy. The fact that we are throwing away 
more than 90% of the value of our coal in the process of con- 
version is a matter of great concern to any nation. 

Undoubtedly at the present time, the most convenient method 
of utilizing energy is by means of electricity. In the last few 
years remarkable progress has been made in the application of 
electric power in practically every industry; and the use of elec- 
trical appliances in our domestic life is also proceeding at a rapid 
pace. The question very naturally arises as to when and by what 
means will electrical energy be available in such large quantities 
and at such reasonable prices, that we can do away with all other 
forms of motive power and accomplish all our heating, lighting, 
cooking and other industrial applications solely by means of elec- 

Mr. Ferranti, above mentioned, one of the most noted authori- 
ties on prime movers in England, states that the only complete 
and final conversion of the whole of the coal which we use for 
heat and power into electricity, and the recovery of its by-products 
at a comparatively small number of great electricity producing 
stations. All our wants in the way of light, power, heat and 
chemical action would then be met by a supply of electricity dis- 
tributed all over the country. 

It must be remembered, however, that the distribution of en- 
ergy in the form of electricity instead of coal can only be effect- 
ively carried out when it can be done in such a way that it is 
available for all the purposes for which coal is now used; and 
this can be the case only when the conversion is effected at such 
an economy as will cause the electric energy delivered, to repre- 
sent a high percentage of the energy of the coal. Mr. Ferranti 
has shown that in order to supply electricity for all purposes, it 
would be necessary among other things, to have a conversion ef- 
ficiency (efficiency of coal energy to electric energy) of not less 
than 25 per cent. On the basis of large generating stations of 
one-fourth million kilowatt capacity at the pit's mouth of the 
coal centers supplying net works of high tension transmission 
lines with a load factor of 60 per cent, he has estimated that the 
average price at which current could be supplied throughout the 
country would be one-fourth of a cent per kilowatt hour. 

At the present time we are not able to purchase electricity for 
the above low figure, nor has the all-electric millennium yet ar- 

Februarv. 1914 



rived; but the central station generating industry has now grown 
to such proportions that in the large centers, power can be obtained 
at very low figures and on very satisfactory terms. In large 
blocks, it should not be difficult to purchase electrical energy at 
from 1 2 to % of a cent per kilowatt hour. Recently the Great 
Falls Power Company has made a rate of 0.536 cents per kilo- 
watt hour to the Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound Eailway, and 
agrees to construct some of the high tension lines, in addition. 

If power can be obtained from the large central stations at 
such reasonable rates, it will not be justifiable for the steam roads, 
undertaking electrification, to go to the great expense of con- 
structing their own power houses. In fact, considering the nature 
of the power load caused by through trains, whether freight or 
passenger, it will usually be impossible for the railway itself to 
manufacture its electricity at a cost of less than twice the price 
at which it can be sold to the railway at a profit, by existing elec- 
tricity supply undertakings with large miscellaneous power and 
lighting loads. 

The question may be asked : Would the addition of a large rail- 
way load be acceptable to the central station companies? This 
has been answered in the affirmative by Samuel Insull in a paper 
entitled ' ' The Relation of Central Station Generation to Railway 
Electrification," read before the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers, on April 5th, 1912. In this paper it was shown that 
the central station supply company will be able to provide the 
necessary electrical energy at an attractive price, for the reason 
that the annual consumption will usually be quite an addition to 
its lighting and miscellaneous power load, and for the further and 
important reason that the time distribution of the railway load 
will usually be such as slightly to improve the total load factor at 
the generating station. 

In 1907, when this subject of electrification was being actively 
discussed by the large engineering societies, the conclusions ar- 
rived at seemed to be such that, at the then present state of the 
art, the steam roads were not justified in undertaking the large 
capital expenditures involved in building their own power sta- 
tions, even though, by adopting electricity for their motive power, 
numerous economies would result. 

At that time, compared with the then existing conditions, the 
magnitude of the power load required by railways appeared large. 
For example, the kilowatt capacity of the power houses for the 
New York Central electrification amounted to 20,000 kilowatts. 
To insure continuity of service, duplicate power houses were re- 
sorted to, thus doubling up on the capital expenditure for this por- 
tion of the electrification. The capital costs of these power houses 
amounted to approximately $3,500,000.00, which figures out at a 
little less than $90.00 per kilowatt; and certainly no one blames 
the heads of the steam roads for steering clear of electrification 
in the face of such tremendous capital outlays. 

The intervening years since 1907 have completely reversed the 
situation. The independent central stations of the large centers 
have grown at such a pace that their capacities in some instances 
now run up to the hundreds of thousands of kilowatts with indi- 
vidual generating units of even 35,000 K. W. capacity; thus 
making the power required for a division of a main line railway 
seem, in comparison, extremely small. In the United States, and 
to some extent in Canada, the transmission net-works of these 
large central stations are so extensive, that it is only a question 
of a few years until practically the whole country, at least in the 
more populous districts, will be entirely covered, with the result 
that large blocks of power supplied to the railways from 
these net-works, at very attractive figures, and that on account 
of the non-coincidence of the railway and lighting load peaks, the 
railway load will be a desirable addition; even granting that the 
load will be more or less fluctuating, as would be the case on a 
division with relatively few trains per day. 

In whatever form energy is produced and distributed to the 
train, it ultimately appears as mechanical energy applied to turn 
one or more axles against the resistance to their rotation imposed 
by the weight on the wheels and the motion of the train. It is 
instructive to examine and compare the over-all efficiency from coal 

pile to driving wheels for electric and steam operation. Taking 
first the conversion efficiencies for electric generating stations, we 
find the following: — 

Electric generators driven by reciprocating steam engines, their 
economy expressed in the form of energy in the coal to electric 
energy, may be taken as a maximum of 10 to 12 per cent. Steam 
turbine driven generators, a maximum efficiency of 17 per cent. 
Next in order of economy comes the large gas engine fed from 
gas producers, with an efficiency of coal energy to electric energy 
of possibly 25 per cent. Finally we come to the internal combus- 
tion engine using crude petroleum (Diesel type) direct connected 
to electric generator, and we find the maximum efficiency of fuel 
energy to electric energy to be in the neighborhood of 30 to 31% 
per cent. 

The above figures all apply to the largest power* stations at pres- 
ent in existence and the efficiency is the ' ' power ' ' efficiency of the 
station at full load and unity power factor. These figures will 
be very much reduced when we consider the annual overall ef- 
ficiency from the fuel to the outgoing cables or as it is termed, 
' ' energy ' ' efficiency. This latter efficiency takes account of the 
load factor of the station, or all the varying conditions of out- 
put during the 8766 hours of a year. Take for example the steam 
turbine station. During the short periods of maximum load, the 
efficiency of the station may be from 15 to 17 per cent, but high 
values of this sort are offset by very low values of 3 to 4 per cent, 
occurring during times of very light load. If we can get an an- 
nual overall efficiency of 11 per cent, we are doing very well in- 
deed. For the other types of prime movers, we get a correspond- 
ingly reduced annual overall efficiency, as the following table 
will show: — 


Power Efficiency Overall 

of Station at Efficiency 

Full load. of Station. 

Reciprocating Steam Engine Station. .. .10-12 % 8% 

Steam Turbine Station 15-17 % 11% 

Gas Producer and Gas Engine Station. . . 25 % 18% 

Diesel Engine Station 30-31%% 22% 

But if the cost of manufacturing electricity is analyzed in de- 
tail, it will be found that for station of large outputs we can 
eliminate all except the steam turbine station. If the analysis is 
made according to the latest approved methods, by dividing the 
total cost into (1) Production of costs; (2) Investment costs; 
(3) Administration costs, it will be found that the cost of manu- 
facture by means of steam turbine stations is much less than with 
the three other types of prime movers, even with coal costing 
$4.50 per ton of 2,000 lbs., which is rather a high figure. Con- 
trasting the steam turbine station with the internal combustion 
station, H. M. Hobart has shown that even with the 22 per cent 
annual efficiency of the latter plant, the total cost of manufacturing 
energy is 13 per cent greater than in the case of steam turbine 
11 per cent efficiency plant, for two reasons. First, the oil fuel 
with a calorific value of 18,000 B. t. u. per lb., and costing 4 cents 
per TJ. S. gallon, costs twice as much per kilowatt hour of calorific 
value as the $4.50 per ton coal with 14,500 B.t.u. per lb. If the 
coal had cost only $2.25 per ton (and good coal is obtained at 
this price in many stations) then the oil would have cost "four 
times" as much as the coal per kilowatt hour of calorific value; 
and even if the oil engine station have had 44 per cent overall 
efficiency, the fuel cos.t per kilowatt hour of output would have 
been as great as in the 11 per cent efficiency steam turbine station. 

Let us now investigate of what order of magnitude the efficiency 
becomes when delivered to the driving wheels of the locomotive 
after all the losses due to transmission, sub-station transforma- 
tion, low tension feeders and locomotive motor equipment are taken 
into account. Assuming a steam turbine station with 11 per cent 
annual efficiency, it can be shown that the overall efficiency from 
the coal pile in the power house, to the rims of the drivers, is, 
for practically any well designed and commercially sound railway 
scheme, of the order of 6.0 to 6.5 per cent. In this connection two 



February, 1914 

noteworthy papers have been presented recently before the Ameri- 
can Institute of Electrical Engineers. The first by H. M. Hobart, 
entitled "2,400 Volt Railway Electrification" (A. I. E. E. pro- 
ceedings, p. 1,017, May 20, 1913). The second by Chas. P. Kahler, 
entitled "Trunk Line Electrification" (A. I. E. E. proceedings, 
p. 1,057, May 20, 1913). 

In the first paper, taking an example of a 75 ton electric loco- 
motive hauling 10 Pullman coaches weighing 75 tons each, and 
making a non-stop run of 100 miles in two hours, Hobart has 
calculated the annual overall efficiency from coal pile to driving 
wheels to be 6.1 per cent for dense service and 6.6 per cent for 
sparse service. Comparing with this a 185 ton Pacific type steam 
locomotive hauling the same train over the same distance at the 
same schedule speed, he finds the net efficiency from the coal to the 
drawbar of approximately 2.65 per cent, thus showing that the 
electric locomotive requires only 47 per cent of the amount of 
coal which is required in the case where the same train of 10 Pull- 
man coaches is hauled by a steam locomotive. If this is expressed 
on the basis of coal consumption per ton mile of "useful" load 
(i. e. per ton mile behind the drawbar) we have: 

For the steam train 0.163 lb. of coal per ton mile. 

For the electric train 0.077 lb. of coal per ton mile. 

But we read in Bulletin 402, published by the U. S. Geological 
Survey, entitled ' ' The Utilization of Fuel in Locomotive Prac- 
tice," by Dr. W. F. M. Goss, as follows: — 

' ' Observations on several important railroads have indicated 
that not less than 20 per cent of the total fuel supplied to loco- 
motives performs no function in moving trains forward. This 
amount is dependent only to a very slight extent on the character- 
istics of the locomotive, being in a large measure controlled by 
operating conditions, the length of divisions and the promptness 
with which trains are moved." 

There are other ways in which the fuel can be wasted. For 
example, the fuel lost by 'dropping through the grates is a factor 
that depends on the grate design, and on the characteristics of the 
fuel, but chiefly on the degree of care exercised in managing the 
fire. A familiar sight, when walking along the ties of some roads 
(where they don't pinch you for trespassing) is the amount of 
coal near the track and on the embankment, that has jiggled off 
the tenders of passing locomotives; to say nothing of the lumps of 
coal used by the firemen as ammunition against barking dogs and 
other animals. Other considerations involved are: the cost of 
the coal delivered at the convenient site of the generating station 
is materially less than the cost of the same coal by the time it is 
loaded on the locomotive tenders, and also, a cheaper grade of 
lignite coal can economically be employed in a generating station 
than on steam locomotives which are usually supplied with run 
of mine. Thus, if the comparison were carried beyond the quan- 
tity of coal per train mile and reduced to terms of the fuel cost 
per train mile, the result would in most instances be to increase 
the above 2 to 1 ratio (2 for the steam locomotive to 1 for the 
electric locomotive) to a ratio more of the order of 3 to 1. 

If the traffic of the country could be moved with only % of 
the amount of fuel it now takes to move it, enormous quantities 
of coal would be conserved for future generations. Let us get 
some idea of the amount and value. In 1911 the total amount of 
bituminous and anthracite coal mined in the United States was 
approximately 535,771,000 short tons. For the same year in 
Canada, 11,323,000 tons were mined, or a total of roughly 547,- 
000,000 tons for the two countries. 

It is estimated that locomotives use more than one-fifth of the 
total quantity of coal mined. On this basis, we have the annual 
consumption of coal by locomotives in Canada and the United 
States amounting to approximately 110,000,000 tons. If it were 
possible to save % of this, valued at $2.00 per ton, we effect a 
yearly saving of roughly $147,000,000, which amount would go a 
long way towards paying the interest on capital expenditures for 

But there is not going to be wholesale electrification that 
will result in any such economies during the next few years. To 

believe that we are face to face with such a saving would be 
on a par with believing that, because the Mallet locomotive used 
in the St. Louis tests developed under certain conditions a 
drawbar horse-power hour form 2.6 lb. of coal and that by the 
addition of superheaters, this figure could be reduced to approxi- 
mately 1.6, we are then justified in assuming that the aggregate 
coal consumption of steam locomotives can be obtained by 
multiplying 1.6 lbs. by the aggregate drawbar horse-power 
hours required to operate the existing freight and passenger 
service of the country. In America, there is no evidence that 
the heads of our steam roads are contemplating any general 
electrification in the near future; for it is obvious that in these 
days of railroad regulation and difficult railway finance, unless 
we have a definite answer to the question, "Will it pay?" very 
little progress can be made. But it is right at this point, how- 
ever, that it is necessary to consider the subject in its very 
broadest aspects. In no line of human endeavor is there such 
building for the future as in railroading. Otherwise we would 
not be witnessing the present increased activity in the applica- 
tion of the electric locomotive to steam railroad properties. If 
in the past, the electric locomotive has made inroads into the 
steam field, in connection with tunnels, terminals and mountain 
grades, it has been because it was the logical machine to adopt. 
The saving may not be apparent in lower operating costs, but 
may result from greatly increased capacity, the elimination 
of water stations along the line, the reduced steaming capacity 
of the steam locomotive in very cold weather, just at the time 
it requires its maximum power, the increased speed of trains 
over single track mountain divisions, the improvement in con- 
ditions of travel due to the elimination of all smoke, the many 
incidental advantages in having -electric power available at all 
points of the system, and in many other different ways that will 
suggest themselves to the seasoned railroad man. The point 
that it is desired to bring out here, is that the interest in the 
electrification of railways is fully justified, and that each case 
should be considered on its merits. For many years to come, for 
trunk line service, the steam locomotive will be used; but in 
building for the future, it will be wise to thoroughly investigate 
electric operation. We all know that in years gone by, many 
trolley lines have been built much in advance of their com- 
mercial justification; but the result has bee^i a tremendous aid 
to the rapid extension and development of the communities 
served by these lines. 

The American Institute papers of Messrs. Hobart and Kahler 
previously referred to, and also a paper by A. H. Babcock, 
electrical engineer of the Southern Pacific Co., merit the perusal 
of all thoughtful railway men; for in these papers, we have 
the optimistic and pessimistic sides of railway electrification 
discussed at great length by world-wide experts. To show that 
engineers now realize to the full that electrification will be a 
very gradual process, the following extract from Mr. Hobart 's 
paper is of interest: — 

"The predominating item in the capital outlay is that for 
rolling stock; and against this outlay a credit can equitably be 
allowed, since the replaced steam equipment can be used up on 
non-electrified divisions. In other words, in making up its 
budget for new rolling stock, a railway engaged in electrifying 
its system by divisions, will in each successive year devote a 
greater sum to the purchase of electrically equipped rolling 
stock, and a lesser sum to the purchase of equipment for steam 
operation. ' ' 

Leaving aside the economic feature, there are several im- 
portant reasons why we have not seen electric operation more 
generally adopted on steam lines. In the writer's opinion, the 
foremost reason is the fact that in the modern steam locomotive 
we have a mighty good thing. On the whole, it is very reliable, 
and in what business is greater reliability required than in rail- 
roading? Everyone knows it is pretty nearly as difficult to 
change a Canon of the Church as to introduce some new feature 
on railroad rolling stock. The attitude is reasonable, and 

February, 1914 



natural; as the responsibilities involved in any radical change 
are very great indeed. 

Another reason is the fact that for the last few years there 
has been a discussion going on in the various engineering 
societies as to the best system to use; leading outsiders to be- 
lieve that there has been a much greater lack of agreement in 
regard to systems and standards than is really the case. How- 
ever, as the economic range of application of each system is 
becoming better known, we are now emerging from the chaos 
of five years ago to a clearer understanding of the relative 
merits of each system. The actual operating results from exist- 
ing terminal installations has been a large factor in clearing 
up debatable points. 

Choice of System. 

As in steam operation, there is no universal locomotive that 
is used for freight, passenger or shunting service, so in electric 
operation there is no one system that meets all the varied de- 
mands of railroad operation. Experiments are being carried out 
on both sides of the water with systems, employing mercury 
arc rectifiers, split phase converters, special forms of single 
phase motors, etc.; and while many of these systems show 
great promise, they are still in the experimental stage, and we 
will thus consider only the four systems furnished by the present 
state of the art, as follows: — 

1. The low pressure direct current (D.C.) system, working 
at 500 to 600 volts. 

2. The high pressure (D.C.) system working at 1,200 to 
3,000 volts. 

3. The single phase alternating system. 

4. The polyphase (3-phase) alternating system. 

System 1 has abundantly proved its applicability for electric 
urban traction and short urban or interurban railway lines all 
over the world. The low voltage employed limits the economical 
use to a few miles, unless coupled with the employment of 
rotary converter substations. In this latter case, the energy 
is transmitted by three-phase alternating current at high voltage 
to transformer stations along the line, and there changed to 
D.C. current at 500-600 volts. 

System 4, the three-phase system, finds its greatest applica- 
tion for mountain grade divisions and tunnels with heavy grades; 
as it is possible to introduce great economies in operation, due 
to being able to connect the motors as generators and return 
power to the line when going down grade. The Great Northern 
Power Company has adopted this system, and its success and 
the success of the Valtelina line and several other similar north 
Italian lines, has encouraged an extension; and a Parliamentary 
appropriation of twelve million pounds sterling has been made 
for electrification of Italian main line railways on the three- 
phase system. The greater complications of the overhead line, 
involving a double trolley wire and those of the arrangements 
for speed regulations have been arguments against the three- 
phase system. 

System 2, the high pressure D.C. system, while the last to 
enter the field, is in the opinion of many, the solution for trunk 
line electrification. It is now well known that the Lancashire 
and Yorkshire Bailway Company is going to electrify a short 
length of . line between Bury and Holcombe Brook at 3,000 
volts D.C. It is not anticipated that the consumption of cur- 
rent at the train will be in any way different from that of 
any other continuous current train, but it is certain that the 
capital cost of rolling stock will not be appreciably greater 
than that of the low tension continuous current rolling stock, 
and that a very high efficiency of transmission will be obtained 
between the power station and the train. 

System 3, the single-phase alternating system, has now been 
tried out for a number of years. In this system, single-phase 
traction motors having commutators called respectively com- 
pensated series and compensated repulsion motors, have been 
invented, and these can be accelerated and reversed with the 
same ease as continuous current motors. The A.C. motors are 
about half as large again as the D.C. for the same power output, 

the switching arrangements are heavier, and the motor has 
generally to be associated with a transformer; but the advantage 
of being able to transmit and pick up current from overhead 
trolley wire at high voltage and transform down on the locomo- 
tive to low voltage is very great. 

The future of railway electrification at the present time seems 
to lie between the single phase alternating, and the high pres- 
sure direct current systems for main line work. The nature of 
the current affects the system of operation, and it is much 
easier to obtain the power necessary to drive motor car trains 
of varying make up with direct current than with single phase 
alternating current. The horse power output per ton of elec- 
trical equipment has been estimated at 11 H.P. for D.C, as 
against 6 H.P. for A.C. motors. The operating costs for A.C. 
system are certainly higher than for D.C. Mr. J. Dalziel, in 
discussing a paper presented before the Institution of Electrical 
Engineers, states, ' ' While the single phase system has certain 
drawbacks in increased weight and cost of rolling stock equip- 
ment, on the one hand, possible main line electrification cannot 
with prudence be overlooked, especially on some lines; and 
on the other hand, even in dense urban passenger traffic work, 
its disadvantages are by no means so outstanding, and it in 
fact has advantages of comparative performance sufficiently 
great to make its rejection for any work that may be in con- 
templation a matter for the gravest consideration, and, indeed, 
of bad engineering where main line work is possible." 

In America, however, in the opinion of the writer, the high 
tension D.C. system has a preponderating advantage in that 
without much difficulty, power can be obtained from existing 
large stations whether equipped with 60 or 25 cycle generators. 
The single phase system requires 25 cycles or lower; in schemes 
of magnitude, 15 is figured. This precludes the single phase 
A.C. system from obtaining power from any of the existing 
supply companies, without interposing expensive frequency 
changer substations, thus taking away the main excuse for 
adopting the single phase system; namely, the use of simple 
booths equipped with transformers instead of substations con- 
taining rotative machinery. 

The main essential is to thoroughly realize the limitations 
of each system, and act accordingly. Each electric system has 
its own particular field, and steam also has its field. The high 
voltage D. C. system is not the panacea for all electrification. 
Hobart says: "It is possible that the single-phase system may 
play an important part in certain classes of railway work, such 
as for hauling freight trains and express passenger trains; but 
in the interests of railway electrification, it is important to 
confine the application of the single-phase system to its true 
economic range of work; or, at any rate, to classes of work not 
widely outside of this range." 

A method that has been recently adopted, where electrifica- 
tion is under consideration, is for the railway to obtain alternate 
tenders from firms of repute who are capable of carrying out 
both systems equally well, not only for the first cost of the 
installation, but also for the cost of operation. This method 
has been recently followed by the Commissioners of the Vic- 
torian Bailways, for the very large electrification scheme in the 
vicinity of Melbourne. Tenders and guarantees were obtained 
from all the chief manufacturers of the world, and a decision 
reached only after very careful deliberation. The Melbourne 
electrification is on a large scale, and is the first instance where 
the decision has been made after a consideration of electrical 
as compared with steam locomotive methods. 

The writer is aware of the wonderful developments that 
have taken place during the last few years in the design and 
improvement of the steam locomotive; where we now have 
large articulated compound engines capable of exerting draw- 
bar pulls of over 100,000 lbs., working simple, and that it is 
claimed by the use of superheat, the consumption of coal per 
horse power hour at the drawbar is now only about 2% pounds. 
It is safe to assume, however, that by the time the electric 
locomotive has behind it the years of development now pos- 



February, 1914 

sessed by the steam locomotive, considerable electrification 
will have taken place. One of the biggest factors in bringing 
this about on this continent is the fact, that, in spite of all the 
muck raking magazine articles, it has been abundantly proved 
that the railroads of this country are not over-capitalized and 
that, on the contrary, they are very much in need of money 
and added capitalization. In comparison with English rail- 
ways, it has been shown that the American roads with only 
one-fifth the capitalization per mile, handle one-fourth more 
business, charge only one-third the rate, pay double the -wages, 
and are supported by only one-seventh of the population. Is 
it not safe to assume that some of the added capitalization will 
go towards electrification, after its economies have been fully 
proven? The present capitalization of English railways is very 
much higher than in this country. This is undoubtedly hold- 
ing back electrification to some extent, as the directors of 
the roads are extremely reluctant to add anything to their 
present burden of fixed charges. 

The large water powers with which this country is endowed 
should aid in electrification, since large quantities of cheap 
energy are available in various parts of the country. 

Indirect Advantages from Electrification. 

Only one or two of the indirect advantages accruing from 
electrification will be mentioned here. If the railroad pur- 
chases large blocks of power at low figures -from the central 
station supply companies at the large centers, it will be able 
to utilize a portion of this energy for operation of its railroad 

As the high tension transmission lines will in all probability 
travel along the right-of-way of the railroad, taps can be taken 
off from the lines and power sold to advantage to small towns 
or large farms and ranches. Inexpensive stepdown apparatus 
has lately been developed, enabling even small quantities of 
power to be tapped off high voltage lines. In the great wheat 
belts of Canada, the power could be sold to do the threshing 
and perhaps in the future, to increase the yield per acre, due to 
the direct stimulation of plant growth by means of electricity. 
Experiments in England have shown an increase in the yield 
per acre of from 15 to 50 per cent, due to a proper application 
of high tension currents. In California it has also been shown 
that an electrified field in which sheep are grazing, has largely 
increased the yield of wool and improved the quality at the 
same time. 

The adoption of electricity as a motive power for all manu- 
facturing operations would mean an immense conservation of 
the labor of the nation. This would have a tendency to make 
labor more remunerative, which in turn would stimulate inven- 
tion in all kinds of labor-saving devices; in other words, elec- 
trical appliances; and thus the all-electric millennium -would be 
well on its way. In fact, the signs of the times are not want- 
ing at the present moment; for just recently there has been 
formed the "Society for Electrical Development, Inc.*' The 
official slogan of this society is, "Do it electrically," and the 
spontaneous support received from every branch of the industry 
means an immense stimulus during the next few years. It 
behooves us all therefore to be in a receptive mood. 


In an effort to strengthen the ends and draft sills of the 30 
and 40 ton wooden cars, the Canadian Pacific Railway has added 
Inexpensive reinforcements with most satisfactory results. De- 
fective draft sills are replaced with 6-inch 22.7 steel Z bar 
sills. Three-inch 6.7 Z bars are bolted to the end posts, ex- 
tending to the bottom of the end sill behind the deadwood and 
bolted to the end sill. Inch and three-quarter lining is applied to 
cover the original lining, being secured with the end post bolts 
as well as being nailed to the intermediate end posts and corner 

The Z bar center sills have given the most satisfactory results. 
They are very easily applied to the car, and there is no additional 
delay on the repair tracks to equip the old cars with ths» steel sills. 
The steel sills are riveted to the body bolsters, bolted to the 
needle beams and securely attached to the end sill, the end sill 
being supported by the reinforced end. 

In the application of the 194-inch lining, over the original lin- 
ing the cost of repairs to the original lining is saved, making 
the addition of the heavy lining cost but very little. The Z bars 
bolted to the outside of the old end posts are also an inexpensive 
improvement as they can be applied over cracked posts. 

C. P. Wooden Box Car Showng Reinforcing Lining. Note Bolts 
Which Extend Through Lining and Outside Z Bars. 

C. P. Wooden Box Car Showing Z Bar Reinforcement at End. 

February, 1914 



Freight Train Handling 

Draft rigging in fair to good condition is not pushed in nor 
pulled out. It is either driven in or jerked out, both implying 
a severe blow. The, severity cannot be judged by any shock felt 
by those riding trains, particularly the engineer of a heavy loco- 
motive. For a shock to be felt the speed must change suddenly 
and considerably. The amount of the instant reduction in speed 
of a modern freight locomotive that is necessary to cause a break - 
in-two is too little to be felt as the severe shock that it is to 
draft rigging. Engineers who do not understand this are prone 
to attribute resulting failures to the condition of the draft rig- 
ging instead of to their handling. 

A train composed of empties behind loads is not an excuse for 
breaking-in-two ; neither, as a rule, is an " old defect. ' ' Many 
of such defects should be called ancient, as not infrequently they 
are original in old couplers. While allowance will be made for 
an old defect, yet the fact that its evident age did not result 
in failure before, asks whether it would have occurred then with 
proper handling; or, if the draft rigging was plainly defective, 
why it had not been noted in season and the car switched to the 
rear, or, if necessary, set out? Every "old defect" not original 
with the part that failed was once a new defect, and the man 
who breaks many of the "old defects" is one who is contribut- 
ing to the new ones. Therefore, this bald statement cannot alone 
be accepted as a sufficient explanation. 

The secret of smooth train handling lies in ability to control 
the slack, in preventing it from running in or out harshly. Where 
so controlled no draft gear in fair to good condition will be dam- 
aged. Slack action cannot be prevented, but by engineers acquir- 
ing knowledge of the various causes for it and exercising fore- 
thought in the use of steam, train brakes, independent engine 
brakes and sand, it can generally be controlled, even to the extent 
of avoiding further injury to damaged draft gear. The heavier 
the locomotive and the longer the train the greater is the care 
required. In train handling harsh running out of slack is the 
usual trouble, proven by about 40% of the break-in-twos occurring 
within ten cars of the engine. Slack is run out by the use of 
steam as well as brakes. 

Comparative records of engineers and conductors in the same 
class of service, where all must at times have trains requiring 
more than usual cars to avoid draft gear damage, prove that much 
of the damage which some experience can be avoided. To effect 
and maintain an improvement the co-operation of all concerned, 
including switchmen and car men, is requested. Intelligent ob- 
servance of the following will aid greatly. 

Instructions for Freight Engineers. 

Slack cannot be changed both gently and quickly; therefore, 
"make haste slowly" is imperative when steam, grade or brake 
action is changing the slack, either stopping or starting trains. 
That is, where any one of these is changing the slack allow 
ample time for the change to be completed before doing anything 
that would hasten it. Also, do not endeavor to start until the 
gage indicates sufficient brake pipe pressure to give reasonable 
assurance that all brakes are released. 

As one illustration, when releasing the train brakes while run- 
ning, do not commence to use steam until certain the slack has 
had ample time to run out, and even then start its use gradually. 
Another is where, when running forward, steam is shut off and 
brakes applied; allow ample time for the slack to run in before 
applying the brakes. Even then make a slight reduction if the 
speed is low. The following is an example of insufficient time and 
results: Where a long train has just been started, and while the 
engine is working heavily, if steam is shut off suddenly and a 
heavy service application is made at once there is liability of 
driving in couplers or even of " jackknifing" any weak car near 
or ahead of the middle of the train. 

There are two kinds of slack, loose slack and spring slack. 

*Eead by F. B. Farmer, of the Westinghouse Air Brake Co., at the 
January meeting of the Western Railway Club. 

They work together. Loose slack is that which can be run in or 
out without compressing the draft gear springs. It merely per- 
mits of shocks. Spring slack is the additional amount that can 
be had, in or out, when these springs are compressed, and which 
helps to drive the slack in the oposite direction and thereby in- 
crease the shocks. The first of the following illustrations gives 
an example of this draft gear spring action. These springs are 
compressed with slack either in. or out heavily, and at such times 
their action must be considered as well as that of steam, the 
brakes or the track. 

With no slack and good draft rigging trains could not be 
broken in two. The same can be said with slack either all in or 
all out and held so. The damage arises from its sudden change. 
When slack runs in or out rapidly one part of the train gradually 
attains a lower speed than the other and the shock is the result 
of the draft rigging having to suddenly make the speed uniform 
on the instant the slack is all in or out. How heavy the shock 
will be depends mainly on the difference in speed that must 
instantly be made uniform and on the weight that must sud- 
denly be altered in speed. Weight is important, as with a heavy 
locomotive or loaded cars, but change in speed is more so as 
changing it suddenly 3 m.p.h. will cause nine times the shock 
than will a similar quick change of one m.p.h. 

To illustrate, suppose that on an ascending grade, steep enough 
to alone start the cars back, a long train was stopped with the 
engine brakes only, fully applied as the speed became low and 
held on after stopping. The compressed draft gear springs 
would help the grade to start the rear and back and when all 
slack had run out, the rear half of the train could easily be 
moving at three or four miles per hour. If the engine brakes 
could be released on the instant all slack had run out the jerk 
necessary to instantly bring the standing engine to three or four 
miles per hour would be more than draft rigging could stand, 
yet it would be worse if the engine brakes were applied. 

Had the engine braking power been gradually reduced as speed 
became low and entirely released shortly before the stop was com- 
pleted the compressed draft gear springs would have gradually 
run out the slack. Then the grade would have started the entire 
train back with little or no slack action and a light application 
of either the train or the engine brakes would have stopped it 
without damage. 

Again, assume a long train, having empties behind loads, being 
stopped with the train brakes, on a level grade and from 25 
m.p.h.; that the first reduction and leakage had reduced the 
speed to 6 m.p.h.; that at this time, when the brakes on the 
empties had the slack pulled out heavily, a further reduction of, 
say, 7 pounds, were made. The head brakes would feel it first 
and start the slack in. Just as this would stop the loads from 
pulling on the empties, the latter would feel the reduction. At 
low speed brake shoe friction is high. Hence, the empties would 
' ' anchor, ' ' and by the time they had run out the slack the 
majority of the train would be three or four miles per hour lower 
in speed than the engine, meaning that the latter must instantly 
be reduced in speed that much. Draft rigging could not stand 
this and a break -in-two would follow. 

Had no reduction been made at 6 m.p.h. the slack would not 
have changed except to draw out a little more. It could not 
run out, as the only additional possible would require more com- 
pression of the draft gear springs. These are compressed with 
slack pulled out as well as when it is pushed in. Hence, there 
could be no bad jerk, merely a hard pull and, possibly, a light 
jerk. But even this would be avoided if, when within 40 feet 
of stopped, an additional reduction of 6 or 7 lbs. were made. The 
forward brakes would feel it first and would start the slack in, 
but the train would be stopped before the rear brakes could re- 
spond to this reduction and run the slack out again. 

Yet another illustration: assume the same train being backed 
at low speed, engine working heavily, draft gear springs thereby 



February, 1914 

compressed; then, that steam were shut off and, say, a service 
reduction of 8 lbs. were made. The brakes on and near the engine 
would feel it first and start the slack out, the coupler spring 
would help to run it out faster and by the time it was all out 
there would be a similar difference of 3 or 4 m.p.h. in speed 
between the ends of the train. While the shock would be severe, 
possibly enough to cause damage, it would be less than with the 
loads at the rear end, and even then much below that in the 
fore part of the previous illustration, because of the lesser weight 
to be suddenly reduced in speed. 

If, when backing, steam had been used somewhat lighter at 
first, then heavier from the time the brake application was begun, 
the reduction had been but 6 lbs., and if the engine had been 
prevented from applying, no serious shock would have occurred 
at the rear end because the lighter reduction would have had less 
effect, and the heavier use of steam then and preventing the engine 
brakes from applying would have largely offset the effect of the 
earner response of the head than of the rear brakes. 

"With sufficient tie another method would produce equally good 
results. That is, shutting off steam, waiting for the compressed 
coupler springs to drift out the slack, applying the engine brakes 
lightly to stretch it farther, then making the reduction of 6 lbs. 
and at the same time releasing the engine brakes. However, this 
would take more time than is generally had. is more complicated, 
and, therefore, the other method is better. 

The foregoing illustrations of the wrong and the right methods 
are to demonstrate that the main cause for damaging shocks in 
train handling is slack action, and that it can be controlled. 
While showing that the use of steam can help to prevent harsh 
slack action, by opposing the tendency of the brake action to 
change it, it is plain that if used in the same direction as the 
brakes tend to run it, the slack will be increased. Bear in mind, 
though, that if the slack is either in or out heavily any brake ac- 
tion that tends to run it in the same direction cannot cause any 
severe shock; therefore, that, when running ahead, slack in is 
generally more favorable for applying, as slack out is for releas- 
ing. While it would make the instructions too long to cover 
every condition of train, or brakes, of track, speed, etc., by illus- 
trations and specific directions, the foregoing and the foDowing 
instructions will almost invariably enable any engineer, who has 
the knowledge he is supposed to and who exercises judgment and 
forethought, to avoid damaging shocks from slack action. 

Undesired quick action or ' ' brakes dynamiting ' ' can be caused, 
especially with long trains, by a very light (3 or 4 lbs.) or very 
slow reduction (lapping the brake valve and allowing brakes to 
leak on), where it would be avoided by braking as directed. 
Therefore, avoid these two bad practices. If it cannot be avoided 
the shock will be less where the speed is higher, but the faulty 
triple valve should be located, cut out and carded. In starting 
a freight train keep the engine at a slow and uniform speed for 
two car-lengths, and don't vary this rule because less distance 
may have started the entire train. 

In slacking to start a train, endeavor to take either a foot or 
two or the slack of the entire train. Take but little if slacking 
the entire train will allow the rear end to run back, as an attempt 
to take all then will almost certainly cause damage. With a helper 
at the rear any slacking should be done carefully by the helper 
engineer, the head engineer keeping the throttle open moderately, 
but prepared to temporarily ease off enough to prevent a lunge 
when he is started. With two engines ahead the second engineer 
should allow the head one to start the train, or, if impossible, to 
almost stall before aiding him. Starting together will cause a 
severe shock if any slack is in. 

Excessive slipping of drivers causes severe shocks to draft 
rigging. The coupler springs cause the slack to change quickly, 
and this is usually followed by a severe shock with the renewed 
use of steam. Hence, when slipping is probable, use sand. Also, 
when working an engine heavily at slow speed use no more 
throttle than necessary. Full power is then obtained with a mod- 
erate opening. The beginning of slipping will instantly reduce 
the steam pressure in the cylinders, and, with the quick and 

slight closing of the throttle then possible, will at once "steady" 
the engine without much 'change of slack or loss of speed. With 
two or more engines in a train, excessive slipping of one will 
often cause the other or others to slip. 

How rapidly any certain brake action, either application or 
release, may change the slack depends on the speed, because brake 
shoe friction, the actual holding power, is higher, with the same 
application, as speed is lower. This is why the slower-releasing 
rear brakes are hable to cause a break-in-two on attempting to 
release at low speed, particularly if the reduction is heavy, yet 
will not produce any appreciable shock when release is made at 
the higher speeds. Therefore, it follows that the lighter the 
reduction at any certain speed the less will be the slack action. 
The higher the speed or the lighter the application the less will 
be the slack action from either applying or releasing. 

Attempt no "spot" stops. This means do not endeavor to run 
up close to a switch to head in, and to always stop short and 
cut off for coal and water. The main object is to stop properly 
within any reasonable distance short of the switch, the water 
tank or coal chute. Proper stops can not be made regularly, and, 
at the same time, stop the engine at some desired spot. Trying 
to stop close to the switch or to spot for coal or water without 
cutting off causes the trainmen more work, by draft gear damage 
that occasionally results, and injures the reputation of an engine- 

Shut off steam gradually and allow ample time for the engine 
to drift in the slack as much as it will before commencing to 
apply the brakes. With a drifting throttle use no more steam 
than necessary and none below 7 or 8 m.p.h. If set when at 
normal speed and not changed, the engine will be working hard 
when speed is low. 

At ordinary speed make each stop with one application but 
with two reductions. Make the first reduction sufficient and at a 
point to insure that it alone will, with no additional reduction, 
prevent the engine from passing the objective point. Take all 
chance of error in judgment on the side of stopping too soon. 
Then, when not over 40 feet from stopped, make the second reduc- 
tion of 6 or 7 lbs. The only object of this second and final 
reduction is to start the slack in at a time too late for it to 
run out again before the stop is completed, thereby reducing 
possible strains on the draft rigging and bunching the slack more 
or less for starting. It must not be made earlier than directed 
as to do so is liable to cause a break-in-two rather than prevent 
one. When made properly the brake valve will be discharging 
when the engine stops. If the grade permits, release may be com- 
menced as soon as the train is stopped and without waiting for 
the brake valve discharge to cease. 

The heavy use of sand for the last eight or ten car-lengths 
will increase the holding power of the head brakes and will reduce 
liability of driving wheels sliding. Eeleasing the locomotive 
brakes or reducing their holding power at this time increases 
liability of damage to draft rigging and should be avoided if 

If the slack stayed in after the first reduction no harm would 
result from making more reductions between it and the final one, 
but the engineer cannot know how the slack will be with any 
train other than one with empties behind loads. With the latter 
the slack is sure to stretch after each reduction but the one made 
within 40 feet of stopped, and this may be true of any other 
make-up. With slack out each reduction starts it in and is fol- 
lowed by it running out. The slower the speed and the greater 
the reduction the heavier will be the run-in and the following 
run-out ; hence, the worse the jerk. 

The amount of initial reduction should suit the speed of the 
train and the grade, and must not be less than 6 lbs. nor over 12 
lbs. For speeds of 15 m.p.h. and less use a 6 to 8 lbs. Above 15 
m.p.h. use as much less than 12 lbs. as conditions will warrant. 
The objects sought are to have all slack action take place at the 
higher speeds, so as to insure that it will be gradual, at the same 
time to permit it to adjust itself however it will, and then not to 

February, 1914 



disturb it any by further reductions until the final one; also, to 
avoid a total reduction of over 20 lbs. if practicable. 

An exception to the rule of one application for stopping a 
freight train is where speed is very high, particularly where the 
stopping place is a meeting point or a railway crossing; in fact, 
any place where additional hazard would follow lack of entire 
control. Under such conditions a reduction of about 12 pounds 
should be made far enough from the objective point to permit of 
slowing the speed to between 20 and 25 m.p.h., not lower than 20 
and of releasing and recharging quite thoroughly before reaching 
the place where the regular application for stopping should be 
begun. , 

When stopping a long train while backing at moderate or low 
speed use a light reduction, keep the engine brakes from applying 
and continue to use steam. The object is to prevent the slack 
from running out harshly. 

Speaking generally, all stops should be made with the train 
brakes, experience having demonstrated that rough work too fre- 
quently accompanies stopping with the independent engine brakes 
because the power of these brakes on a modern freight locomo- 
tive and the time necessary to run the slack in or out gently are 
neither not appreciated or the knowledge is not used. 

The presence of " K " triple valve will not permit of releasing 
long trains at low speeds unless the forward 25 cars have these 
valves and cut in. The holding power that can be retained on 
the engine will not alone permit of this. It is a help, but has 
its limitations and which are far below that of 25 "K" triple 

At how low speeds brakes can be released without liability of 
damage depends on how heavily they are then applied, the amount 
of main reservoir pressure, the length of the train, whether slack 
is then in or out, lightly or heavily, and on whether track condi- 
tions (sags, humps and curves) do or do not favor releasing. 
Plainly, no simple rule can care for these varying conditions. 

Where reasonably efficient retaining valves are in use, it is 
practicable to release at somewhat lower speeds than when they 
are cut out — handles down. While the head brakes always start 
to release before the rear ones the retaining valves cause a much 
slower fall of brake cyclinder pressure than when they are not in 
use and this causes the slack to run out more gradually. 

The most favorable conditions for releasing brakes are train 
standing, maximum main reservoir pressure and brakes almost 
fully applied. The most difficult release is when the brake pipe 
pressure is very low, as where the engine has been cut off for 
some time, after a burst hose, a break-in-two or emergency appli- 
cation, because of the large amount of air required to raise the 
pressure in the brake pipe, also in the auxiliary reservoirs of all 
early releasing brakes, above the pressure in the auxiliary reser- 
voirs of the best holding brakes, particularly those at the rear. 
Next in difficulty of releasing is after a light application from 
standard pressure. The high amount remaining on each triple 
slide valve makes it harder to move to release, and the lesser 
difference between the brake pipe and the main reservoir pressures 
causes a more gradual flow into the brake pipe, and, consequently, 
a slower rise in its pressure. To insure release a quick and con- 
siderable rise of brake pipe above auxiliary reservoir pressure 
must be had. Furthermore, in trying to get this to the rear after 
a light application the head brakes are sure to be so heavily 
over-charged, above the adjustment of the feed valve, as to insure 
that some will re-apply and stick. 

Where a light application is had it should be increased before 
attempting to release. With trains of over 60 cars it should be 
increased to at least 15 lbs. below the standard carried, and to 
10 lbs. with shorter trains. Of course, it may be necessary at 
times to release after a slow-down without the reductions stated, 
but such conditions should be avoided as far as practicable and no 
release attempted with a very long train after a very light re- 
duction from full pressure. 

The proper way to release the brakes on a long freight train 
after an ordinary application is to use release position for about 
15 seconds, return to running position, and, after the brake pipe 

pressure has equalized but before fully recharged (about 7 to 10 
seconds), made a "kick-off" movement, to release for a second or 
two, then back to running position. If ' ' ET ' ' equipment is had 
make the first return from release to holding position, make the 
' ' kick-off ' ' movement and then graduate off the locomotive brakes 
by movements from holding to running position and back. 

To release when brake pipe pressure is very low, as after being 
cut off for some time, following a burst hose, etc., the brake valve 
should have been on lap long enough before attempting to release 
to obtain maximum main reservoir pressure. Then release position 
must be used longer than 15 seconds; in fact, until on use of run- 
ning position the brake pipe pressure is within 10 lbs. of the 
standard carried. If the rise to this pressure is quick it is then 
sufficient to make the "kick-off," but which may have to be re- 
peated, as head brakes may have been overcharged more than 
usual. If the final rise to the pressure stated is slow — a mere 
"pump-up" — when it is obtained lap the brake valve until full 
main reservoir pressure is again had and then make the regular 

Making the "kick-off" movement with the brake valve when 
the brakes are fully charged is undesirable as it is liable to over- 
charge the head brakes and cause them to apply and stick. With 
proper releasing it is rare that any brake fails to release or finally 

When running, and particularly at low speeds, do not release 
the train brakes just before or about the time a service reduction 
is ending, as the reduction will have bunched the slack. This 
does not apply when standing. 

A train should not be held with the train brakes for over ten 
minutes on a grade where brakes are required to prevent move- 
ment. The engine brakes alone will hold a very heavy train on a 
steep grade if the position of the slack is such as to prevent cars 
from starting when the train brakes are released; for example, 
all slack in at the stop on a descending grade. 

The value of the engine brake is so great in preventing slack 
action as to warrant no unnecessary reducing of its holding power. 
However, drivers must not be slid. While it is known that slippery 
rails induce sliding, but which condition can be improved by use 
of sand, it is not so generally known that an equal reason for 
sliding is slack action that causes a push or pull on the engine, and 
not necessarily any severe jolt or jerk, an additional reason for 
avoiding harsh slack action. But at any time that sliding is at 
all liable the engine man should, with the "ET" equipment, have 
a hand on the independent brake valve, prepared to partially or 
wholly release the driver brakes promptly if the circumstances 

If with the "ET" equipment the driver brake re-applies 
("creeps-on") after releasing the train brakes it generally indi- 
cates that the train brake release was not made properly; but the 
driver brakes should not then be released with the independent 
brake valve as this will render them liable to "creep-on" again. 
Instead they should be released by a quick "kick-off" movement 
of the automatic brake valve. 

Uniform and correct regulation of the brake pipe and main 
reservoir pressures have an important bearing on good braking. 
Hence, enginemen are directed to see that the air gages indicate 
correctly and that the feed valves and the governor regulate the 
pressures at the required amounts and without material variations, 
reporting them for needed cleaning or repairs in season to insure 
this. The uniform regulation of brake pipe pressure is particu- 
larly important. If the feed valve allows it to vary three pounds 
or more brakes will be much more liable to "stick" and to 
"dynamite." The amount of the main reservoir pressure has an 
important bearing on the promptness of releasing and of recharg- 
ing the brakes. Too low pressure delays these, and too high 
pressure causes unnecessary wear and heating of the air com- 
pressor. The duplex governor, properly regulated, permits of high 
pressure when needed, yet reduces compressor labor at other 

Except where differently authorized the standard freight train 
pressures are: brake pipe 70 lbs. and main reservoir 90 lbs. low 



Februarv. l'H4 

pressure and 130 lbs. high pressure. If the air gages are correct 
the hands indicating brake pipe and main reservoir pressure will 
register alike if, on a light engine, the automatic brake valve 
(Westinghouse) is in release position. Enginemen should make 
this simple test each trip and report gages for testing and adjust- 
ing whenever the variation exceeds three pounds. 

Instructions for Freight Conductors. 

Freight conductors should inspect for stuck brakes and damaged 
draft rigging as trains are pulling out of terminals and. whenever 
practicable, on starting from points en route. Cars with draft 
rigging obviously liable to fail soon if nothing is done to prevent 
must not be taken out of terminals, and where noted at other 
points should be placed toward the rear if this will answer. Other- 
wise chain up also or set out if this will not make the car safe, 
as a break-in-two occasionally causes damage elsewhere in the 


Conductor s Break-in-Two Report 

Eng No._ 


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Form for Conductor's Report. 

They should report fully every break-in-two, including ' ' clip- 
bys, " whether or not damage is done, giving reason for failure. 

Brake pipe leakage should be stopped promptly. This includes 
even small ones and particularly so where the total amount is 
excessive, either as learned from the engineman or observed by 
the caboose gage. The latter shows it after an application is 
begun and also when the locomotive is cut off. It is excessive 
where, with the brakes applied, the leakage alone will reduce the 
pressure from about 60 lbs. faster than 7 lbs. in a minute. The 
longer the train the more air is lost with the same rate of 

The caboose air gage is to insure greater safety and better 
air operation. These ends can be attained where those whose 
duty it is to observe the gage do so with sufficient frequency and 
with an understanding of what it can indicate. From the speed, 
the pressure shown by the gage and the knowledge that should 
be had as to what the brakes could be expected to do it should 
he known whether the train can be or is being safely controlled 
by the engineman. Also, when air brakes are being released and 
recharged this gage and knowledge of the brake pipe pressure 
required to insure release at least 55 lbs. where a service appli- 
cation had been made from 70 lbs. and more if made from 
higher pressure or by an emergency application) will indicate 

whether signal to start should be delayed until more pressure 
is obtained. On a steep, descending grade full pressure should 
be had before this signal is given. 

The conductor should be held strictly responsible for such 
observance of the caboose gage, either by him or the rear brake- 
man, as will insure against danger from a closed angle cock or 
low pressure from any cause. The gage must lie observed continu- 
ously descending a steep grade. It must also he noted when 
approaching a meeting point or other place where extra hazard 
would result from a closed angle cock or low pressure. Where 
such observations indicate danger take any needed precaution, in 
the way of signals or application of hand or air brakes, as the 
circumstances warrant. 

Conductors and Enginemen. 
Where undesired quick action occurs with proper braking pro- 
ceed to locate, cut out and card the brake with the faulty triple 
valve. The difficult one to loeate is where it does not ' ' dyna- 
mite'' at standing applications, appearing to only when making 
a stop. It will do so just as regularly when standing if the test 
application is deferred for some time after brakes have been fully 

Engineer's Break-in-Two Report 


Train - Direction 

Total Cart Coupled Loads 
Tinu .Delay Hrt. 

Was (rain Starting Stopping 

Eng. No. Coadr. 

Number Empties behind Loads_ 

I' Starting tea* slack taken' 
Was steam being used 7 
Were brake* being released! 

Mix Nearest mile pott or station (Girc branch letter) 

_ . Running Backrng StnttMnmg 

Speed at break-in-two 

-Speed when shutting of! 

^Am't. first red~n_ 

Were engine or train brakes being used? _ 

How long before brakes applied 

Am't. final reduction Bow far from stop_ 

reduction (Note: Where engine brakes independent m straight-air need, gire brake 

_ Speed then 

. Total reduced just before final 

•jfUnder pressure where reduction asked for / 
Any previous severe shocks' 



No. of cart from engine where break occurred! - 
State fully your reason for break-in-two; 

Engineer _ 

Make reports in duplicate and mail original to Traveling Engineer and duplicate to Train Master 

Form for Engineer's Report. 

charged, at least ten minutes. Also when wanted, as when test 
ing for it standing, make a very slow reduction of 3 or 4 lbs., 
wait on lap until brake pipe leakage has increased this to 7 or S 
lbs. and then, if it has not occurred, add 6 or 7 lbs. in the ordi- 
nary manner. 

But before starting to test for it. the observers should dis- 
tribute along the train, standing back about two car-lengths from 
it so that by hearing, and by seeing in day light, they may note 
the direction from which the quick action comes and be able 
thereby to concentrate attention on the part of the train where 
it starts. After it occurs, and before signal to release is passed 
to the engine, each observer who thinks he has located the faulty 
brake should cut out it and two on each side of it. Then, when 
the other brakes are released he should slowly open each of the 
cut-out cocks he has closed until the brake starts to release, then 
move the end of the handle about one-fourth inch farther toward 

February, 1914 



open position. The object is to make a large enough opening 
through the cock for the brake to charge anil to respond to a 
service reduction, yet so small that if it applies quick action it 
cannot reduce the brake pipe pressure fast enough beyond the 
cock to throw other brakes into quick action. A further advan- 
tage of the five brakes almost cut out is that, even if the faulty 
valve is not among them, they will usually stop quick action 
and thereby show in which direction further attention should be 

After the brakes are again recharged and a sufficient time has 
elapsed (such haste in re-applying as previous undesired quick - 
action is then a waste of time) the test application should be re- 
peated. If the faulty valve is among these almost cut out it 
alone will apply quick action ami will usually release immediately. 
If not among these the observers should change to a portion of the 
train where the quick action came from and then repeat the tests. 

When the faulty valve is located it should be cut out and carded. 
Then, before starting, all other brakes that were almost cut out 
must be fully cut in. No excuse will be taken for failure in 
this as any so left might stop desired quick action and, by the 
slower brake 'application, endanger the safety of the train. A 
lesser evil would lie that with either desired or undesired quick 
action the shock from slack action would be greatly increased if 
quick action could not act throughout the train. 


A plug railroad in Indiana had one locomotive equipped with 
two injectors, one of which had never worked. One day the 
second injector failed to operate and help had to be sent for 
from a distant machine shop. When the physician machinist 
arrived and tried to work the injector, lie told the man in charge 
that the throttle of the injector leaked and broke the vacuum 
which prevented the instrument from raising the feed water. 

"That's all right," commented the man in charge, "take out 
the vacuum and I'll send to William Sellers & Co. for a new 
one." — The Scenic Lines Employes' Magazine. 

The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe is building a roundhouse, 
shop, office, sand house, water tank and car repair shed at 
Brownwood, Tex. The foundations are all in. 


The accompanying illustrations are of a foot-operated loco- 
motive fire door, which affords a very interesting study in prac- 
tically applied levers. 

The door consists of two similar parts of suitable size to cover 
the door opening, these being mounted on another casting, which 
is bolted to the boiler-head in the same manner as the ordinary 
hand-operated door frame. The two half-doors pivot on two 
studs, which plainly show, ami are so connected by lexers that 
one balances the other, the only force necessary to open them 
being that necessary to overcome their inertia and the slight 
friction of the pins, on which the doors and lexers turn. 

There are two points that are the cause of the door's perfect 
operation, and it is of these that we wish to write more particu- 
larly, as they afford a nice study in leverage. 

Upon applying the foot to the foot lever, which has a ratio 
of about 2 to 1, this pressure is transmited by means of rod 1 
to the under side of the upper half-door casting, which is bal- 
anced by the lower half, as the distances from fulcrums 6 and 7 
to the pins connecting rods 2 and 4, respectively, are the same, 
and the fulcrum pin 5 being in the center of lever 3. You will 
now notice that the top of rod 1 is L-shaped (inverted) and 
somewhat sloping at the left, causing the point of contact to be 
at the right or nearer the center of the door, giving a compara- 
tively long distance from the pin 6 and permitting a slight 
force to start the doors open. As the doors open, however, the 
point of contact moves outward, thus decreasing the leverage, 
which is not needed now as inertia being overcome the doors are 
easily kept in motion, but rapidly accelerating the motion of the 
door with the same rate of movement of the foot lever. This 
provides an easy starting and rapid opening door. 

We stated previously that the door eastings are similar, and, 
i'n fact, they are cast from the same pattern, but you will notice 
that the pin for the connecting rod 4 of the lower half-door is 
almost on a straight line from the main fulcrum pin 7 and the 
center of gravity of the door (e), while the corresponding pin 
in the upper door is placed considerably above this line. 

In opening, the upper door is a lever of the third class, the 

' By \\°. .]. Jarrett, in The Scenic Lines Employes' Magazine. 

Denver & Rio Grande Balanced Fire Door. 



February, 1914 

power from the foot lever, by means of rod 1, and that from rod 
2 being applied between the fulcrum and the weight, of course, 
is the door itself; while the lower door is a lever of the second 
class, the door being the power applied, and the point of applica- 
tion the pin in rod 4, which is between the power applied and 
the fulcrum, this power being transmitted by means of rod 4, 
lever 3 and rod 2 to the upper door. 

In closing, the class of the levers is reversed, the upper be- 
coming of the second class and the lower of the third class, the 
foot lever having no effect now, and you will notice that, in 
opening, the line of rod 2 is brought much nearer the fulcrum, 
thus changing the ratio of this lever, giving it a greater lever- 
age, causing it to overcome the weight of the lower door, which 
remains at practically the same ratio in both positions, and 
closing the door promptly, this being the effect desired and 
obtained by making practically a bent lever of the upper door. 

The advantages of this door over those operated by air are 
many, among which may be mentioned lower first cost, due to its 
few parts; simplicity of construction and small amount of 
machine work necessary; practically no cost for maintenance, 
as there is nothing to get out of order, and its not being de- 
pendent on the air supply for its operation. 

No additional work is required on the part of the fireman as 
the act of shifting his weight from one foot to the other in 
firing gives sufficient pressure to open the doors. Due to the 
shifting leverage, as abo\ T e described, the travel of the foot pedal 
is only about 1^4", this depending upon the amount of opening 
desired. The doors in service on the Denver & Kio Grande are 
set to give from 12" to 13" opening. On roads which use an 
8" or 9" opening the foot travel could, of course, be decreased. 

This door affords one of the best examples of the practical 
application of the principles of leverage that have come under 
our observation, and is the result of a suggestion of W. O. Cook, 
general road foreman of engines, developed by G. W. Bashaw, 
chief draftsman, assisted by P. C. Withrow, mechanical engineer, 
>of the Denver & Eio Grande. 


A driving wheel tire turning test was recently conducted at 
the Clifton Forge, Va., shops of the Chesapeake & Ohio which 
is of interest to those who want to get a line on the speed 
of such operations in shops other than their own. A set of 
four pair of 56-inch tires were turned out in one hour and 
fifty-two minutes, the best time made on finishing one pair 
being 24 minutes. The average time from floor to floor was 
28 minutes. A set of six pair of drivers were turned out in 
two hours, fifty-two and a half minutes. The best time made 
in finishing one pair of this last set was 28 minutes from floor 
to floor and the average time was 28% minutes. The figures 
and illustration were furnished by E. A. Murray, master me- 
chanic. This is a good record and we would be glad to hear 
from our readers with regard to similar tests. 

Tire Turning on the C. & O. Ry. 

Balanced Fire Door Used on the Denver & Rio Grande R. R. 

„ studded to 

February, 1914 



By. F. W. Green, M. Am. Soc. M. E. 
The elimination of railway accidents is the obvious purpose 
of the "Safety First" movement, which occupies a prominent 
place in railway thought at the present time. Of the various 
kinds of train accidents, tender derailments are perhaps of 
most frequent occurrence. This discussion will endeavor to 
ascertain their cause, and to suggest remedies for their pre- 

Assume a tender of the usual type, weighing 140,000 lbs. 
when loaded with coal and water. It is a common practice 
to design tenders of rather short length, in order to avoid in- 
convenience to the fireman in reaching for coal. The capacity 
necessary to properly serve the large locomotives now in use, 
must therefore, be obtained by increasing the height. This 
produces a tender with a low ratio of length to height, and a 
relatively high center of gravity. The short length requires a 
rather close spacing of the tender trucks; and this in turn, a 
rather close spacing between the rear wheels of the locomo- 
tive — whether driving or trailing — and the front tender truck. 
Railway track is not rigid and unyielding, but is subject to 
depression proportional to the weight of each passing wheel 
load. Its co-efficient of rigidity, if such a term may properly 
be used, is dependent upon the character of the roadbed, 
drainage, ballast, ties and rail. Since this is an extremely 
variable quantity, inequalities in track level, surface and lines, 
are the inevitable consequences. 

The weight of the tender body and contents is transmitted 
through center plates to the bolster of each of the two ten- 
der trucks, when the track is level and in perfect line and 
surface. In the case assumed, there would be seventy thou- 
sand pounds carried upon each truck; and one half this amount, 
or 35,000 lbs. on the two wheels on each side of each truck. 
As long as perfect track continues the wheel reactions will 
remain equal, but as soon as une-\»n track is traversed, the 
wheels will naturally follow the de^wessions and irregularities 
in the track. Suppose the front track falls into a depression. 
Both truck wheels go down on tim right side, relaxing the 
right front truck springs correspondingly, which in turn pro- 
duces a compression of the track springs en the left side of 
the front truck, causing an upward thrust upon the left front 
side bearing. This upward thrust is then transmitted to the 
tank body causing it to rock to the right. The right back 
side bearing then comes into play, receiving the/downward 
thrust due to the rocking of the body, and transmitting it to 
the right back truck springs. On the rebound the left front 
side bearing again comes into play but with a reversal of 
function — receiving a downward thrust this time, instead of 
imparting an upward thrust as before. Briefly then, the rock- 
ing of the tank body, which is caused by inequalities in the 
track, ordinarily is eventually dampened or dissipated by the 
truck springs absorbing shocks imparted to them through the 
side bearings. v 

We will now assume further that track irregularities, low 
joints for example, occur at regular intervals. "When such 
places are encountered in the passage of the train, if the rock- 
ing of the tank body is contrary to the effect produced by the 
low joints, the condition resulting is illustrated by Fig. 1, in 
which it will be observed that the motions tend to neutralize 
each other. But, when the rocking of the tank body is. syn- 
chronized, as it were, with the low joints, then the resulting 
condition is sh*)wn in Fig. 2. In the latter case violent shocks 



are produced at a time when the dampening effect of the truck 
springs is a minimum and they are unable to perform their 
proper function. 

As before stated, when the track is level, the entire weight 
of the tank body is transmitted through the center plate 
equally to the wheels on each side of the truck. But when 
the tank body is rocking, this condition does not exist; a por- 
tion of the weight is taken from one side and added to the 
other, with each swing of the tank body. The numerical value 
of this weight is of course, proportional to the distance the 
side bearings are located from the center plate, the strength 
of the truck springs, the height of the center of gravity of 
the tank body above the center plate, and the amplitude of 
the swing. If we call the normal weight N, and the abnormal 
weight A. then when there is no swing, A equals zero. But 
when the body is rocking, one side of the truck has a reaction, 
N plus A, and the other side, at the same instant, a reaction 
equal to X minus A. Xow, X plus A is greater than N minus 
A. We have therefore a greater weight on one side than on 
the other with a constant force exerted through the center 
pin, and equal lever arms from center pin to wheels on either 
side. When forces are equal, the rates of acceleration are 
inversely as the weights. In other words, with a given pull 
through the draw bar, transmitted through the center pin to 
the truck bolster, the side of the truck having reaction N 
minus A will move faster than the side having reaction N plus 
A. If A is large enough, and the force transmitted through 
the draw bar is great enough, it inevitably follows that the 
truck must tend to revolve in a horizontal plane with only 
the wheel flanges to resist this tendency. 

We have thus seen how tender derailments are produced. 
Derailments of any other cars are produced in the same man- 
ner, but are of somewhat less frequent occurrence, because of 
lighter loads, lower centers of gravity, etc. The remedies for 
their prevention seem to be indicated along the following 

1. Track conditions should be made as nearly perfect as 
the present state of the art will permit. 

2. When imperfect track is unavoidable the speed of trains 
should be reduced to such a point as to avoid excessive rock- 
ing of the tender body. 

3. Tenders should be constructed with as long a wheel 
base, and with as low a center of gravity as conditions will 
permit. Side bearings outside the truck frames should be 
prohibited, and wide spacing of side bearings avoided, on ac- 
count of their producing an increase in the value of A. At the 
same time too close a spacing of the side bearings should be 
avoided because of the decrease in the dampening effect of 
the truck springs thereby produced. 

4. Truck springs should be of ample capacity to absorb 
maximum shocks without completely closing, in order to ex- 
tend the effect of the shock over as long a time as possible. 
It is usually the instantaneous shock transmitted when the 
truck springs are fully ^compressed, which derails the truck. 

5. Enginemen should be trained when encountering a danger- 
ous place in the track that the best course, is merely to shut 
off steam, when there is not time for brakes to take hold. When 
they "keep the slack stretched" by working steam over such 
places, they make matters very much worse, because the force 
acting through the center pin increases the magnitude of un- 
balanced forces, and therefore increases the tendency of the 
truck to derail. 

~*a ""' b 

Fig. 1 — Curve A-B Represents the Track with Low Joints at a and b. 
Curve C-D Represents Swing of Tender Body. 

Fig. 2 — Solid Line Curve Represents Track with Low Joints at a 

and &. Dotted Line Represents Swing of Tender Body. 

Note That Here Two Curves Are Synchronous. 



February. 1914 

6. Mechanical foremen and others should be cautioned 
against experimenting with "three point suspension" and sim- 
ilar theories. They have all been tried out and have been 
found to introduce more difficulties than they eliminate. For 
example, when front side bearings are eliminated entirely, the 
rear side bearings are called upon to dissipate all oscillations 
produced, and the rocking of the tank body becomes worse than 

7. Heavy equipment should follow, and not precede, the 
strengthening of track and roadbed. 

By William Hall. 
An important question of the day is, how can the ordinary 
mechanic be brought to see that cooperation on his part in 
increasing the output of the shop will be to his own advantage. 
If this article brings out suggestions or criticisms that may be 
helpful, I shall feel amply repaid for my trouble in advancing 
the following. 

It is said that you can't keep a good man down. By that I 
mean a man who has ambitions and aspires to improve his con- 
dition, and rise step by step until he reaches the highest rung of 
the ladder. While this may be true in some cases, it will be 
found thar those who have attained that for which they aspired, 
have received more or less encouragement from those higher 
up, with a prospect of further promotion from time to time, as 
opportunity would permit. 

Of late years, however, the ordinary mechanic has had a very 
poor show, for it has been the policy of most railroads and manu- 
facturing concerns to give the preference to the technical 
graduate. He is given a special apprenticeship and is given to 
understand that as vacancies occur he will have the first chance 
for promotion. This has had its effect on the ordinary mechanic 
who has learned his business from actual experience and hard 
knocks, and in a great many instances this actual experience has 
been reinforced by many hours of hard study and self -education 
along technical lines. 

The promotion of the technical graduate in preference to the 
ordinary mechanic has deterred the best of the rank and file 
from bringing out ideas that if put into practice would mate- 
rially increase the output of the shop. Placing men who know 
absolutely nothing whatever of shop work or shop practices in 
positions over mechanics is pure and simple favoritism, and does 
not make for efficiency. Another reason that the cooperation 
of the ordinary mechanic is not obtained is that he can see for 
himself that the best efforts of a man are not always appreci- 
ated. He sees for himself that the superintendent is not kept 
in touch with the men who are working for the best interest of 
the company, but depends upon the reports of the man between 
himself and the mechanic, who is jealous of his knowledge and 
afraid he knows more than his immediate superior. Many a 
good man has been downed by his immediate superior because of 
selfish motives, or a desire to replace him by some favorite. 
This does not apply to the mechanic alone, but to foremen also 
and in this statement can be found an answer to the question 
propounded by the technical press a short time ago, "Why is it 
that so many foremen are changing or looking for position^. 1 '' 
Another reason why foremen and the ordinary mechanic are 
backward in advancing new ideas is that if his ideas are not 
frowned upon lie is robbed of his ideas by his superior. The man 
higher up is not advised of the proper source of the idea or sug- 
gestion, thus destroying all ambition in a man who is striving 
to the front 

eral suggestions have been made to remedy the evil, such 
as following closely the capabilities of a man, and promoting 
the man found with the necessary qualifications, encouraging the 
advancement of ideas and rewarding the right man. But who 
is to be the watcher of these ambitious kind of men.' Not the 
superintendent, but the man holding an inferior rank. There 
fore these suggestions fail of equity and not until men are ar 

pointed to fill such positions as general foremen and master 
mechanics, who are big enough to think, at least, that the man 
below him is as good a man, or even a little better, than he is 
himself: who a^re willing to treat all employees with fairness, 
truthfulness and courtesy, will he gain the utmost respect of the 
men, and then, and not until then, will the cooperation of the 
employees be obtained in an effort to increase the shop output. 

Quite a number of the railroads, as well as some of our 
commercial houses are adopting the plan of remunerating their 
employees, for ideas that may be advanced by them, regardless 
of their position. When this requisite (cooperation) is obtained, 
the men will be encouraged to study technical books, magazines, 
and mechanical drawing, and men will strive to be leaders in- 
stead of followers. Xot that all men can be leaders, for there 
must of necessity be followers, but when a man sees that his 
efforts are appreciated he will put forth all there is in him. 

Another requisite in obtaining the cooperation of the men is 
cleanliness in his suroundings. It is very essential to the main- 
tenance of efficiency of the men, both in the back shop and the 
roundhouse, that these places be kept clean and light. A man 's 
efficiency is dependent upon his willingness as well as his abil- 
ity, and willingness is influenced by his surroundings. A better 
moral tone should be encouraged in the men, and incidentally 
should be practiced by some of the superiors. 

If the shop output is to be increased, it is of the utmost 
importance that the individual mechanic be carefully studied 
so that his conditions may be improved and encouraged to make 
a greater effort. 

The Illinois Central has announced that an order for expense 
aggregating $1,000,000 has been made for the construction of 
new freight terminals and freight depots at Evansville, Ind. 

The Illinois Central is building a complete engine and car 
repair terminal at Nonconnah. Tenn., at a cost of $600,000. 
George B. Swift & Co., of Chicago, has the contract. 




February, 1914 




By D. J. Duvvell, M. M. Pennsylvania Lines West. 

The subject of freight ear standardization is one that will be 
a very live one before the railroads during the next few years. 
For a quarter of a century or more, the Master Car Builders' As- 
sociation, the leading master car builders, superintendents and 
other railway officials of high order have given the question of 
car equipment considerable attention and much credit is due the 
untiring efforts of individual members of the association, whose 
work has been of untold benefit to the railways of the world and 
brought the standard of railway rolling stock to a degree of pro- 
ficiency almost undreamed of within the past thirty odd years. 
Yet, because of the fact that so many master car builders and 
others have had personal views regarding car construction, and 
have been using the same old designs for many years, together 
with the various car building companies seeking to sell their 
product regardless of its not having been built according to 
recommended practice, and a desire to use what should have been 
considered obsolete patterns, every lot of cars turned out. have 
had details of construction greatly at variance with those pre- 
viously built, and as a result after all the efforts of the men who 
have done so much along the lines of car design, there is scarcely 
a road which has in its equipment that which is in accordance 
with recommendations of the Master Car Builders' Association, 
excepting such details as wheels, oil boxes, axles and brasses and 
a few other such details, and only because of the recognized ad- 
vantages of the details I have mentioned, have we those few M. 
C. B. standards in our cars today. 

In October. 1901, the American Railway Jlssociation adopted 
the following resolution: 

(1) Resolved, That the dimensions of the standard box car 
be 36 feet in length, 8 feet 6 inches in width and 8 feet in height, 
an inside dimensions. Cross section, 68 square feet; capacity, 
2,44s cubic feet. The side door opening to be 6 feet in width. 

(2) Resolved, That the standard 36-foot car be considered the 
unit for the establishment of minimum carload weights; and that 
where necessary in any classification territory to recognize cars 
under 36 feet in length it shall be by a reduced minimum of 2% 
percent for 35-foot cars and •"> percent for cars 34 feet or under, 
inside dimensions. 

(3) Resolved, That for cars over 36 feet in length the per- 
centage of increase of the minimum weights shall be as follows: 

For cars of 37 feet and 38 feet, 10 per cent over the minimum 
for the 36-foot car. 

For cars of 39 feet and 40 feet, 25 per cent over the minimum 
for the 36-foot car. 

For cars of 41 feet and 42 feet, 40 per cent over the minimum 
for the 36-foot car. 

For cars of 43 feet'and 44 feet, 55 per cent over the minimum 
for the 36-foot car. 

For cars of 45 feet and 46 feet, 65 per cent over "the minimum 
for the 36-foot car. 

For cars of 47 feet and 48 feet, 70 per cent over the minimum 
for the 36-foot ear. 

For ears of 49 feet and 50 feet, 80 per cent over the minimum 
for the 36-foot car. 

For cars over 50 feet, 150 per cent over the minimum for the 
36-foot car. 

(4) Resolved, That any diminution of revenue incident to the 
minimum proposed in the accompanying schedule shall be ad- 
justed in the rate. 

(5) Resolved, That the minimum carload weights of heavy 
articles, such as iron, brick, lumber, minerals, etc., should, as 
fast as practicable, be advanced to the stencilled capacity of the 

(6) Resolved, That no box cars of larger dimensions than 
those prescribed for the Standard Car should be hereafter con- 
structed, and/ that all owners and builders of cars be officially 
notified of the. adoption of this resolution. Adopted October 23. 
1901. J 

Extracts from a paper read before the Cincinnati Railway Club. 

I am advised that in this connection a copy of a circular has 
been issued by the committee on maintenance, American Railway 
Association, under date of October 18, 1913, relative to increasing 
the inside dimensions of a standard ear to 40 feet, 6 inches in 
length; 8 feet, 6 inches in width, and 9 feet in height, with a 
maximum outside dimension of 9 feet, 2 inches in width at 13 
feet above top of the rail. 

The point might be raised that if we adopted standard con- 
struction we would stop progression, but I feel that the future 
development oT car construction would take care of such new 
features without causing confusion. 

I know personally, a few years ago, of box cars being built by 
a car company in Ohio and sold for the sum of $427, at the same 
time the road with which I was connected was building their own 
cars at a cost of $850, and yet the ears of each road were handled 
in interchange on roads all over the country, with the result that 
the cheaper cars were constantly proving defective, and causing 
the roads handling them much more to repair than their own 
equipment. Let me cite the question of journal brasses as an 
illustration; some roads use metal costing nineteen to twenty-one 
cents per pound, according to the price of copper, others buy 
brasses which cost them fourteen to sixteen cents per pound, and 
when a car with the cheaper brass gets on to a road using the 
better quality of metal in its brass, it frequently happens the 
cheaper brass breaks, journals are cut and the road handling the 
cars is obliged to take out the poor brass and substitute the 
higher price brass, all of which means not only a loss to the road 
handling the car, but delays to traffic. I made an estimate along 
this line some few years ago, and found that one of the large 
systems was losing approximately $750,000 yearly from this 
source alone. 

Before proceeding further let us see what constitutes this 
revenue freight car equipment. On Classification of Equipment, 
Form 7 on file in the office of the General Agent of the Ameri- 
can Railway Association, at Chicago, for the month of June, 
1913, is the following data, taken from replies of 160 roads 
operating 232,408 miles: 

Box 1,095,727 

Refrigerator 51,974 

Stock 81,809 

Tank 12,365 

Flat 139,866 

Dump 35,126 

Steel Hopper 205,661 

Wood Hopper 128,270 

Coke 38,054 

Steel Gondola 155,843 

Wood Gondola 292,252 

Other Revenue - 29,708 

Total 2,266,655 

Caboose, Work, etc 129,342 

Grand Total 2,395,997 

On October 1 of this year the actual number of revenue cars 
owned by railroads was 2,360,754. You can readily see how the 
number grew in the several months from June 1 to October 1. 
The figures which I give are for all railroads in the United 
States and Canada. 

Let us see how these cars are located; how they are running: 

Home cars on home roads 1,292,158 

Home cars on foreign roads 1,068,596 

Foreign cars on home roads 1,137,200 

Cars away from home 2,205,796 

This is a tremendous number out of the total cars owned. 

Home cars in home shops 144,568 

x (hi 

Foreign cars in home shops 32,546 

Total cars in shop 177,114 



February, 1914 

For year ending October 1. 1913, there had been, putting it in 
this way — ' ' One car, so many days out of service on account of 
bad order, ' ' — 53,309,507 car days, or an average number of days, 
each car was out of service during the year of 22.53. What does 
this mean, a foreign car or a car away from home, making it a 
foreign car? It means that the road having that car on their 
hands must either make wrong repairs, put on defect card and 
send car home, or they must hold it until they receive material 
with which to make repairs or they must carry in stock sufficient 
material to make repairs, in order to get the car off their hands. 
In the meantime that ear is earning nothing and the railroads 
are consequently losing the revenue which they might derive from 

Let me give you some more figures. I know these figures are 
dry, but it is interesting to know them in view of the fact that 
so many of the cars owned by each road are away from home, 
making them foreign cars. 

Dividing the United States and Canada into eleven districts 
and taking the number of cars owned by the lines in each dis- 
trict, we find that of all the ears the per cent to total cars 
owned is: 

Min. Max. Avg. 

Home cars on home roads 36.37 67.63 54.73 

Total cars on lines 89.31 143.35 102.91 

Home cars in home shops 2.69 8.01 6.12 

Foreign cars in home shops 33 3.02 1.38 

Total in shops 4.87 11.03 7.50 

By these figures you will note that the average number of cars 
owned, that is, home cars at home on their own road was but 54 
per cent of the cars owned. Also that the total cars used com- 
pared with those owned varied from 89 to 143 per cent, an aver- 
age of 102 per cent; in other words, some roads used 43 per cent 
more cars than they owned, or 43 cars in addition to every one 
hundred which they owned. These figures seem large, but they 
have been verified by reports from the American Railway Associa- 
tion and I feel they can be depended upon, and it means a great 
deal to the railroad companies. Taking the figure I gave you a 
few moments ago of 32,546 foreign cars in home shops, at a per 
diem charge of 45 cents per day, means $14,645.70 per day for per 
diem, or for a 365-day year $5,345,680.00 of per diem charges. 
The question may arise, or some one may eay that the five million 
dollars thus represented does not get out of the coffers of the 
railroads; that it merely passes from one to another and back 
again. That is very true, but at the same time the ears have been 
out of service and considering one day as a basis which we have 
taken and which everyone understands is way below the actual 
time that foreign cars are held on their repair tracks, we have 
run up a total yearly per diem charge of over five million dollars 
and additional days but adds to this figure. 

The question is, are the railroads going to recognize the fact 
that something will have to be done towards designing and build- 
ing standard freight equipment? The Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission has given us prints and printed instructions for grab- 
irons and safety appliances for our cars and for steps and safety 
appliances for locomotives and I feel that it is reasonable to ex- 
pect that within the next three or five years that they, if not the 
railroads, will issue to us standard drawings and dimensions for 
cars, which we will be obliged to follow under direction of the 
Interstate Commerce Commission. It is incumbent on the rail- 
roads to get busy. I predict that the time is not far distant 
when the Interstate Commerce Commission will take such course, 
and fliat a limit will be put on the present equipment as to time 
in service, according to age and construction and I believe that 
after a certain period all cars will be built after drawings and 
specifications furnished by the Interstate Commerce Commission. 
I feel further that a reasonable time will be set as to the service 
to be rendered by the cars then in commission or under construc- 
tion on a mileage basis and they will then have to be withdrawn 
from service; it may be 15 or 20 years, but I feel that the ques- 
tion will arise. 

We all recognize the fact that government control of railways 
will force us to standard equipment and while many are indeed 
skeptical regarding the ultimate outcome, let me call attention 
to the fact that a number of the states have already passed bills 
governing car construction and as a case in point I cite senate 
bill No. 298 passed by the state senate of Ohio, April 28, 1913, 
and approved by the Governor on May 5, 1913, which is an act 
to regulate the size and construction of all caboose cars used 
by any common carrier in this state. 

There are many of our leading railway men today who feel 
that affairs along this line are swiftly treading towards govern- 
ment control. Let me read what some of the leading railway men 
have to say on the subject: 

Mr. Mellen, ex-president -of the New York, New Haven & Hart- 
ford Railroad is quoted by the Boston Post of November 9th in 
part as saying: 

' ' The railroads will all go under government ownership. It is 
coming quickly. Five years ago I felt that I should not live to 
see it. But now I think that I shall. Regulation by the govern- 
ment during the last ten years has tended to lower the value of 
railroad stocks as investments. There is not the big money in 
railroads that there used to be. There will not be any opposition 
to government ownership when the time arrives, because private 
capital will find the field unprofitable as a result of the too strict 

Ralph Peters, president of the Long Island, who is known and 
dearly beloved to many present, is quoted as saying in a letter 
discussing federal ownership of railroads: "I have no doubt 
that the owners of the roads will gladly welcome government 
ownership, since it will relieve them of the financial responsibility 
for their properties, the operation of which they practically no 
longer control. However. I do not believe that the people of 
this country are yet ready to change the form of our govern- 
ment, which certainly will be the result if we undertake govern- 
ment ownership and operation of railroads, telegraphs and tele- 
phones and similar business utilities." 

In relation to standardization of freight car equipment, E. P. 
Ripley, president of the Santa Fe, in The Monthly Railway Of- 
ficial List for September, 1913, says in part: 

"I suggest a standard car uniform in all essential details to 
be arrived at by agreement, if possible— arbitration if necessary. 
If in addition we could establish a freight ear pool, or an equip- 
ment company, the stock of which should all be owned by the 
railroads, so much the better. There is no sort of doubt that 
we shall be forced to something of this kind eventually. Why 
not make the attempt to do it voluntarily and properly instead of 
being obliged to do it by law with the necessary accompaniment 
of federal inspectors and the cumbersome and other impractcable 
notions of the particular politicians who happen to be making 
laws for us at the time?" 

For the purpose of training young men who contemplate enter- 
ing railroad service the University of Pittsburgh with* the com- 
ing fall term will inaugurate a comprehensive course in railway 
meehanieal engineering and administration. In this course such 
subjects will be given as materials of railway construction, operat- 
ing units, railway design, utilization of locomotives and cars, 
maintenance of locomotives and cars, railway shop methods, 
fundamentals of railway practice and thesis; the two latter 
features under the direction of D. F. Crawford, general superin- 
tendent of motive power of the Pennsylvania Lines West. It is 
intended that the course will be closely affiliated with the rail- 
roads and that the students shall be given an opportunity to study 
modern methods of railway operation through the courtesy of the 
managements of the railroads in the district. Students shall be 
taken on inspection trips, assist in tests and become acquainted 
with the various phases of operation. 

The Air Brake Association will hold its twenty-first annual con- 
vention at the Hotel Pontchartrain, Detroit, Mich., on May 5, 6, 
7 and 8, 1914. 

February, 1914 



Shop Kinks, Canadian Northern Ry. 

The accompanying sketches show a number of shop kinks 
in use on the Canadian Xorthern Ey., which have been installed 
under the supervision of H. Ashton, chief mechanical inspector. 

Figure 1 shows a machine shop crane to serve 90" driving 
wheel lathes in roundhouse machine shops. The span is sufficient 
to include the narrow gauge track from the engine house proper 
and to handle running gear, engine trucks and tender trucks. 
Six ton hoists with a five foot stroke are being used for this work. 

All nipples to be of extra 
heavy pipe 

Fig. 2 — General Arrangement of Oil Heater. 

Figure 2 is an oil heater designed for small work such as 
filling mud ring corners and heating firebox patches. It is 
extremely simple and safe, in that all parts are integral in one 
piece up to within 8" of the nozzle tip. This precludes the 
danger of trouble on account of parts becoming accidentally dis- 
connected. The joint between the pipe and casing of boiler is 
tightly packed with asbestos. 

The wheel tongs, illustrated in figure 3 are in use by a number 
of wheel and foundry companies" as well as by the Canadian 

Figure 4 shows all the information with regard to a paint 
sprayer, which has been found to be very efficient. It connects 
to the regular shop air line. 

A novel design of a combination gauge for checking the 
contour of bearing wedges and brasses is shown in figure 5. All 
inspectors are furnished with these and they are found to be 
very serviceable. 

There are a great many different kinds of machines for 
repairing and renewing air and steam hose, but after going 

over the whole matter carefully and cautiously, the Canadian 
Xorthern decided that the arrangement shown in figure 6 is as 
good a device as could be set up within the space allotted, and 
furthermore, requires very little material which could not be sup- 
plied by the railway company. First of all, the rubber hose is 
held stationary by the force exerted from the top 3%" x 4" 

Filler cap 

Fig. 3 — Wheel Tongs. 



All par is to be 

Section of flozz/e 
A- A 

Copper C3^JSI 


Ccnnecfs to Shop air 
line °>c*pressure 

r supply 

3 fe" 5td brass pipe 

Fig. 4 — Car Paint Sprayer. 

dear Wheel 



Cor. Con 
I'xS" Bar 

Fig. 1 — Machine Shop Crane, Canadian Northern Ry. 



February, 1914 

Air supply ^ 
Cut out Valve 

Cylinder 3i"Dia. 
V Stroke. 

* cock y 

Cylinder- , 

Fig. 6 — General Arrangement and Detail of Hose Mounting Machine. 

cylinder, through two wooden clamp blocks connected up to 
piston rod through a 14" symmetrical lever. The nipp*les and 
couplings are forced on by the same size of cylinders placed 
horizontally on top of bench. This gives a very flexible arrange- 
ment, for where different lengths of hose are used the necessary 
variation may be taken up in the piston rod connections or the 
cylinders moved. This is not necessary at the present time on 

Fig. 5 — Journal Bearing and Wedge Gauges. 

^ tfl 

\-vh Brass springs t 
\-£~ non7 t Cut. only 
13 j" /ong 

Double leather Single leather 

For Vert. Cylinder For horiz Cyl 
Cylinder Phton a. Rod 

3- Required CI. I- Required 2- Required 

Cylinder Details for Hose Mounting Machine. 

the Canadian Northern as the hose all runs 22" long. In this 
arrangement a set of blocks is required for each size of hose, 
1", 1%" and 1-%", to suit the style being run. The principal 
feature of merit in this device lies in the operation developed 
by the 8" brake cylinder, which has a travel of 3" maximum, 
brought about by reducing the regular spring by 8". In placing 
the hose clamps, the first step is to slip them on loosely by hand 
and by operating the last, mentioned cylinder, which has connected 
to its piston a 19" symmetrical employing a pincer arrangement 
at each end, on the clasp brake principle, so arranged that as 
the*4tdl travel is approached these grip around the hose clamp, 
forcing it tightly in position. The bolt is then inserted and 
-ciiired in the usual manner. All is brought about on one ma- 

chine, through a single mounting and the hose is not released or 
removed until absolutely completed. 


By P. E. Cosgrove, Fmn. Boilermaker, E. J. 4' E. By. 
The sketch shows an improved way of lagging a boiler on 
or around the back end, to enable workmen to renew broken 
staybolts with the least possible trouble and at a low cost. We 
are using what I call a panel jacket made in sections and filled 
with asbestos. These panels can be removed very easily and it 
saves making a nasty mess all around the engine. They are 
made to suit the space and can be taken off and put back in a 
short time, as there is no stripping to be done. 

"itudi m Doner 


Studs riveted 


Removable Jacket Panels for Lagging. 

We instruct our pipemen, in placing all outside piping around 
the boilerhead, to place it at least an inch and a half away 
from the jacket. This allows the panels to be slipped out very 
easily. We also cover all our flexible staybolts with it. We 
have been applying this for over a year and find it a very 
profitable proposition, for where we have only two or three bolts 
to remove we don't have to strip a whole side. Also, we have 
done away with all steps near the cab and have substituted a 
small ladder from running board to hand rail, thus eliminating 
all leaky studs. 

Railroad ditching was illustrated with lantern slides and motion 
pictures at the annual banquet of the Minnesota branch of the 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers at the Saint Paul 
on January 7. Oliver Crosby, president of the American Hoist & 
Derrick Co., was the lecturer. 

The new station of the New York Central lines at Rochester, 
|N, Y., has been opened to the public. The building was more 
than three years in construction. The new station yards have 
8.2 miles of track and capacity for 225 cars. 

February. 1914 



By C. L. Bundy, General Foreman, D. L. <f W. B. B., 

Kiiiffsland, X. J. 
Layout by E. C. Bundy. 

I think I may safely say that the art of designing, equipping, 
and operating a railroad repair shop has not up to the present 
time been reduced to the science of a perfect plant from the 
standpoint of economical operation. It would be hard to build 
a plant that would be considered by all car men a perfect plant 
and, no doubt, such a plant will never be built. However, we 
should profit in a measure by plants built in the past and get 
as near a modern up-to-date plant as it is possible to do. 

Such a plant should be designed keeping in mind that the 
different departments should be as convenient to each other as 
possible, in order to reduce the cost of handling material to its 

Wooden ears are fast giving way to steel cars and shops built 
in the future should be built for the handling of heavy steel ear 
work. The centralization of repairs in one shop can not con 
sistenlly be done to advantage with a possible exception of pas- 
senger care. Therefore, it seems the best policy to have division 
shops able to take care of bad order cars over that division. 

Shops should be located at a point where cars are made empty, 
if possible, to save switching. Bad order storage tracks should 
be provided for each shop and to equal the shop in capacity. 

The lay-out of a passenger and freight shop shown on blue 
print attached is the work of R. ('. Bundy. of East Orange, X. J., 
now in his third year of high school and who is seventeen years 
of age. The lay-out of this plan is of his own design, having 
received no assistance from any one. 

A shop built after this plan would be able to take care of 1,000 
passenger cars shopping them every fifteen months and approxi- 
mately 25,000 freight cars. The ideal construction for the build- 
ings would be concrete foundations and floor, brick walls with 
a concrete roof supported with trusses of structural steel. The 
grounds around the shop should be graded to a level of the shop 
floor and covered with about two inches of crushed stone. 

The shops and yards should be provided with a system of in- 
dustrial tracks and turn tables, about 2' 6" gauge, for the con 
venience of handling materials. 

The tracks should be located at twenty-five feet centers with 
the exception of the coach paint shop, where they may be located 
at eighteen feet centers. 

The passenger and freight shop should be equipped with a 
fifteen-ton crane covering four tracks in each shop for the con- 
venience of unloading, and handling of heavy materials, and 
wreckage. The entire passenger and freight shop should be 
equipped with stationary scaffolds for the convenience of the 
workmen, same to be ones that are easily adjusted. 

A tool room should be installed in the passenger and freight 
shop for the care of all air and hand tools. These tool rooms 
should be in charge of a competent man who will keep a record 
of the tools and see that they are returned by the workmen when 
they are through with them. 

The floor between the tracks in the paint shop should pitch 
to an open concrete sewer in the center of the track. These 
sewers to have an outlet to the main sewer at intervals of about 
every 50 feet and to be covered over with perforated iron plates 
so that they may be removed and sewer flushed out when necessary. 

In the dry lumber shed, a moulding rack with sufficient com- 
partments should be provided for all standard moulding, which 
should be carried in stock for use at all times. 

A water tank to be used in emergency in case the fire pump 
Should fail, elevated to a height to give sixty pounds' pressure, 
should also be provided for. 

Sufficient metal lockers should be provided so that the work- 
man may have a place for his clothes and lunch pail. 

The varnish room should be provided with adjustable sash 
racks so that they may be regulated for any width sash that they 
should be wasted for. Tn addition to this the varnish room 
should be provided with door racks so arranged that the doors 
can be stood on their end. The varnish room should be supplied 
with sufficient tables covered over with zinc. 

In the scrub room, two tanks should be provided for with hot 
and cold water and steam. These tanks should be 18 inches 
deep, six feet wide, and eight feet long, set about twelve inches 
from the floor. 

The passenger repair shop should be equipped with the follow- 
ing tools: One tire lathe, one axle lathe, one wheel press, one 
wheel bore, one drill press, one nut tapper, one bolt threading 
machine, one pipe threading machine, one small speed lathe in 
tool room. These tools, installed in the coach shop, would save 
the handling of wheels and other repair parts over the transfer 
table and thereby considerable money. 

The passenger freight shop and freight repair yard should be 
provided with high speed ball bearing jacks for heavy cars and 
ratchet jacks for light jacking. 

A telephone with an instrument on every foreman's desk in 
every department should be installed with a central switchboard. 

A fire alarm system and watchman 's clock system should be 
provided and all electric and telephone wires should be laid in 
tunnels or subways under the buildings. 

In a shop of this size, four fire companies should be organized 
and drilled at least once each month so that in case of fire they 
are all trained and know just what to do. Each company should 
consist of six men. 

Fire hydrants should be placed in shop yards about 300 feet 
apart. Inside of the buildings there should be fire hose connec- 
tions every 200 feet of building in length. 

Track *Z 


Electrician du-Jt ii iJloratePlall 
Plumbe r Shop I— — rf . 


fo/toj Engine 

TS'tlSA KX/*TS< 


ZOO' *I2S' 


Brass Finishg "j2l 
Room — - 1 1 

Larafory^A] U 





Stock Urn 

rassenoer repair 


ZtOffice +ff*lS' 

W'<>r sm>o 


Scale of Feei 
too so o too 

■ i — 








Coal a. 

. Turn table 

Hoqp> \S!orf/roux gjs| Office 

^»0iX 40il 

''100 Scale 40'r7S' 


Track *IO y 

Proposed Shop Layout by R. C. Bundy. 



February, 1914 

The power plant should be equipped with 1500-horsepower 
. boilers, 150 pounds pressure, built for the fuel most plentiful 
in the location where shops are built. Coal for boilers should 
be run up an incline and dumped from cars into hoppers or bins 
in the boiler room and let down by gravity as it is needed. The 
boiler room should also be provided with two feed water pumps, 
one feed water heater, water softening system, if necessary, in 
case of bad water, and also one ash hoist. The switchboard 
should be of the usual design for the control of all lighting and 
power feeders and should be elevated about eight feet from the 
floor of the power house. 

The engine room should be equipped with three alternating 
current generators, turbine or engine-driven, one synchronous 
motor, two D. C. generators, and one steam exciter, one large 
and one small compound air compressor with a capacity of 1200 
cubic feet of air per minute, two condenser pumps, one live steam 
heater, one exhaust steam heater, one intercooler for each of the 
compressors, and two fire pumps with a capacity of 1500 gaDons 
per minute, one oil pump and one oil separator. 

The wood mill should be equipped with a blower system for 
carrying off shavings and should be piped direct to the power 
house. The following machinery should be installed : 

1 large 4 side planer. 

1 small 4 side planer. 

1 large cut off saw. 

1 small cut off saw. 

1 band resaw. 

1 large planer and matcher. 

1 small planer and matcher. 

1 moulding machine. 

1 large rip saw. 

2 small rip saws. 
1 swing saw. 

1 sill tenoning machine. 
1 large five-spindle boring machine. 
i gainer and boring machine. 
1 hollow chisel mortising machine. 
1 small planer. 
1 planer knife grinder. 
, 1 circular saw grinder. 
1 emery wheel. 
1 circular saw setting machine. 

1 band saw filer and setting machine. 

The following machinery should be installed in the machine 

2 lathes. 

3 six-spindle nut tappers. 
1 tire lathe. 

1 radial drill press. 

3 single spindle drill presses. 

3 double head bolt cutters, 1%". 
1 double head bolt cutter, 2y 2 ". 
1 shaper. 

1 journal box lathe. 
1 twist drill grinder. 
1 emery wheel. 

1 wheel press. 

2 wheel borers. 

4 axle lathes. 

• 1 small punch. 

The following machinery should be installed in the blacksmith 
shop : 

1 large punch and shears. 

2 Bradley hammers. 

1 small punch and shears. 
1 large bulldozer. 

3 small bulldozers (air). 

1 steam hammer (1500 lbs.). 

1 alligator shears. 

1 emery wheel. 

3 bolt heading machines. 

1 3" forging or upsetting machine. 

1 drill press. 
20 forges. 

1 face plate. 

1 crane for large steam hammer. 
The following machinery should be installed in the tin and 
pipe shop: 

1 pipe threading machine, R. & L. 

1 test rack. 

1 angle cock grinder. 

1 air hose fitting up table. 

1 steam hose fitting up table. 

1 extra heavy squaring machine, 42" long to cut No. 16 iron. 

1 42" folding machine. 

1 bevel square and circular shears. 

1 combined punch and shears. 

1 slip roll forming machine. 

1 beading machine. 

2 hollow mandrel stakes. 
The following machinery should be installed in the cabinet 


1 band saw. 

1 jointer. 

1 planer. 

1 two-spindle boring machine. 

1 rip saw. 

1 cutoff saw. 
The following machinery should be installed in the upholstering 
shop : 

1 cushion beater. 

1 brush for seats and backs. ^ 

3 sewing machines. 
Back to hold 2,000 backs and seats. 

The following should be installed in the door shop for freighj 
yard and shop: • 

1 cut off saw. 
1 rip saw. 
1 swing saw. 

1 boring machine (small). 
The following should be installed in the coupler and brake 
beam shop: 
1 shears. 

1 furnace. 

2 pneumatic riveters. 
1 drill press. 

3 forges. 

1 small crane. 
The following should be installed in the buffing room : 

3 electric buffing machines. 

1 baking oven. 

1 silver plating tank. 

1 copper plate tank. 

1 nickel plating tank. 

1 oxidizing tank. 

1 acid tank. 

3 hot and cold water tanks. 
The store house should be equipped with the following: 

1 electric elevator. 

1 electric crane (stationary). 

1 track scale. 

1 1500 pound scale. 

1 small portable electric crane. 
The method of handling the work in the passenger shop would 
be as follows: Passenger cars should be taken in shop on track 
nine as shown in the illustration, stopping them just opposite 
cabinet shop, where they should be stripped of all sash, doors, 
seats, and backs and brass trimmings, doors and sash being sent 
to scrub room, cushion and backs to upholstering shop and trim- 
mings to buffing room. After cars have been stripped they should 
then be moved into the car shop when they should be washed 
inside and outside. This track should be provided with hot and 

February, 1914 



cold water for this purpose and the concrete floor pitched to sewer 
in the center of track. After cars have been washed, they may 
be pulled out on the table and set in on any track desired where 
they should be jacked and the trucks removed and careful inspec- 
tion made to trucks and body by foreman or general foreman 
and all necessary work decided upon. When such repairs have 
been made the cars should be placed on their trucks and moved 
to the paint shop for paint and varnish. After the work is com- 
pleted they should be trimmed and again moved to track ten 
where they should have floors painted the second coat and put 
on steam over night. The following day seat cushions can be 
placed in them and they may then go into service. 

It is understood that while the cars are being repaired and 
painted, the sash, seats and trimmings are also being done, so they 
will all be ready when the car is trimmed. It must also be under- 
stood that all cars coming in the shop are inspected by the general 
foreman, who classifies the repairs and sets a date when cars 
are supposed to be ready for service. A blackboard should be 
provided for each shop, showing the car numbers, date in, and 
date out and kind of repairs. The dates showing cars out should 
be adjusted as occasion may require as they are bound to vary 
to some extent. 

In the handling of freight cars it is good practice to have the 
switching done during the night in order not to delay the men 
and also to avoid accidents. Cars should be inspected during 
the day and carded to the tracks where they are wanted and a list 
furnished the switchmen, showing cars to be switched out and 
cars to be se% in. Care should be exercised to get cars of as near 
the same class of repairs on each track in order to avoid delays. 
All cars, both heavy and light, to be inspected carefully and all 
work marked on a work card and tacked on the side of the car. 
The card will show the workman the repairs wanted. Any repair 
needed that might be missed by the inspector may be placed on 
the card by the foreman in charge. After repairs have been 
made, the card should be removed by a competent inspector who 
will inspect all work and see that it is properly done and check 
off each item. In case any work is not properly done he calls 
the workman back who did the work to finish it, after which 
the card will be turned in by the inspector to the office. 

Shop should be operated on a piece-work basis, figuring on a 
schedule allowing the men to make about 25 per cent above the 
day rate. This is more satisfactory to the men and also to the 
railroad. However, it means constant and never ceasing watchful- 
ness on the part of the foremen and inspectors to see that the 
work is well done. 

The necessary force to operate a plant of the size shown in 
the illustration would be one general foreman, one coach foreman, 
one truck foreman, one foreman of inside finishing, trimming, 
and stripping, one cabinet shop foreman, one upholstering fore- 
man, one mill foreman, one pipe fitting foreman, one paint shop 
foreman, and assistant, one foreman in varnish room, and four 
piece-work inspectors or checkers. All the above for passenger 
car work. 

In the freight shop the organization should consist of two 
foremen and two piece-work checkers in heavy repair shop. In 
the light repair yard there should be two foremen and four in- 
spectors, one foreman in machine shop and one foreman in black- 
smith shop. The necessary clerical force would also have to be 
provided for. 

The Texas Eailroad Commission has decided not to order any 
material reductions in freight rates at this time, owing to the 
great losses from flood damages recently suffered by the roads. 

Chairman Elliott and other New Haven directors believe they 
have formulated plans which will conserve the company's interest 
in the Boston & Maine, and at the same time satisfy the Depart- 
ment of Justice. This would prevent the sacrifice of the stock 
on the market in its present bad condition, which is a matter of 
the greatest importance to both roads as the New Haven has an 
investment in the Boston & Maine of about $30,000,000. 


Since the electric locomotive is becoming more and more each 
day a profitable revenue producer for electric railways, it is 
important that a locomotive be laid out so that its equipment 
is easily accessible for inspection and maintenance, thus aiding 
in insuring reliable operation and continuity of service. 

In the design of a locomotive equipment, four essential points 
should be kept in mind, namely — 

First — To select such apparatus as will meet the conditions 
under which the locomotive is to operate. 

Second — To mount the apparatus on the locomotive in such a 
way that each part will operate to the best advantage and with 
the least chance of trouble. 

Third — To arrange the apparatus so as to give easy access to 
all parts and especially to those parts which are most likely to 
require attention. 

Fourth — To mount the apparatus in such a way as not to re- 
quire unnecessary expense for equipping and maintaining. 

To accomplish the above outlined important factors entering 
into the design of a complete locomotive, standard Baldwin- West- 
inghouse locomotives have incorporated in them some valuable con- 
structional features which are outlined below. 

All of the main circuit-control apparatus and the resistors are 
mounted in the center of the locomotive and surrounded with suit- 
able expanded metal screens as a protection against accidental 

In the right-hand corners of the cab are mounted the master 
controller, engineer's brake valve and the sander valves. These 
locomotives are designed for double end operation. The general 
scheme of arrangement is shown in the illustration. 

It will be noted that the reversers or series-parallel switches 
are placed next to the floor, the switch groups and line switches 
directly over them, and the resistors directly over the switch groups 
under the roof. 

The grid resistors are mounted in the main cab over the switch 
groups, partly on account of simplified wiring and partly because 
there is not sufficient room underneath the locomotive between 
the trucks to accommodate them when considerable capacity is re- 
quired. The resistors are enclosed in a steel cabinet open at the 
bottom and provided with hinged doors on each side so as to 
provide easy access. 

Ventilators are provided in the roof over the resistance cabinet 
of such a type as to give free egress to the heated air and to 
prevent rain from entering. 

The space occupied by the apparatus under the resistance is en- 
closed by grounded expanded metal screens which are made up 
in sufficiently small sections so that they can readily be removed 
for the inspection of the apparatus. 

When forced ventilation is required a centrifugal motor-driven 
blower is installed in one or both of the hoods with the air com- 
pressor. These blowers force air through a conduit built into the 
locomotive frame between the center sills from whence it passes 
to the main motors through flexible canvas connections. 

The traction motors for propelling the locomotive are mounted 
in the usual manner, using nose or cross-bar suspension. 

The advantages of this centralized arrangement may be briefly 
summed up as follows: 

First — All the control apparatus is assembled compactly in one 
part of the locomotive instead of being scattered in different lo- 

Second — The switch groups are located in such a position that 
they are readily accessible from all sides and they are at such a 
height that a man can get at them freely without working in a 
cramped position, or inside the hood. 

Third — The resistors being located above the switch groups 
under the roof reduces the length of connections between the two 
pieces of apparatus to a minimum and at the same time the heat 
rising from the resistors passes directly out through ventilators in 
the locomotive roof and a very little of it reaches the switch 



Februarv. 1914 


line switch 
brake valve 




Fig. 1 — Side Elevation Standard Baldwin- Westinghouse Electric Locomotive. 

Fourth — The reversers are mounted in a position where they 
■•an be readily gotten at and at the same time they are centrally 
located relative to the motors and near enough to them so that 
the amount of cable required is reasonable. 

Fifth — The airbrake distributing valve is located inside the 
cab. where it will be kept sufficiently warm to prevent freezing 
and where at the same time it is easily accessible. 

Sixth — The location of the compressor and blower motor in the 
hood removes the feature of objectionable noise inside the cab, 
and at the same time locates them in a position where they can 
be easily lifted out by merely taking off the hood without disturb- 
ing any other apparatus. 

Seventh — The motorman is located in a position where he has 
a clear view of the track. 


The illustrations herewith show a particularly useful tool 
wagon now in use by one of the railroad shops of the middle 
West and which was designed and built especially for the 
apparatus used in Thermit welding. 

It contains a receptacle to hold the crucible, a tool box for all 
the necessary tools used in Thermit welding, space for several 
mold boxes for different frame sections, and a box for molding 
material divided into two parts. In the top is kept the special 

■ ~~ r ' ! — 

"* — *~ * ■ ■ tj 


Receptacle for Holding Crucible and Tool Box for Keeping Miscel- 
laneous Appliances. 

molding material for facing, while in the lower part the mixture 
of sand and tire clay used for backing. 

It will be noticed from the illustrations that a sand screen is 
provided in the lower half of the lid and this is used for screen- 
ing the molding material when a mold is being broken up - 
as to prepare it for the next weld. During the screening of 
sand thi< lid is kept closed. 

This wagon keeps all material off the floor and makes it easy 
to transport everything from one place to another. It al-o 
saves a great deal of time and labor in the preparation of mold- 
ing material. In a great many shops it is the custom to mix new 
molding material for each weld as there is no convenient way of 
saving the old material. It will readily be seen that with a 
wagon like this a great deal of such labor is done away with. 
This wagon is "27" wide. 37" high to top of tool cupboard and 
its length exclusive of the handle is 7 feet. 

Thermit Tool Wagon Showing Compartments fo r Holding Molding 


The plan under consideration calls for a voluntary trust. 
approved by the Federal and State governments, to take over 
the New Haven "s controlling interest in the Boston Railroad 
Holding Co.. owner of a majority of the Boston & Maine stock. 
The trust would cover a period of 10 years or more, at the end 
of which the stock would be sold and the proceeds distributed pro 
rata among the New Haven stockholders. • 

February, 1914 



By Alden B. Lawaon. 

All shop men realize the great amount of trouble experienced 
in placing accurately the keyway locations in the driving axle for 
the eccentrics. Quite frequently it is necessary to use offset keys 
to correct inaccuracies, caused in transferring the center line 
of crankpin to axle. 

To overcome this to a considerable exteut and insure proper 
locations, gauges have been adopted, with a view of enabling 
the shopman to obtain these locations with the least possible 
chance of mistake on his part. The writer will describe these 

The valve lap and lead are the first necessary elements, and as 
this is gradually standardized by experience on various classes, 
to suit each class of locomotive, the other work for obtaining 
the keyway location is simple. Referring to figure 1 the rules for 
obtaining the location are as follows: To obtain eccentric key- 
way location in main driving axle when using Stephenson valve 







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gear (dimension "Z" or degree "D" in the diagram) a full 
size drawing should be used. Lay down a circle whose diameter 
equals the outside diameter of driving axle at eccentric fit per 
dimension "A." Lay down another circle representing eccentric 
throw from same center, as per dimension "B. " 

Draw horizontal center line "Y" — "Y" through center of 
axle and vertical center line "X"— "X" also through center 
of axle. 

Then lay off from the vertical center line "X" — "X," on 
horizontal center line "Y"— "Y," the amount of lap plus lead 
of valve. This is modified by the rocker, due to the different 
lengths of arms. Draw a vertical line to intersect the circle 
representing the eccentric throw, indicating point "Y." 

Then from the center or intersection of center lines "Y" — 
'/ Y" and " X "— " X " draw line " W — ' ' W ' ' through " Y. ' ' 
the point where the vertical line crosses the circle "B, " and 
extend this line so as to intersect the larger circle "A," which 

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Fig. 1. 

Fig. 2. 



February, 1914 

February, 1914 



will represent the point on circle " A, " where the center of 
keyway should be and give the dimension "Z" and degrees "D, " 
which should be used. 

The gauge for transferring center of crank to axle on loco- 
motive with Stephenson gear, is shown in figure 2. 

Before using the gauge, care should be taken to obtain first 
the center of crank. In machining up the main crankpin there 
should be a proof circle turned on the inner edge, and from this 
the shopman may form four center punch marks equally spaced 
on this circle, obtaining the accurate center of crank with his 
dividers. The turning hole in end of crank should be filled with 


CCnTER mole 


inside End op mwn crank pin_ suowinq proof" 





Fig. 3. 

soft metal so as to permit of marking with the point of dividers, 
• as shown in figure 3. 

After the exact center of the crank is obtained, the gauge 
for transcribing this center to the axle is used. The gauge is 
adjustable and should be of a size to use on all crank arms. It 
will, however, be found advisable to have various lengths of 
pointers. The transcribing plate is also adjustable and will suit 
all size axles. 

After the center is scribed on axle, templet per No. 2 is used, 
the center "0" on this templet is placed exactly on center line 
on axle and the distance or degrees for keyway center line is 
scribed on axle. 

Each gauge is marked for the class of locomotives for which 
it is suitable, also giving the diagrams of keyway location for 
each class used. 

It will be found necessary to have at least one gauge for each 
diameter of axle, and where there are various classes using the 
same diameter axle, it may be necessary to make two or more 
gauges. This is necessary where two markings are so close to- 
gether as to cause one marking to* interfere with the other. 
However, it will be found that the gauge will usually care for 
several classes of locomotives. 

The gauges are given a standard gauge number, and the print 
is tabulated to show gauge number as well as classes for which 

With this information worked up in the drawing office, and 
templets_ made as shown in the illustrations, unnecessary responsi- 
bility has been taken from the shopman. Also less work will be 
required and better results obtained than if gauges are not used. 

An appropriation of $40,000,000 is being sought by the 
Russian Ministry of Ways of Communication, St. Petersburg, 
for the repair shops of the government railways, which will 
make them virtually large locomotive and car works. 

The New York Central & Hudson Eiver has let a contract 
to F. I. Ley & Co., Springfield, Mass., for the erection of a 
new station at White Plains, N. Y. 


Every effort is being made by officers and members of the 
General Foremen's Association to make the next convention, 
to be held in Chicago July 14, 15, 16 and 17, 1914, the most 
successful in point of attendance ever held by this rapidly 
growing organization. The superintendent of motive power 
and the master mechanic of today is looking to his general and 
shop foremen to w r ork out the details of shop and roundhouse 
management in order that he may develop his talents along the 
lines of operation, which in the past has been handled exclu- 
sively by the transportation officials. 

The mechanical railway official who does not take advantage 
of his position and inquire and keep posted on matters other 
than those of a mechanical nature, soon w r atches the procession 
pass him. Consequently the general and shop foremen are tak- 
ing over many of the shop duties and responsibilities formerly 
handled by superintendents of motive power and master 

The General Foremen's Association has within its membership 
the men who are continually on the firing line of mechanical 
progress. The papers read and discussed are worth a great 
deal to the railway company who sends able representatives to 
the meetings. Every superintendent of motive power and master 
mechanic should have in his possesion a copy of the proceed- 
ings of the last General Foremen 's Convention, and should ask 
to have his name placed on the mailing list of the secretary in 
order that he may have mailed to him a copy of the last and 
future proceedings of their convention. The secretary, Wm. 
Hall, 829 W. Broadway, Winona, Minn., will gladly send a copy 
to any official w r ho desires one. 

The subjects for the 1914 convention are as follows: 

1. Engine-house efficiency. 

2. Cylinders, pistons, cross-heads, guides and valves. 

3. The practice and methods of maintenance and repairs to 
the airbrake and its appurtenances. 

4. Autogeneous welding. 
Subsidiary papers: 

1. The Taylor system. 

2. Railroading at a high altitude, by J. W. Scott, locomotive 
superintendent, Southern Railway of Peru, La Paz, Bolivia. 


The engine may fail and the track may wear, 
There are metal and tools to remake and repair; 
The target may break and the switch go wrong, 
But a bolt and a blow will help them along ; 
When men fail the system is crippled all through — 
Man Failure, that's where the doom points at you. 

Ties may wear out and tie-bolts may rust, 

That is a matter repair gangs adjust; 

Pistons may rattle and valves spring a leak, 

The doom of the system 's when men have grown weak, 

When men fail to answer with thoroughness keen — 

Man Failure, that's where you lose the machine! 

As the strength of the chain is the strength of each link, 
You cannot move earth if the men fail to think; 
If the men fail to measure each moment of life 
Right up to the keenest demand of the strife; 
If men fail to master with soul and with brain — 
Man Failure, that's where you throw off the train. 

— Baltimore Sun. 

The Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific is to begin the 
erection in Chattanooga, Tenn., in the near future, of a rein- 
forced concrete building in which will be located the main paint 
and repair shops for the passenger coaches of the company. 
The shops will have a capacity of twelve passenger coaches a 
month. The building will be erected on the present site. 



February. 1914 


While wheel sliding occurs at any season of the year it most 
commonly happens during the winter months, and for which there 
are several contributory causes in the way of leaks in hose coup- 
lings due to stiff hose, sluggish acting triple valves and brake shoes 
frozen to the wheels. It takes but a small amount of moisture 
applied at the right time and place to freeze. a shoe to a wheel, 
whereupon it will slide until it is ruined unless sonic watchful one 
detects the trouble and releases it. 

A little snow on top of the brake shoe becoming melted by 
frictional heat drips down between the shoe and wheel, and 
while the train is at rest clamps them fast together. An over- 
flow of the tank, either around the tank valves or at the man-hole, 
or water running out of open seams in the tank supply spout strik- 
ing the wheels of the tender causes them to freeze fast to the 
brake shoes, and if no one is looking for this trouble more wheels 
are spoiled. 

The train pulls hard anyway and the l>oxes freeze up, so .the 
engineer expects and does have trouble "starting the train. lie 
is not in a position to tell if wheels are sliding. 

The conductor, after he delivers orders to the engineer as the 
train pulls by him, ean readily see if any wheels are not turning 
and he also is able to observe if any brake rigging is down or 
drawbars ready to pull out. and bad leaks in the hose couplings 
will make themselves heard as well as felt when the slack is 
taken out of the train. 

If the conductor is not in a position to note these things one 
of the brakemen should, for it is easier to do this, and to detect 
and remedy troubles than it is to tell why they were not found 
until damage was done. Some wheels are slid fiat when coming 
into town, but more, many more, are slid flat in getting out of 
town than in coming into it. 

A hand brake set and overlooked is another cause of slid flat 
wheels, and this is one of the cases that is wholly unnecessary. 
Gummed up leakage groove*, leaky triple piston packing rings. 
brake shoes frozen to the wheels and an overcharged train line 
are the prime causes of slid flat wheels. 

If a leakage groove is corroded up, that brake may have a leak 
that will cause it to creep on harder and harder until wheels slide. 
A leaky triple piston packing ring allows but a small margin 
for release between the two pressures, and when a release is made 
it may not let go at all. On a short train this kind of a brake 
can usually be released by raising the train line pressure quickly ; 
on a long train it can not be counted on to do this with as much 
certainty, but when a high excess pressure is carried it may be 
accomplished by the quick release and return to running position, 
this quick release acting as a sort of blow to the triples. 

If it is discovered by the engineer that a brake is sticking, and 
the black hand registers 70 pounds, he should not try to kick it 
off, as by so doing the one sticking will be released only tem- 
porarily, if at all. -and will immediately reset and cause others 
to apply. 

If on the level or a descending grade the brakes should be 
applied with a good reduction and then released, which will nearly 
always cure the trouble. If on a grade where this can not be 
done, put the brake valve handle in full release and leave it there 
until over the hill, then made a reduction, more if needed, and 
pull the train line pressure down to where it belongs and release 

Overcharging is more liable to occur with a short train of any 
length if brake valve handle is left long enough in full release 

If the brakes are not handled properly the engineer may get 
the train over the hill and go down the other side with the grade 
in his favrr, but there will likely be flat wheels when the stop at 
tne bottom is made as well as explantory reports to make. Care 
an(" watchfulness by everyone in charge can avoid many flat 
vhee^.3, and .vheels cost money. 

The first cost of new wheels is considerable, and when to this 

is added the cost of changing them, no wonder severe complaint 
is made by officials when wheels are flattened pretty regularly. 
Then there is the danger and expense incident to broken rails, 
frogs and railroad crossings. A wreck from one of these causes 
might result in damage amounting to thousands of dollars liesides 
a possible loss of life. 

If the wheels flattened are of cast iron and are flattened to the 
extent of 2% inches or' more they must go in the scrap pile and 
new ones replace them. This applies to freight service. One-half 
that amount of flat surface on a wheel renders it useless in pas- 
senger service. If the wheels are steel tired and the tires are not 
thin they may be turned down and returned to service, but even 
then it costs money and the life of the tire is shortened that much. 
Wheels of cast iron with only a small flat spot on them may be 
turned, but the burned iron around the flat spot soon shatters and 
shells out, and such wheels have to be removed eventually. 

In the winter it is a good plan for the men on the engine to 
watch, their tank wheels after making a stop and see that all are 
turning, and more especially so after taking a tank of water or 
running through heavy snow with brakes applied. 

The brakes should lie released when a full stop has been made 
and the angle cock at the rear of the tender should not be closed 
by the brakeman until the engineer has had rime to release the 
lirakes after stopping, and he should not forget to do it. The 
brakes will re-apply in a short time from train line leaking, but 
the equalization will be at a lower pressure and will therefore 
l»e the easier to release when engine is ayain attached to the train. 
The best way to release the brakes after engine has been separated 
from the train is to shoot the excess pressure back into the train, 
come to running position and let the train line pressure raise to 
50 pounds, go to la]) and get full excess, then go to full re'ease 
and back to running position. This ought to release any or all 
brakes on the train. When the gauge shows (in pounds on train 
line with brake valve handle in running position the train may 
be started without danger of pulling out a drawbar at that high 

With the brake valve handle in full release position the head 
end of a long train may have 60 pounds pressure, and the black 
hand register it. while the pressure at the rear end of the train 
may be much lower and thus afford an excellent chance for draw 
bar trouble. 

The second release should be quick and heavy to give good 
results ; that is why a full head of excess pressure should be pumped 
up before it is made, and any brakes on the head end inclined to 
reset after the first release will be kicked off for good. 

The danger of sliding wheels on account of slippery rails is 
nearly always in the winter, but this can be overcome by the 
judicious use of sand. If they should slide on a slippery rail, 
it is not so injurious in the same period of time as it would be 
on a dry rail, but should they start sliding before sand was 
applied to the rail they would be flattened very quickly. 

Small flat spots on drivers or tank wheels should be ground out 
with the brake itself and the judicious use of a little sand. If 
the sand supply has run out', or the wind is high and sand can 
can not be put on the rail, one must start to brake farther back, 
using a slight reduction. This will consume more time in making a 
stop but it will prove more satisfactory in the end. 

All engineers guard against the muddy highway crossing and 
the mucky rail after a drizzling rain in the summer, and it is 
equally necessary to guard against the frosty rail of an early 
morning hour in the fall or the wet one of a soft winter day. 

It must be admitted that light train line reductions are not a 
good thing when it comes to releasing the brakes properly. Make 
a reduction of from 10 to 15 pounds so that all brakes will apply 
full on, then when a release is made all brakes will let go. 

The only excuse for light reductions is a bad rail and no sand. 
as they cause stuck brakes, stalled trains and extra work and 
trouble for all concerned. Bringing the train pipe pressure well 
below the auxiliary reservoir pressure will insure the setting of 
each brake that will apply at all, outside of emergency. 

With a light, slow reduction the escape of air through the leak- 

February, 1914 



age groove may prevent the brake setting, particularly it' it is 
a little slow of action, while one already stuck may apply harrier 

Putting the brake valve handle in release position when the 
Main line pressure is at the maximum will charge it above the 
feed valve adjustment, and as the pressure leaks off the brakes 
will creep on; another kick off will really lie a kick on, and result 
in slid wheels. 

If there is a leaky triple j iston packing ring it charges the 
auxiliary without releasing the brake. A brake without any leak- 
age of auxiliary reservoir, or a cylinder with a moderate or short 
piston travel is harder to release than one with a longer travel, 
as it sets harder and equalizes higher. 

Another feature of the heavy initial reduction is that it com- 
pels each brake to do its portion of the work, so far as possible 
with unequal travel and does not place the burden of the stop on 
a few good brakes. 

Poor driver and tender brakes tend to cause wheels to slide by 
overloading other brakes in the train. The slower the speed the 
more the tendency to slide the wheels, another reason why the 
heavy reduction should come at the commencement of the stop and 
the lighter one to complete it. 

Several light reductions with one application brings the heavy 
braking power on the wheels at slow speed, when the reverse should 
be the case. 

Ordinarily no rougher stop will be made with the heavy initial 
reduction than with the lighter ones. 

If engine has no independent brake valve one must be gov- 
erned by the train being handled and other conditions of the stop. 

In passenger service with the old standard brake equipments 
Che two-application stop is much the better. Some roads make 
a difference between a long and short passenger train, those having 
under In cars, two applications, while with those of 10 or more 
cars, but with the independent brake, two will lie preferable. 

With the new passenger equipment it is all changed, as instead 
of a graduated on stop it is a graduated off stop. In other 
words, a graduated release to regulate the speed of the train and 
bring it to a stop at the desired place. This reduces the cylinder 
pressure when the speed is low and lessens the danger of flat 
wheels.! — Locomotive Fin nun and Engirwmen's Magazine. 

The orders of Mr. J. W. Brooks, a once celebrated American 
railroad manager of Michigan were, it is said, almost beyond 
deciphering. On a certain occasion, when a second line had been 
laid on one of the branch roads, it was reported at headquarters 
that the barn of an old farmer stood partly upon land which the 
company had bought, and dangerously near to passing trains. 
Mr. Brooks, just getting ready for a trip down the Mississippi, 
wrote to the farmer that he must move his barn from the com- 
pany's land at once. If lie delayed he would be liable to a 
suit for damages. The old farmer duly received the letter, and 
was able to make out the manager's signature, but not another 
word could he decipher. He took it to the village postmaster, 
who equally unable to translate the hieroglyphics, was unwilling 
to acknowledge it. ' ' Didu 't you sell a strip of land to the rail- 
road.'" he asked. "Yes." "Well, I guess this is a free pass 
over the road." And for over a year the farmer used the man- 
ager's letter as a pass, not one of the conductors being able to 
dispute his translation of the instrument. — From Tidbits of 
American Humor. 

It is rumored that the Chicago. Milwaukee & St. Paul is con- 
sidering the proposition of consolidating its shops now located 
at Savanna, 111., and Ottumwa, la., and putting the shops at 
one place. It is rumored that they will be located at East 
Moline, 111. 

The Dayton, Lebanon & -Cincinnati expects to spend in the 
neighborhood of $60,000 in improving terminal facilities in Day- 
ton, O. A new passenger and freight depot is anticipated. 

The Duluth & Iron Range has ordered 365 tons of structual 
steel from the American Bridge Company. 


The safety committee, which is the executive body in charge 
of the "Safety First" movement on the Grand Trunk, held its 
first meeting at the general offices. Montreal, on January li'. 
The following members were present: 

H. G. Kelley. vice-president, chairman. 

U. E. Gillen, general superintendent. Chicago. 

H. E. Whittenberger, general superintendent, Toronto. 

< '. G. Bowker, general superintendent, Montreal. 

W. D. Robb, superintendent of motive power, Montreal. 

H. R. Safford, chief engineer, Montreal. 

T. W. Blaiklock. engineer, maintenance of way. 

T. W. R. McRae, claims agent, Montreal. 

George Bradshaw, safety engineer, secretary. 

This was the first meeting of the committee since the organi- 
zation of the safety movement. The report read by the secre- 
tary disclosed the fact that twenty-four division, shop and ter- 
minal safety committees have been organized on the system with 
a membership of about 600. During the month of December the 
members of these committees actually corrected 500 unsafe phys- 
ical conditions which might perhaps have caused injury, and 
cautioned employees against unsafe methods and practices in 
about 480 cases. The general safety committee passed upon a 
number of important recommendations submitted by the local 

The report of the secretary showed the interesting fact that 
since the inauguration of the safety movement on the Grand 
Trunk on August 15, 1913, injuries to employees have been re- 
duce'! to the extent of 11.")',. and that, during the same period 
fatal injuries to employees on duty have been decreased 50',. 
as compared with same period of 1012. Traffic was heavier in 
the latter period than in the former. 

The officers and employees of the Grand Trunk are taking a 
keen personal interest in correcting unsafe conditions and prac- 
tices and to this interest is due the favorable record above cited, 
which is one of the most remarkable that has ever been achieved 
by the safety movement on any railway, and especially so in 
view of the short time in which the movement has been in force. 


The Pennsylvania Railroad has just completed a new solid steel 
lunch counter car. and it has been placed in service between New 
York and Philadelphia, on trains which also carry ordinary dining 
cars. While the novelty of the counter car may for a few days 
prevent a fair comparison in the patronage of the two kinds of 
cars, it is planned to continue the experiment for a sufficient 
period to determine just what is more popular with the traveling 
public The object in building the counter ear was to see if it 
would permit of serving meals to passengers quicker, and thus 
serve satisfactorily more patrons, than is possible in a dining car. 
The new car is eighty feet long, and the exterior appearance is 
the same as that of a Pennsylvania all-steel passenger coach. The 
interior is radically different from the ordinary dining car. In- 
stead of tables there is one long mahogany counter extending 
over half the length of the car; facing this counter on one side 
are revolving mahogany chairs, secured to the floor. The counter 
is long enough for 21 people to be seated at one time. Back of 
the counter against the wall there are twenty cupboards for sup- 
plies, in addition to receptacles for crushed ice, drinking water, 
ice cream, milk and cream. Shelves for linen and silver occupy 
the space under the counter. Sunk in the counter at the end away 
from the kitchen is a cigar humidor. At one end of the car there 
is a wash basin for the use of passengers. 

The pantry and kitchen are at one end of the counter. The 
pantry contains dish racks, cupboard, a sink and a locker. Food 
will be passed from the kitchen into the pantry through openings 
which can be closed by sliding doors. As these openings are just 
above the serving table in the pantry, there is no necessity for 
waiters to go into the kitchen. The kitchen itself is about eleven 



February, 1914 

feet long; it contains a range, broilers, steam table, ice box, 
coffee urn, soup receptacle and meat •warmer. 

The interior of the car is finished in a mahogany color, the 
same as the dining ears. It will be electrically lighted, and ven- 
tilation will be aided by an exhaust fan and three large electric 

The present plan is to put the car in service on a train leaving 
Philadelphia for New York at 12 o'clock noon, as this train is 
usually heavily loaded, and a large number of the passengers as 
a rule eat their lunch on the train. The second trip of the car 
will be on the train leaving New York the same afternoon at 
six o 'clock. 



By Louis Brentnall. 

The large increase in number of car men now in railroad 
service over the limited number that was employed several 
years ago, as well as the urgent demands which are made upon 
the master mechanic that car work be handled efficiently, 
requires that car men attain the highest degree of proficiency, 
in order to perform their work well and economically. 

It therefore goes without saying that vocational instruction 
is beneficial to both the company and the workmen. That it 
will increase the ability and capacity of the men in performing 
their daily duties, is beyond question. Of course, the instruc- 
tion should be well planned and given systematically. 

As all master mechanics or master car builders know, the 
men they employ differ from one another in many respects. 
Not all of them have the same way of working. One workman 
may be dexterous, doing his work with a knack that is unex- 
plainable. He himself may not know just how he accomplishes 
certain 'results, further than that he uses a peculiar twist of 
the wrist. Another workman may be skilful, performing his 
work understandingly, and consequently he is usually called 
upon for special jobs, or his advice sought when some particu- 
lar information is needed regarding the handling of repair 
work. Yet it is sometimes the case that both of these men 
lack greatly for the want of instruction regarding features 
which they do not understand, and therefore vocational instruc- 
tion is needed. There are workmen who use their heads only 
as nightcaps and their hands as tools, performing their duties 
as though half asleep, but where these fellows are shown how 
to use their heads along with their hands they may become as 
proficient as other workmen. Primarily, a workman may be 
somewhat dexterous, possess some skill, and endeavor to do 
his best, but in order to make him expert in his work he 
requires instructions from an expert workman or instructor. 

The oldtime plan of driving men, or finding fault with their 
operations when not up to standard, was a disappointment to 
most workmen, who, after trying to do their best, such as it 
was, were censured for doing it, on account of some little flaw 
being discovered in their handiwork after they had finished a 
job. The modern way is to give a man credit for what he 
knows or does and at the same time inciease his efficiency by 

A main, or large repair shop, is the best place to instruct 
car men in approved ways of working. The actual work 
should be set out before the workmen and the men put to work 
on the operations necessary to do the work. As the work pro- 
ceeds, the instructor gives the men special pointers regarding 
the details, answers any questions that may be asked, and tells 
the men why the work is best handled in the way he teaches. 
Old employes who have been efficient in the car shop in their 
younger days, but who are not as active now as they once 
were, make good instructors, and in this way they perform a 
service for the company while earning wages in a capacity 
for which they are well fitted. Such instructors may be sta- 
tioned at different large repair points, where their services will 
accomplish much good for the company. 

It is well known, too, that even an expert workman or 
instructor may not know everything, and therefore he should 
supplement his experience with knowledge pertinent to the 
different repair work regarding which he instructs his fellow 
men. Preferred ways of working may therefore be suggested 
to him by the master mechanic and car shop foremen. Years 
ago, a foreman was supposed to be everywhere all the time, 
with the result that oftentimes he was nowhere to be found, 
when lo! he would finally be spied creeping out from under 
some car where he had been showing a workman how to con- 
nect up airbrake pipes and valves — the workman having gotten 
the rigging apart in making repairs and not knowing how to 
get it back again so as to work properly. 

The day is passing when the master mechanic can beckon 
to idle workmen from the office door, and consequently the men 
he does employ in the car shop he should make as proficient as 
possible by vocational instruction. 

Heretofore, railroads have given little attention to taking a 
raw recruit and making a car man out of him. He was usually 
put on as a helper and probably remained a nonentity for the 
want of instruction. Of course, a few of the best helpers 
finally pulled themselves out of the mire, while others remained 
carrying out car material, wheeling bolts, lifting timbers, and 
working as general roustabouts. However, some of these men 
have good material in them and it simply remains for the 
master mechanic to give them a little instruction in work a 
step higher than what they are now doing. 

A promotional system, promoting helpers to some line of car 
work, and dexterous workmen a step higher than their former 
work, is most urgently needed in many repair shops. "Where 
such a system is in vogue the men feel they have something 
to work for, over and above the daily grind, and it helps to 
keep men who might otherwise become tired of their jobs by 
reason of seeing no chance to better themselves. Vocational 
instruction accomplishes this end. 

Every town is filled with boys of working age, many of 
whom would make good car repairers, especially in cases where 
they expect to follow a trade rather than to learn a profession 
requiring an extensive education. During the summer, school 
boys or boys who have finished school, are glad to get some- 
thing to do, and here the master mechanic has an opportunity 
to break in raw recruits who are used to learning and have 
sufficient comprehension to catch onto performing car worK 
very readily under competent instruction. Even boys who 
work only during the summer and return to school in the fall, 
may be started in under some plan which enables them to com- 
plete their apprenticeship by working semi-annually. 

The apprenticeship system in most shops requires bolstering, 
if indeed the railroads have any such system in the car shop. 
The taking on of apprentices is desirable on account of the 
scarcity of regular workmen. Every little while the news- 
papers herald, "Car Repairers Wanted," which shows that 
they are at least in demand in one place, and likewise the ad- 
vertiser usually finds that workmen of this class are also scarce. 
Vocational instruction among apprentices and car men will 
help to overcome this condition. 

In putting young men at work along side of their elders a 
strict system of discipline is necessary. Boys will play. They 
may be saucy or troublesome to old employes if not cautioned 
to pay attention to their work and act like men. Old workmen 
oftentimes feel that the younger men are being educated for 
the purpose of displacing them, but inasmuch as old employes 
are too serviceable to be dispensed with, the long-stayers 
should be given to understand that there is no thought of fill- 
ing their places while they continue rendering the good services 
the company charishes. 

"With so much car work to do and so much of it being done, 
car instruction is necessary today, while in the past when 
traffic moved slowly and there was no general market for but- 
ter, eggs, potatoes, and almost everything that is eatable, car 
repairing was in its infancy. You have probably noticed that 

February, 1914 



in buying a product grown at home the price is about as high 
as though you were buying products grown a thousand miles 
away. That is because a general market prevails on many 
products, so that the price is usually about so high regardless 
of where the product is grown. All lines of manufacturing 
have doubled in the past few years, and with all these com- 
modities on the rails an immense amount of shipping is done, 
requiring thousands of cars and a heavy repair expense which 
must necessarily be handled as efficiently as possible on account 
of low per diem rates and freight rates which are lower than 
in former years. A freight train may go in the ditch and 
consume the profits of a thousand shipments, with consequent 
heavy damage claims, and the only good feature about it is 
the work car men are given in putting the wrecked equipment 
in running order. Such repairs in connection with the multi- 
tude of regular running repairs require an army of efficient 
car repairers, and in order to do the work economically and 
under the best methods, vocational instruction should be given 
an inning in the car shop. It is a safeguard toward keeping 
cars in firstclass running condition. 

Almost any master mechanic can increase the efficiency of 
his car men by arranging to have them specially instructed in 
their daily work. The system adopted may not at first be ex- 
tensive and may be improved upon from time to time, until 
finally it is sufficiently perfected to be worthy of the attention 
of higher officials, when an appropriation may be requested upon 
presentation of results which have already been accomplished 
and a complete outline of the training system which is recom- 

Meanwhile, car shop facilities should be improved upon, for 
good tools and machinery in the car shop come first in ex- 
pediting the work of car repairs. 

By J. A. Jesson, L. & N. R. R., Corbin, Ky. 
The illustration shows a device used in our blacksmith shop 
for upsetting locomotive drawbars, which is quite an improve- 
ment over handling them by hand, an operation requiring five 
men. With this device but two men are required, one to steady 
the bar, and one to operate the threeway cock. The bar is 
first raised from the floor to an upright position and the chain 
adjusted for the upsetting operation. The threeway cock re- 
ceives air from the air supply through a one-quarter-inch choke 
• to the brake cylinder and air is discharged from the cylinder 
through a standard one-inch cock hole, which allows the piston 
to return rapidly. The bar, in the meantime having been sus- 

pended some four feet, drops upon an upsetting block. The 
lever strikes against the buffer post before the piston has com- 
pleted its return stroke. The iron parts of the post are made 
of % x 4-inch strap iron clamped over each side of post. The 
lever is made of two pieces of % x 4-inch bar iron, 10 feet 
long, and is reinforced at the cylinder end with a piece of 
:; i x 4-inch iron, 6 feet long. The arrangement may easily be 
understood by reference to the illustration. 


In September, 1910, the Pennsylvania Railroad employed the 
experts of one of the large accident liability insurance com- 
panies to make a thorough inspection of each shop plant. Irm 
consequence, it was deemed advisable to make the work of safety 
inspection a permanent feature and organize a safety movement 
to cover road and yard as well as shop conditions over the entire 
system. Safety committees were appointed in January, 1911, for 
each Superintendent's division, and for each shop for repairing 
engines and cars. These committees have made 17,333 formal 
recommendations, 13,861 having been complied with at a cost of 
$413,525.23. During the six months ended June 30, 1913, 3,209 
safety recommendations were made, 2,390 being complied with at 
a cost of $75,361.97. 

In addition to the divisional safety committees, a mechanical 
engineer was engaged for the specific purpose of making inspec- 
tions at the various shops. During the year ended June 30, 1913, 
•fifty-eight general inspections and fifteen special inspections were 
made. Usually the first inspection results in attention being 
called to all hazards and the following inspections are made to 
see that the recommendations for the installation of safety devices 
are complied with. 

In order to make inspection even more effective, an additional 
inspector has been appointed to supervise road and yard con- 
ditions; both inspectors devote their entire time to safety work. 

On May 1, 1913, as a means of educating employes, a pam- 
phlet entitled ' ' Safety Hints and Suggestions for the Prevention 
of Personal Injury Accidents ' ' was issued. The instructions con- 
tained in this book are based on the combined recommendations- 
of the safety committees, being supplemented by suggestions from 
the best experts in the country on mechanical and civil engineering 
and train operation. This pamphlet is practically a text-book on 
safety. As a guide to safety committees, it has proven most use- 
ful; over 120,000 copies have been distributed. 

One of the results of all this detailed attention to safety is 
that $99,753 has been spent for safety guards — mainly in shops. 
Practically all machines and dangerous conditions are now 
guarded. But the real result is that serious accidents to shop- 
employes have been reduced from 5.4 per 1,000 employes in 1911 
to 3.2 in 1912. In 35 out of 46 shops, where more than 500' 
men are employed, the number of serious accidents per one thou- 
sand men has been reduced from 5 to 70 per cent. One of the 
results of the original attention to the subject, and the keeping 
of detailed statistics, is that when one shop does not show a 
satisfactory improvement, special inquiry is made with a view 
always to improving conditions. 

Upsetting Locomotive Draw- Bars. 

lee, Ph.D., statistician, Bureau of Railway Economics; pub- 
lished by LaSalle Extension University, Chicago. 

One who reads this treatise may garner much valuable infor- 
mation concerning railway mileage, equipment and capitaliza- 
tion, as well as revenues, expenses and traffic. The treatise 
is one of a series of publications forming the basis of the 
LaSalle Extension University course of instruction by corre- 
spondence in Interstate Commerce and Railway Traffic. While 
statistics form, as a rule, dry reading, it cannot be said of this 



February, 1914 

work that it is dry. There is much of a story in the way it 
describes the development of railway operation. 

Agne w, traffic manager, International Steam Pump Company; 
published by LaSalle Extension University, Chicago. 

The duties of the Traffic Manager, as outlined by the author, 
are as follows: Quoting rates, routing of consignments, super- 
vision of all shipping and receiving, taking complete responsi- 
bility for incoming and outgoing goods, and supervision of all 
work in connection with his office. The author explains how 
these duties may best be carried out. Some of the topics dis- 
cussed in the work are Files and Furniture, Publications, Rec- 
ords, Tariffs, Hates, Classification; Routing, Claims, Tracers. 
Accounting and Demurrage. Adecpiate test questions are pro- 
vided. This treatise is interesting and practical and fills a 
long-felt want. 

TORY AND EASTERX CANADA, by C. C. -McCain, chairman, 
Trunk Line Ass 'n, and W. A. Shelton, A.M., former instructor, 
LaSalle Extension University; with appendix of test questions. 
295 pp.; published by LaSalle Extension University, Chicago. 

Many people have an idea that freight rates in the United 
States are made entirely without a definite system. The 
authors have demonstrated in this treatise that not only is 
the rate structure in the eastern part of the United States 
definite, but also that it approaches very closely a scientific- 
basis. This is a work that will prove helpful to those who wish 
a clear and straightforward exposition of the subject of rates 
in this territory. It is published by the LaSalle Extension 
University in conjunction with its course in Interstate Com- 
merce and Railway Traffic. 

BASES FOR FREIGHT CHARGES, by C. L. Lingo, traffic 
manager, Inland Steel Company; published by LaSalle Exten- 
sion University, Chicago. 

The value of a traffic man's services to a concern is meas- 
ured not only by his technical knowledge and understanding of 
railway tariffs, but also by his comprehensive application of 
such rules and practice to the business in which he is engaged. 
He must know how to put these rules into effect legally, and 
how to make use of all the means that are available or can be 
devised for the betterment and development of traffic. It is 
this knowledge that must be garnered by him who would be 
successful in this field of transportation and when he can take 
advantage of Mr. Lingo 'a experience he is fortunate. Among 
the topics discussed are Freight Tariffs, Rates, Weights and 
Special Charges. 

AND BUILDERS, by Carnegie Steel Co., 16th edition; leather, 
5x8 inches, 400 pages, illustrated; published by Carnegie Steel 
Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.; price, $1.00. 

An entirely new handbook, re-written from beginning to end, 
to take the place of the old Carnegie handbook so widely used 
by structural engineers. In its present form this book repre- 
sents fully the present status and most approved methods in 
the art of steel construction. All shapes rolled are not illustrated 
on account of the greatly diversified line of products, therefore 
only such sections are illustrated as are suitable for bridge build- 
ing, car and ship construction, and the tables given are limited to 
these constructions. The old rolling mill specifications have been 
replaced by those of the American Society for Testing Materials 
and those of the American Bridge Co. for workmanship. The new 
light weight beam sectious are included, also new tables for plate 
girders, columns and struts; new data on floor construction; 
new treatment of stresses in beams, flexure formula} and grill- 
age foundations. Data and tables for reinforced concrete 
design have also been included and tlie data on roofs has been 
extended. In fact, the engineering data in the book has been 
practically doubled. The increase in size of the book' is in 
the opinion of the reviewer an improvement allowing of better 

arrangement of tallies. The makeup of the book is excellent and 
in all parts shows careful editing and selection of subject matter 
such as is necessary in creating -i work- of this sort. 

TION. Proceedings of the forty-sixth annual convention. Cloth, 
6%"x9", 856 pages with inserts, illustrated. Published by the 
secretary, J. W. Taylor, Karpen Building, Chicago. 

This volume contains the entire proceedings of the convention 
held at Atlantic City, N. J., on June 11, 12 and 13, 1912, a full 
report of which was given in the July, 1913, issue of the Railway 
Master Mechanic. One of the valuable papers incorporated in the 
volume is the report of tests of a class E6s passenger locomotive 
made at the Altoona testing plant of the Pennsylvania. This 
covers 191 pages and is very complete. 

the forty-seventh annual convention. Cloth, 6V2"x9", 1,141 pages 
with inserts, illustrate) 1. Published by the secretary, J. W. 
Taylor, Karpen Building, Chicago. 

This year the proceedings of this association appear in two 
volumes, the first containing the minutes of the meetings held at 
Atlantic City, N. J., on June 16, 17 and 18, 1913, and the second 
containing the rules of interchange, results of letter ballots and 
the standards of the association. A detailed account of the 1913 
convention was given in the July, 1913, issue of the Railway 
Master Mechanic, 

AIR BRAKE ASSOCIATION. Proceedings of the twentieth 
annual convention. Leather, 6"x8%", 334 pages, illustrated. 
Published by the secretary, F. M. Nellis, 53 State street, Boston, 

The convention, the proceedings of which are reported in this 
volume, was held at St. Louis, Mo., May 6, 7, 8 and 9, 1914. 
Among the papers presented are ' ' Starting, Running and Stop- 
ping Long Freight Trains," "Will the Triple Valve Operate as 
Intended ? That depends, " " Air Hose Failures, " " Steam Heat 
Traps and Their Relation to Wheel Sliding," "Undesired Quick 
Action — Prevention and Remedy. ' ' The book is well arranged 
and carefully edited. A valuable reference feature is an index 
containing the contents of all convention proceedings since the 
association was organized. 

ceedings of the twenty-first annual convention. Cloth, 6"x8V£>". 
252 pages, illustrated. Published by the secretary, A. L. Wood- 
worth, Lima, O. 

The annual meeting of this association for 1913 was held at 
Richmond, Va., on August 19, 20, 21 and 22. Among the subjects 
discussed were "Flue Welding," "Superheater Flues," "Cast 
Steel in the Blacksmith Shop, " " Electric Welding, " " Tools and 
Formers," "Manufacturing Truck Transoms," "Spring Making 
and Repairing, " Oxy-acetylene Welding," "Properties of Iron." 
The above subjects indicate that the association chooses topics 
pertaining directly to the interest of the members and does not 
wander into other fields as is sometimes the case. The association 
now has a total membership of 277. Its proceedings indicate 
careful work on the part of the secretary. 

POCKET DIARY AND YEAR BOOK. Cloth, 6"x4", 443 
pages, illustrated. Published by Emmott & Co., Ltd., 65 King 
street, Manchester, England. Price 25 cents. 

This book is prepared yearly by the publishers of the ' ' Mechan- 
ical World." It contains sections on steam turbines, machine 
tools, grinding, etc., together with many tables and other data 
of interest to mechanical men. At the rear is a diary or memo- 
randum pages for 1914. 

ELECTRICAL POCKET BOOK. Cloth, 6"x4", 311 pages, 
illustrated. Pubhshed by Emmott & Co., Ltd., 65 King St., 
Manchester, England. Price 25 cents. 

Among the subjects covered in. the book are: Telephones, lift- 
ing magnets, dry batteries, conductors and cables, accumulators, 
electric lighting, electric lamps, etc., together with considerable 
other data. A diary for the year is also included. 

Februarv. 1914 



W. H. Davies succeeds E. J. Mayer as road foreman of the 
Chicago <.)■ Alton, with office at Bloomington, 111. 

C. D. Ash moke has been appointed assistant master mechanic 
of the Chicago a North Western, with office at South Pekin, 111. 
Mr. Ashmore commenced railway work in November, 1889, as an 
engine crew caller for the Chicago & Xorth Western at Boone, 
la. In 1890 he became a machinist apprentice and continued 
in this work until 189S, when 'he left and worked as a machinist 
anil freight brakeman on various roads throughout the west. In 

C. D. Ashmore. 

1902 he returned to the Chicago & North Western and worked as 
a machinist and foreman at Council Bluffs, la., until 1908. From 
1908 to 1909 he was roundhouse foreman on the Ashland division 
at Antigo, Wis., and from 1909 to 1910 was division foreman at 
Fond du Lac, Wis. In 1910 he returned to Antigo as division 
foreman and in 1911 was appointed general foreman at Clinton, 
la., holding this position until promoted as above mentioned. 

George Shimming succeeds J. F. Cosgrove as shop foreman of 
the Chicago $ Xorth Western at Madison, Wis. 

H. B. Forsberg succeeds William Hill as shop foreman of the 
Chicago 4' Xorth Western at Superior, Neb. 

W. S. Whitford, shop foreman of the Chicago 4' North Western, 
has been transferred from Fond du Lac, Wis., to Milwaukee, 
Wis., succeeding W. W. Hoffman. 

T. J. Stocks, shop foreman of the Chicago 4' North Western, 
has been transferred from Janesville, Wis., to Fond du Lac, Wis., 
succeeding W. S. Whitford. 

W. Wabe succeeds T. J. Stocks as shop foreman of the Chicago 
4' Xorth Western- at Janesville, Wis. 

E. B. Hall has been appointed assistant to the general super- 
intendent of motive power of the Chicago $ Xorth Western with 
office at Chicago, 111. Mr. Hall was formerly master mechanic at 

George C. Bingham has been appointed general foreman of 
the Chicago 4' North Western at Huron, S. D. He succeeds 
F. W. Anderson. 

J. G. Dole has been appointed master mechanic of the Chicago, 
Burlington 4' Quincy with office at Alliance, Neb., vice T. J. 
Eaycroft, resigned. Mr. Dole entered the service of the Burling- 
ton at McCook in October, 1897, as machinist apprentice, and has 
held various positions on the lines West until May 15, 1912, when 
he was made general foreman at Lincoln. This position he held 
until his recent appointment. Mr. Dole's promotion comes as a 
recognition of his past services as a railroad man. 

Charles Bay succeeds E. S. Barstow as car foreman of the 
Chicago, Milwaukee 4' St. Paul (Puget Sound Lines) with office 
at Tacoma, Wash. 

A. J. Klumb succeeds C. Lundburg as assistant master mechanic 
of the Chicago, Milwauket <\- St. Paul, with office at Milwaukee, 

W. Snell has been appointed general foreman, car department 
of the Chicago, Milwauket 4 St. Paul at Minneapolis. He suc- 
ceeds to the duties of W. A. Parker, resigned. 

B. S. Mbnnie has been appointed engineer, shop improvements, 
of the Chicago, Bock Island $ Pacific, succeeding W. J. Eddy, 
promoted. His headquarters are at Chicago. 

F. W. Wilson has been appointed supervisor of locomotive 
operation of the Cedar Bapids, Minnesota and Dakota divisions 
of the Chicago. Bock Island cj- Pacific, with headquarters at Cedar 
Bapids, la. 

S. T. Patterson, supervisor of locomotive operation of the 
Chicago terminal and Illinois divisions of the Chicago, Bock 
Island 4' Pacific, has had his jurisdiction extended over the 
East Iowa. His office, as before, is at Chicago. 

John Benzies, supervisor of locomotive operation of the Mis- 
souri and Des Moines Valley divisions of the Chicago, Bock 
Island 4' Pacific, has had his jurisdiction extended over the West 
Iowa division. His headquarters remain at Trenton, Mo., as 

C. H. Bost has been promoted to general storekeeper of the 
Chicago, Bock Island $ Pacific, succeeding Daniel Kavanaugh, 
with office at Silvis, 111. 

W. W. Griswolb succeeds C. H. Bost as stationer of the Chicago, 
Bock Island 4' Pacific. His office is at Chicago, 111. 

J. J. Carey succeeds C. A. Gill as master mechanic of the Cin- 
cinnati. Hamilton 4' Dayton, with office at Ivorydale, O. 

D. J. MULLEN has been promoted to assistant superintendent 
of motive power of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago 4' St. Louis, 
with office at Indianapolis, Ind. Mr. Mullen was formerly master 
mechanic at Mattoon, 111. 

J. J. Kakibo succeeds D. J. Mullen as master mechanic of the 
Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago §• St. Louis, with office at Mattoon, 

J. M. Davis, master mechanic of the Colorado 4~ Southern, has 
been transferred from Trinidad, Colo., to Denver, Colo. 

A. Eoesch succeeds J. M. Davis as master mechanic of the 
Colorado 4' Southern at Trinidad, Colo. Mr. Boesch was formerly 
traveling engineer at Denver, Colo. 

C. J. Shaughnessy succeeds A. Boesch as traveling engineer 
of the Colorado 4" Southern at Denver, Colo. 

A. Hume succeeds C. J. Shaughnessy as traveling engineer of 
the Colorado 4' Southern at Trinidad, Colo. 

P. J. Flynn has been appointed general foreman of the Dela- 
ware. Lackawanna 4' Western at Syracuse, N. Y., succeeding B. F. 

C. A. Henkel succeeds G. I. Murphy as traveling engineer of 
the Denver 4" Sio Grande. His office is at Grand Junction, Colo. 

W. E. Elmore has been appointed general foreman of the 
Denver 4' Rio Grande, with office at Salt Lake City, Utah. 

B. Ferris has been appointed acting general foreman of the 
Detroit, Toledo 4' Iron ton at Delray, Mich., succeeding O. S. 

George Gilmore has been appointed general foreman of the 
Detroit, Toledo 4' Ironton at Debray, Mich. 

J. J. Dowling has been appointed superintendent of safety of 
the Great Northern, with office at St. Paul, Minn. 

M. J. Flanagan, master mechanic of the Great Northern, has 
been transferred from Minot, N. D., to Everett, Wash. 

John Delaney succeeds M. J. Flanagan as master mechanic 
of the Great Northern at Minot, N. D. 

J. Q. Myers succeeds S. J. Taylor as locomotive foreman of the 
Great Northern at Grand Forks, N. D. 

H. H. Gerbach succeeds C. J. Grant as ear foreman of the 
Great Northt m at Great Falls. Mont. 



February, 1914 

W. A. Hall has been appointed master mechanic of the Inter- 
national 4" Great Northern at Mart, Texas. He succeeds T. H. 

Frank H. Adams has been appointed in charge of the me- 
chanical department of the western district of the valuation 
board of the Interstate Commerce Commission. His headquarters 
are at Kansas City, Mo. Mr. Adams on February 1, 1914, re- 
signed as engineer, shop extension, for the Santa Fe System, with 
headquarters at Topeka, Kan., to accept this position. He will 
have direct charge of the federal valuation of motive power, rolling 
stock and shop machinery and tools in the western district, which 
comprises the states of North and South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas. 
Oklahoma, Texas, Colorado and Missouri. Mr. Adams was edu- 
cated in the high school and at the University of Minnesota. His 
railway experience began in September, 1887, on the St. P. & D. 
R. E. at St. Paul, Minn., where he served a special apprenticeship 
until February 12, 1891, when he entered the service of the Gulf 
lines of the Santa Fe system at Galveston, Texas, as chief drafts- 
man in the office of the superintendent of machinery. He con- 
tinued in this position with various other duties until November 
1, 1901, when he was promoted to the position at Topeka, from 
which he has just resigned. 

O. E. Stemp succeeds F. McCutcheon as traveling engineer of 
the Kansas City Southern with headquarters at Shreveport, La. 

T. Nicholson succeeds M. F. McCarra as master mechanic of 
the Louisiana Railway 4" Navigation Co., with office at Shreveport. 

"William Apted succeeds W. E. Walsh as road foreman of 
engines of the Michigan Central at Detroit, Mich. 

J. O. Clendenen has been appointed road foreman of engines 
of the Norfolk 4~ Western with office at Portsmouth, O. He suc- 
ceeds H. S. Walker. 

B. L. Black has been promoted to general foreman of the 
Norfolk 4" Western at Columbus, 0. 

T. L. Brown has been promoted to general foreman of the 
Norfolk 4" Western at Kenova, W. Va. 

N. W. Norsworthey has been promoted to general foreman of 
the Norfolk #■ Western at Crewe. Va. 

D. C. Clough succeeds G. H. Hopkins as master mechanic of 
the Oregon Electric, with office at Portland, Ore. 

F. E. Wolfe succeeds William Belyea as road foreman of the 
Pere Marquette at Grand Eapids. Midi. 

William Belyea has been appointed general foreman of the 
Pere Marquette with office at Benton Harbor, Mich. 

Chas. McDermott succeeds F. J. Hill as chief electrician of the 
Pere Marquette. His office is at Grand Eapids, Mich. 

C. M. Huffman succeeds J. M. Gailey as master mechanic of the 

San Pedro, Los Angeles 4" Salt Lake, with office at Milford, 

C. T. Tillman has been appointed purchasing agent of the 
South Georgia, with office at Quitman, Ga. 

D. Hickey has been appointed master mechanic of the Soutlu rn 
Pacific at Sparks, New 

H. L. Moore succeeds A. E. Hale as road foreman of engines 
of the Southern Pacific at Tucson, Ariz. 

W. E. Stoermer succeeds C. H. Holdredge as road foreman of 
engines of the Southern Pacific at Los Angeles, Cal. 

C. H. Holdredge, road foreman of engines of the Southern 
Pacific, has been transferred to Tucson, Ariz. 

A. C. Adams has resigned as superintendent of motive power 
of the Spokane, Portland 4' Seattle. 

John Dickson has been appointed general master mechanic of 
the Spokane, Portland 4' Seattle in charge of the mechanical 
department and the office of superintendent of motive power has 
been discontinued. His headquarters are at Portland, Ore. 

F. S. Anthony has resigned as mechanical superintendent of 
the Texas 4' Pacific. 

A. P. Prendergast succeeds F. S. Anthony as superintendent 
of machinery of the Texas 4~ Pacific, with office at Marshall, 

G. P. Young, general foreman of the Toledo 4~ Ohio Central, 
has been transferred from Columbus, O., to Bucyrus, O. 

E. Dennis succeeds G. P. Young as general foreman of the 
Toledo 4' Ohio Central at Columbus, O. 

C. G. Hartman has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Wisconsin $■ Michigan, with office at Peshtigo, Wis. He succeeds 
C. H. Stroud, resigned. 


Ellsworth Merriss died at his home at Pleasant Mills, Ind., 
on November 11, 1913. Mr. Merriss was joint car inspector at 
Lexington, Ky., until last March, when he resigned and retired 
to his farm. Death was sudden and due to a stroke of apoplexy. 
He was fifty-one years of age. 

F. B. Boutet, assistant joint car inspector at Cincinnati, died 
November 15, 1913, at the age of forty-two. His railway ser- 
vice covered a period of twenty-one years, commencing when he 
became a car inspector in 1893. For the past six years he has 
acted as assistant joint car inspector of all railroads entering 
Cincinnati. He was a member of the Chief Interchange Car 
Inspectors' and Car Foremen's Association, and of the Masonic- 
fraternity. He was a nephew (not a brother, as stated in the 
January issue) of Henry Boutet, chief interchange inspector at 
Cincinnati, and his passing away was deeply regretted by his large 
circle of friends. 

mor)g^ e Iftfe^ufaciurens 


The Illinois Central has just finished the installation of a large 
planer at its Burnside shops at Chicago which will greatly expedite 
the handling of side frames and other large work at that point. 
The new planer is 84"x84"x34', has a reversible motor drive and 
was built by the Cincinnati Planer Co. of Cincinnati, O. It is 
located in the central bay of the machine shop and the illustration 
shows the machine ready to do its first work on two side frames, 
which it will be noted are placed side by side on the table. The 
old machine used for this work could take but one side frame 
at a time and did not have the quick return and other advantages 
of the new machine. 

Unlike the old-fashioned method of hand movement for the 
heads, this machine has rapid power traverse to all heads in any 
direction. The movements are independent of each other, and 
can be operated whether the table is in motion or not. 

The motor seen on top of the housings is used for driving the 
rapid power traverse and feed to the four heads, for elevating and 
lowering the crossrail and for operating the pump which lubricates 
the ways. 

The motor pinion engages into a large gear on the horizontal 
rapid traverse shaft, from which the pinion that drives the feed 
clutch receives its power. Near the center of this horizontal shaft 
is a gear meshing into a pinion on the gear case of the elevating 
device, through which power is transmitted for raising and lower- 
ing the crossrail. A lever from this gear case passes to the left 
side of the machine, which controls the raising and lowering 
clutches in the gear case. 

The power feed to the tool heads receives its power from the 
driving clutch, which has a bell crank and link motion to the bevel 
gear on the large horizontal shaft. This bevel gear meshes into a 
gear on the vertical shaft, thence through a set of spur gears to 
the trigger gears on the end of the rail and side heads. 

February, 1914 



The driving clutch is tripped from a rod which receives its 
motion from the tumbler and dogs on the side of the table and bed. 
The amount of feed is varied by the graduated slot heads, which 
indicate the exact amount of feed at all times. 

The rapid power traverse receives its power from a second 
vertical shaft on the side of the housing, very much similar to the 
feed arrangement. Small handles on the end of rail and side 
heads operate the rapid power traverse and feed. Turning these 
handles to the left engages the rapid traverse and to the right the 
regular feed, and in no case can both be engaged at the same time. 
The handle at the lower end of rail is used for reversing the 
direction of the rapid traverse. All this is contained in the gear 
case at the end of the rail, and at no time is it necessary for the 
operator to step from his regular position for any of these changes. 
Eesting on the erossrail at the right is a block containing two 
push buttons by means of which the operator may get movements 
of a quarter of an inch if necessary. The gears are thoroughly 
guTtrded against accidents to the operator. 

All heads are taper-gibbed throughout, the clapper boxes are 
clamped by a heavy clamp and three screws instead of the usual 
two bolts through a cored slot. 

The housings are of box form, tongued and doweled to the 
side of bed and further fastened at the top by an arch of box 
form closed on all sides and open only at the ends where it 
fastens against the housings. The cross rail is deep and is clamped 
to the housings with inside and outside clamps. 

The table is of box form heavily ribbed throughout. The ways 
of the bed and table are oiled by forced lubrication from a pump 
at the back of the housing. 

The bed is of the four-wall type and is bored to receive the 
driving shaft boxes, which are large in diameter and provided with 
special oiling arrangements with large chambers for oil. The 
driving gears are of steel and the pinions and table racks are of 
steel forgings. 

The machine is driven by a 65 H. P. General Electric motor, 
the connections for which are very clearly shown in one of the 

from the main cross-rail of 12 inches. They are also adjustable 
on the main rail up io a minimum center distance of 18 inches. 
Both of these adjustments are controlled by individual hand- 
wheels shown on the front of each slide. 

The heads carrying the spindles are complete in themselves 
as each is arranged with a clutch for stopping and starting. Also 
each is fitted with geared power feed with adjustable stop for 
automatically knocking off same at any desired point. Two 
changes of power feed are provided on each head, either one of 
which is instantly available by simply shifting a lever con- 
veniently located. In addition to power feed each spindle is 
furnished with hand feed through work gearing. 

The rail of The machine is very heavy and of box form. The 
base is of continuous box section and the table is arranged with 
T slots and fitted with removable mud-ring chucks. The table 
has an in and out motion of 36 inches controlled by a lever at 
either end of the machine. 

The motor is of Westinghouse make, 20 horsepower and with 
speed adjustment of from 375 to 1500 r. p. m. It is geared direct 
to the drive shaft by a large spur gear and a rawhide pinion, 
both of which are guarded. 

The weight of the machine is 23,000 pounds. 


The accompanying illustration shows a Foote-Burt 4-spindle 
drill installed in the Juniata shops of the Pennsylvania R. R. 
where it is used for drilling the rivet holes around fire box mud 
rings and the flue holes in boiler flue sheets. 

The heads of this machine have an adjustment in and out 

Housings, Motor and Electrical Connections of New Planer at Burn- 
side Shops. 

Large Planer Recently Installed at the Burnside Shops of the Illinois Central. 





"Marvel" High Speed Hack Saw. 


The "Marvel" high speed hack saw shown in the illustra- 
tion is constructed more on the lines of a machine tool than 
the ordinary saiv. The manufacturers have combined first 
class construction with extremely high speed and a number of 
valuable improvements. It is stated that in repeated tests, with 
extreme pressure on the saw blade, 6-inch round cold rolled 
steel could be cut in the remarkably fast time of Id minutes. 
5-inch in S minutes and smaller sizes in proportionately fast 
time. The vise is quick acting and will swivel to either right 
or left. An interesting feature is the fastener at both ends 
of the blade, so arranged that the blade can be tilted to either 
right or left at either end. Another very valuable feature is the 
adjustment of the cutting feed by means of which any desired 
pressure on the blade can be obtained to suit any material 
from thin metal down to heavy solids. This is done by simply 
turning the graduated hand wheel shown on side near top of 
machine to proper point. Provision is also made for using up 
any unused portion of the blade by turning hand wheel shown 
at end of connecting rod which shifts the saw frame forward 
or back as desired. The saw lifts free of the work on the return 
stroke and a good feature in this connection is the quick return 
on the idle or back stroke. The horizontal position always 
maintained by the saw blade is a most desirable feature, espe- 
cially when desired to saw only part way through material. The 
machine can be set to stop at any desired depth in the cut. 
Adjustments, take-ups and oiling devices are provided through- 

_^^ aJH ^& • 

■SET J3 fT jgL 

r h 

n ^ 

n' — *- n ^*_j |^ 


View of Burnside Planer While Assembled at the Plant of the Maker. 

out. It is manufactured by Armstrong-Blum Mfg. Co., 339 N. 
Francisco Ave., Chicago, 111. 


The illustrations show something new in the form of an 

adjustable spacing collar. It is designed primarily for use 

in milling machine manufacturing operations where two or more 

milling cutters on the same arbor must he spaced exact distances 

"Wear-Ever" Spacing Collar. 

apart. As those familiar with straddle or gang milling machine 
operations know, it is sometimes necessary to grind the sides of 
the teeth of the milling cutters. This, of course, changes the 
distance between the faces of the milling cutters and in order to 
maintain sizes on the piece being manufactured, compensation 
must be made in some way for the amount ground off the 
cutter. This is sometimes accomplished by carrying in stock an 
assorted lot of solid spacing collars of varying lengths, and if 
the exact size cannot be found provision must be made by 
grinding off a solid collar, that is too long, or shimming up one 
that is too short, during which time the milling machine is 
standing idle. 


Individual Drive Multi-Spindle Drill. 

Showing Collar in Position 

February, 1914 



The ''Wear-Ever" collar is so designed that thicknesses may 
be varied a total of .024 of au inch. This is divided into twelve 
spaces of .002 each. The adjustment of the collar is quickly 
made and utter each adjustment it is absolutely the same as a 
solid collar. With the threaded collar sometimes used there are 
inaccuracies due to the wear of the threads. Scully, Jones & 
Co., Railway Exchange Building, Chicago, are putting this collar 
on the market. 


Since designing and placing on the market the first Ralco plug 
and receptacle, the Central Electric Co. of Chicago has seen the 
demand for this heavy duty plug increase step by step. Today 
there is a demand for the Ralco plug, and this demand may be 
partially attributed to the constant lowering in cost of current by 

Ralco Plug. 

municipalities ami operating companies. This low cost of current 
makes economical the use of many electrical devices, whereas 
before the high cost of current practically prohibited their use. 
The illustration shows a 30-ampere Ralco plug and receptacle. 
The Ralco line of heavy duty plugs and receptacles are being 
used today in shops for portable grinders, riveters, boring tools, 
forges and lathes. The rigidness of these receptacles and plugs 
means safety and low maintenance cost. 


The drawing herewith shows a washer which has been devel- 
oped for use in applying safety appliances to box cars. In apply- 
ing ladders or grab irons to cars, it is necessary that there be a 
block or. cripple between the siding and lining in order to allow 
the bolt to be drawn up tight and make the ladder or grab iron 

Wine Socket Washer for Grab Irons. 

secure. In the majority of cases where ladders or grab irons 
are applied to existing cars, it is necessary to remove either the 
siding or the lining, apply a cripple block, and then apply new 
siding or lining in place of that removed. 

In order to facilitate and cheapen the application of these 
appliances the Wine socket washer, which is very easily applied 
and makes the grab iron or ladder much more firm and secure 
than by the use of a cripple block, has been designed. 

By making the washer about % inch short, and as there is 

only % inch thickness of wood to shrink and wear, the device 
when properly applied shouTd remain firm and tight indefinitely. 
This washer can be designed in such a manner that the bolt 
may be removed and replaced from the outside of the car. 

The economy and practicability of the device will be readily 
recognized by practical car men, and the Wine Railway Appli- 
ance Co., Toledo, Ohio, the manufacturer, has filled orders of 
a number of the leading railways of the United States and 
Canada, for over 100,000 of these washers within the past 


A wire hose band designed to take the place of the hose clamps 
now in general use is being offered by .1. S. McChesney & Co., 
1:59 N. Clark street, Chicago. A decided advantage in the con- 
struction of this band is that it has no protruding joint to catch 
as the hose is dragged about. One length of band will cover all 
sizes and plies of hose from 1-inch to 2-inch, while the larger sizes 
will cover a corresponding range in hose dimensions. Stocks can 

be replenished quickly by small shipments via parcels post, doing 
away with the necessity of carrying a greatly assorted stock of 
sizes which may never be called for as is the case with hose 
(damps. They are less expensive, stronger and more quickly and 
easily applied than any hose clamp. They can be applied without 
disturbing the hose connection if conditions make this desirable, 
which makes them ideal for emergency repair work. 

The bands are electrically welded and made in six sizes for 
hose ranging from % to 4-inch, and are applied with a tool pro- 
vided with means of adjusting itself so that one •band may be 
used on two or more sizes of hose. 


Statistics show that over sixty per cent of the total personal 
injury cases among industrial workers are injuries to eyes, caused 
for the most part by flying particles and heat glare. Yet it is 
only within a comparatively recent period that this very important 

Non-Strain Eye Goggles. 

subject of eye injury has been given the attention it deserves. 

One of the best known types of protectors which has gained 
popularity among railroad employers is the No. 284 special 
engineers ' and firemen 's goggle as illustrated herewith. This 
goggle was designed and patented some ten years ago by the 
Ophthalmuscope Company of Toledo, O., and embodies many 
original features which have made it indispensable, not alone 



February, 1914 

to engineers and firemen of railroads, but to the man in the shop 
as well. * 

The frame is of aluminum, making it very light and stroug, 
and is so constructed that the lenses can be changed immediately 
to any color or thickness of glass desired. If the work requires 
something different from glass, mica, celluloid or similar lenses can 
be substituted. These lenses can be changed in less than a minute 
of time by merely unscrewing the large aluminum outside ring 
which holds the lens in place, the operation requiring no tools 
of any kind nor the use of small screws which would be easily 
misplaced and lost. This construction admits of perfect ventila- 
tion and is thoroughly dust-proof, the ventilation holes being 
back of the lens on an augle. thus preventing the dust from 
driving in. The lenses are 2 ;1 S inches in diameter, are perfectly 
round, and can be replaced at an expense of only 12e per pair. 

The manufacturers of non-strain goggles have protected them- 
selves against infringement by adopting the trade mark "Xon- 
Strain, ' " which appears on all goggles made by them, and which 
is a guarantee against inferior design and quality. 

furnaces are listed and illustrated. This firm makes plant in- 
spections, devises methods and means of working, prepares plans 
and furnishes complete furnace equipment for shops. 

» * * 

WANTED: To represent manufacturers in the East. Have 
had ten years experience selling Mechanical and Maintenance 
of Way and Engineering Departments of Railroads and Con- 
tractors. References. Write R. E. H., care The Railway List 
Co.. 431 So. Dearborn St.. Chicago. 


W. L. Brubaker & Bro.. Millersburg. Pa., have recently issued 
catalogue Xo. 3 which illustrates and describes the full line of 
taps, dies, reamers and screw plates manufactured by this firm. 
They have been in business since 1SS0 and in the thirty-three 
years since have developed a large railroad business by confining 
their products to the above mentioned line and by guaranteeing 
accuracy, uniformity and long life. The catalogue contains com- 
plete information with regard to their products, together with 
prices. m . , 

The Xational Tube Co., Pittsburgh, Pa., has issued a neat 
"Safety First'' calendar for 1914. The illustration is in colors 
and over the caption ' ' Taking no chances, ' * shows a party of 
automobilists taking the proper precautions at a grade crossing. 

Each month bears a separate motto on safety. 

* * * 

The December issue of "Staybolts, " issued by the Flannery 
Bolt Co., Pittsburgh. Pa., contains an article on the breakage 

of staybolts due to burnt ends. 

* * » 

The Chicago portable mine hoist is described in a booklet 

recently issued by the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. of Chicago. 

* * * 

"Gears and rolling mill pinions" is the subject of Bulletin K 
of the Mesta Machine Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. These gears are all 
machine molded. » » » 

' ' How much excess fuel does your boiler require " ' is the 
question asked by the Federal Graphite Mills. Cleveland, O., in 
a recent booklet. It sets forth why Federal graphite is a prac- 
tical and economical scale remedy. 

* • . * 

"Story of the Imperial" is the title of a 9x12 booklet just 
issued by the In ger soil-Rand Company, 11 Broadway, Xew York 
City. Novel and exceedingly attractive in design, it features. 
in brief and simplified form, the superior points of design and 
construction maintained in the Imperial line of air compressors. 
Page for page it carries the reader through the various stages 
of construction, giving a very concise and elaborate idea as to 

just how the machines are built. 

* » * 

The W. S. Rockwell Company, Xew York, has published a 
catalogue on Rockwell furnace service. A large variety of 

Bulletin 600 B, descriptive of Hyatt roller bearings, has been 
issued by the Hyatt Roller Bearing Company, Chicago, 111. The 
distinctive feature of these bearings is the roller, which is made 
from a strip of steel wound into a helix of uniform diameter and 
gives greater flexibiMty to the rollers. This in turn secures a 

uniform distribution of the load. 

* * * 

The Cincinnati Milling Machine Company, Cincinnati, O., has 
published a new circular on duplex, plain and face semi-automatic 
millers. They are called semi-automatic millers because they are 
so constructed that by means of trip dogs the machines can be 
set so as to make them entirely automatic, the work of the oper- 
ator being confined to chucking the pieces. The design provides 
for an intermittent feeding arrangement, whereby the machine 
h.*<= quick traverse to bring the work to cutter, then drops down 
^o the selected feed rate across the piece, then quick traverse 
again to the next piece, and so on, jumping the gap between 
any number of pieces that may be strung along on the table, 
and after the last piece has been traversed, the machine may 
either stop or trip so as to automatically reverse, and quick 
traverse to the starting point. These machines are especially 
adapted for milling such work as is manufactured in large 


* * * 

The Xational Malleable Castings Company has issued a booklet 
giving the advantages of steel castings produced in electric fur- 
naces, together with illustrations of same. 

» * * 

The Xational Tube Co. of Pittsburgh has issued a booklet on 
the subject of "Xational" reamed and drifted pipe containing a 
complete description of this product together with a short intro- 
duction explaining the process of well drilling and information 
relative to the various accessories necessary for the drilling and 

pumping of wells. 

• * * * 

The Xational Machinery Co., Tiffin, O., has pubbshed ' ' Forging 
Machine Talk Xo. 1, ' ' which is the first of a series of leaflets on 
this subject. This first leaflet sets forth what the forging shop 

demands today. 

* * * 

Watson-Stillman Co. of Xew York has just issued catalogue 
Xo. 89, its title being ' ' Heating, Chilling and Die Presses. ' ' It 
contains 56 pages and shows a complete line of presses. The 
construction of these three types is similar and often but a few 
alterations are needed to change a press from one class to an- 


••Where's the president of this railroad?" asked the man who 
called at the general offices. 

•"He's down in Washington, attendin' th' session o' some kind 
uv an investigatin ' committee," replied the office boy. 

• ' Where is the general manager I ' ' 

• • He 's appearin ' before th ' Interstate Commerce Commission. ' ' 
' ' Well, where 's the general superintendent I ' ' 

' ' He 's at th ' meetin ' of th ' legislature, fightin ' some bum 
new law." 

• • Where is the head of the legal department f ' ' 
' ' He 's in court tryin ' a suit. ' ' 

"Then where is the general passenger agent?" 

"He's explainin' t' th' commercial travelers why we can't 

reduce th' fare." 

' " Where is the general freight agent ? ' ' 

"He's gone out in th' country t' attend a meetin' o' th' 

grange an ' tell th ' farmers why we ain 't got no freight cars. ' ' 
"Who's running the blame railroad, anyway?" 
"Th' newspapers and th' legislatures." — Pittsburgh Press. 

February, 1914 



>SelliB# >Side 


The Chicago Car Heating Company has recently opened a 
branch office and factory at 61 Dalhousie street. Montreal Canada, 
to take care of its rapidly increasing business in the Dominion. 
A. 1). Bruce, formerly purchasing agent of the company at Chicago, 
is in charge. Mr. Bruce is a native of Guelph, Ontario, but has 
been connected with the Chicago Car Heating Company in Chicago 
for the past five years. Karl A. Heine has joined the sales de- 
partment of this firm, with offices in Grand Central Terminal 
building, New York City. 

Edwin Emerson Nolan, head of the materials disposition de- 
partment of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Com- 
pany, East Pittsburgh, Pa., died at his home in Wilkinsburg, Pa., 
on Tuesday, January 13. 

Peter M. Kling has been appointed assistant to the president 
of the Laconia Car Company, with headquarters at Laconia, N. H. 

At the annual meeting of the Association of Manufacturers 
op Chilled Car Wheels, recently held in Xew York, the follow- 
ing offiesgfcs were chosen: President. T. A. Griffin, Griffin Car 
Wheel Company, Chicago; vice-presidents, E. F. Carry, vice-presi- 
dent and- general manager, American Car & Foundry Company, 

A. E. Schafer. 

Chicago; J. A. Kilpatriek, president, Albany Car Wheel Com- 
pany, Albany, N. Y.; secretary and treasurer, George W. Lyndon, 

A. E. Schafer, who has been general sales manager of the 
Sherwin-Williams Company, has accepted a position with the Flint 
Varnish Works, Flint, Mich. He will assist President W. W. 
Mountain in the management, and will have full charge of the 
railroad department. Mr. Schafer was with the Sherwin-Williams 
Company for 28 years, the last 6 years as general sales manager. 

S. F. Bowser & Co. of Fort Wayne, Ind., are building an ad- 
dition to the boiler shop which will almost double its capacity. 

The offices of Charles E. Long, Jr., & Co., and the headquar- 
ters of Harry Vissering & Co., Inc., at Chicago, have been re- 
moved from the Great Xorthern building to the sixteenth floor of 
the Lytton building. 

The Des Moines Bridge & Iron Company, of Pittsburgh, Pa., 
and Des Moines, Iowa, have opened a contracting office at 50 
Church street, New York. 

The general Chicago offices of the Erie have been moved from 
the Bailway Exchange to the Transportation Building, Dearborn 
and Harrison streets. 

Frank D. Waller, formerly secretary of the Flower Waste & 
Packing Company, Xew York, has become the owner of that 

The Metal Car Seal Company of Chicago has changed its 
name to the Edgar Steel Seal and Manufacturing Company. 

The United States Light & Heating Co. has changed the 
location of its Xew York City branch sales office from 30 Church 
street to 210 West 50th street, bringing the Xew York service 
station and sales office into the same building. The general offices 
of the company remain at 30 Church street. 

William Thornton Henry, sales manager of the Xew York Air 
Brake Co., died recently. 

The Railway Business Association will have the following 
officers for the coming year: President, Geo. A. Post, Xew York; 
treasurer, Chas. A. Moore, Xew York; assistant treasurer, M. S. 
Clayton, Xew York; vice-president's, A. M. Kittridge, Dayton, O.; 
W. E. Clow, Chicago; G. W. Simmonds, St. Louis; S. P. Bush, 
Columbus, O. ; Alba B. Johnson, Philadelphia; H. G. Prout, Pitts- 
burgh ; W. G. Pearce, Xew York. 

GRAHAM Gedge, formerly chief clerk and accountant of the 
Wichita Terminal Association, Wichita, Kan., has been appointed 
assistant sales manager of the Edgar Steel Seal & Manufacturing 
Co., Chicago. 

Charles H. Schlacks has been elected president of the Hale & 
Kilburn Co. 

The Central Bailway Supply Co., of Chicago, has moved to 
176 Xorth Market street. 

Jebome-Edwakds Metallic Packing Co. has placed its railway 
sales in the hands of the Equipment Improvement Co., 30 Church 
street, Xew York. 

Arrangements have been made by T. H. Garland, inventor of 
the Garland ventilators, with the Ross-Wortham Co., 1818 McCor- 
niick building, Chicago, to handle his car ventilators and other 
devices invented by him. He will be identified with this firm in 
the improvement of ventilators and other specialties for passenger 
and freight equipment. 

The officers and salesmen of Berry Brothers, Detroit, Mich., 
held their annual meeting at Detroit last week. 

The Des Moines Bridge & Iron Co., of Pittsburgh, Pa., and 
Des Moines, Iowa, opened a contracting office at 50 Church street, 
Xew York City, January 1, 1914. 

The Link Side-Bearing Co., Hammond, Ind., has been incor- 
porated to manufacture railroad trucks. The capital stock is 

The tenth annual convention of the sales and factory organiza- 
tions of the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company was held at the 
Great Xorthern Hotel, Chicago, last week. About one hundred 
of the company's representatives were in attendance from all 
parts of the world. 

The Pullman Company has established a pension plan provid- 
ing for the retirement of employees at the age of 70 or after 20 
years of service in case of disability with a pension equal to one 
per cent for each year of service of the average rate of pay for 
the last year of service. Xo one over 45 years of age will be 
taken into service hereafter except by special arrangement. 

Elmer E. Albee has resigned as mechanical superintendent of 
the Safety Car Heating & Lighting Company, Xew York. 

B. S. McClellen, in charge of the railway sales department of 
the McCord Manufacturing Company, Chicago, has resigned in 
order to give more personal attention to his other interests. The 
McClellen Nut Company, Chicago, which he has just organized, 
will shortly place upon the market a one-piece self-locking nut, 
which will be known as the "Unit" lock nut. 

D. Walker Wear, formerly purchaser of the Chicago Tunnel 
Co., has been elected vice president and a director of the Stow 
Mfg. Co., with offices at 443 State street, Binghamton, N. Y. 



February, 1914 

R. M. Campbell has been appointed special representative of 
the railway department in the eastern territory of the Detroit 
Graphite Company, Detroit, Mich., with headquarters at 135 
Broadway, New York City. Mr. Campbell was for a number of 
years with the Ohio Brass Company and the Transportation 
Utilities Company. 

The Duff Manufacturing Co., of Pittsburgh, Pa., has opened 
an office in the People's Gas Building, Chicago. Backed by a 
Chicago warehouse, they will be in a position to give Western 
consumers increased service and prompt deliveries. The company 
has also appointed G. W. Parsons, district sales agent with offices 
in the Pioneer Building, St. Paul, Minn. By mutual agreement, 
Fairbanks, Morse & Co. have discontinued acting as exclusive 
steam railway agents for the above company. 

The Hancock-Bragg Railway Supply Co., Chicago, has been 
incorporated by William Bragg, David D. Kagy and R. W. Vanier. 

ERICH Joseph, formerly New York manager of the Orenstein- 
Arthnr Koppel Company, Koppel, Pa., has been appointed gen- 
eral manager of that company. He succeeds A. Reiche, who has 
left the company to engage in work in Germany. 

The Simplex Airbrake & Manufacturing Co. held its first 
annual meeting in its offices in Pittsburgh, Pa., on January 20. 
The following officers were elected: President, Milton D. Hays; 
vice-president, Nicholas Herbick ; secretary, Elmer E.. E. Stew- 
art; treasurer, William H. Giob; assistant to president; A. P. 
Hays; mechanical engineer, Peter Wertz. 

John F. Church has been appointed vice-president of the Da- 
mascus Brake Beam Company, Cleveland, Ohio. 

J. H. Waiters, master mechanic of the Georgia Railroad, has 
resigned and will devote his time to the introduction of his sev- 
eral patented locomotive appliances. 

Charles E. Lee, 

Who has been prominently mentioned to fill the vacancy in the presi- 
dency of the Boston & Maine. Mr. Lee was formerly connected 
with the Boston & Maine, and as general superintendent had the 
good will of 20,000 employees. His intimate knowledge of the 
physical property places him in an enviable position. 


William A. Cooper, director of building and equipment of the 
East Pittsburgh works of the Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. 
Co., died from peritonitis at his home in Wilkinsburg, Pa., Fri- 
day, January 23d. Mr. Cooper was born near Watertowa, N. Y., 
November 24th, 1861. He attended Cornell University and 
began his business career with a cheese manufacturing concern 
at which time he had charge of a power plant, and in working 
therein his engineering instinct was aroused, which led him 
to adopt this as his life work. At the age of 25 Mr. Cooper 

went to Ottumwa, la., to engage in the building of automatic 
screw machines. Soon after he started a shop in Minneapolis 
for himself, undertaking at this time the development of a 
system' of traction using compressed air. Following this period, 
Mr. Cooper entered the employ of the Twin City Rapid Transit 
Company of Minneapolis, as master mechanic and chief engi- 
neer. During the four years he spent in this position he rede- 
signed and practically rebuilt the entire electrical equipment. 
In 1894 he entered the employ of the General Electric Com- 
pany at Schenectady, being engaged in railway work. During 
the period of three years at Schenectady he was a leading 
spirit in a great deal of the chief engineering work which re- 
sulted in the revolution of the design of railway motors. During 
his stay at Schenectady, he also supervised the manufacture of 
the locomotives for the Baltimore & Ohio tunnel at Baltimore, 
being detailed to put them into service after their erection. 
After the completion of this work Mr. Cooper became asso- 
ciated with' the firm of Blood & Hale, consulting engineers. 

William Cooper. 

Boston, and on September 1, 1897, entered the employ of the 
Bullock Electric & Mfg. Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, as gen- 
eral superintendent in charge of engineering and manufactur- 
ing. After his experience as consulting engineer in Cincinnati 
for about one year, he entered, in 1904, the employ of the West- 
inghouse Electric & Mfg. Company in the railway engineering- 
department. His first work with this company was his investi- 
gations of the unit switch control which the company was then 
exploiting. His work on this system led to the development 
of the type of control now being used by the Westinghouse 
company. His work in the railway field consisted of an active 
participation of the design and manufacture of the equipment 
furnished the New York, New Haven' & Hartford, the St. Clair 
Tunnel, the Pennsylvania and other roads which have been 
electrified by the Westinghouse company. Two years ago, when 
the works department was organized, Mr. Cooper was made 
director of buildings and equipment. In this capacity he did 
some excellent work in remodelling the power plant at East 
Pittsburgh, leaving it in excellent condition. 

Mr. Cooper was a man of rather rough exterior and apt to 
be misunderstood by people who did not know him thoroughly. 
His warm heart, however, and generous disposition made him 
universally loved and respected by those who were fortunaii&v 
enough to know him intimately. 

«^t-- »-• 

Foundations have been completed for the- erection of the 
Baldwin Locomotive Works' plant at Calumet, near Gary, Tnd. 
The shops will cover sixteen acres and will employ 10,000 men. 

March, 1914 




The World's Greatest Railway Mechanical Journal 

Published at the World's Greatest Railway Center 

Established 1878 


WILLIAM E. MAGRAW. Prea. and Treaa. 
CHAS. S. MYEBS, Vice-Pre». L. F WILSON, V. P. & Editorial Director 


J. M. CROWE, Mgr. Central Dirt. KENNETH L. VAN AUKEN, Editor 


Office of Publication : Manhattan Building, Chicago 

Telephone, Harrison 4948 

Eastern Office: 50 Church Street, New York 

Telephone, Cortlandt 5765 

Central Office: House Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Address all editorial and business communications to the Com- 
- pany, at Chicago. 

A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, car equipment, 
shops, machinery and supplies. 

Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are solicited. 

Subscription price, $2.00 a year: to foreign countries. $2.50, free of 

postage. Single copies, 20 cents. Advertising rates given on 

application to the office, by mail or in person. 
In remitting, make all checks payable to The Railway List Company. 
Papers should reach subscribers by the 16th of the month at the 

latest. Kindly notify us at once of any delay or failure to 

receive any issue and another copy will be very gladly sent. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter June 18, 1895, at the Post Office 
at Chicago, Illinois, Under Act of March 3, 1879. 

Vol. XXXVIII Chicago, March. 1914 

Xo. 3 

Center Plate Oiler 87 

Tool Room Work 87 

Brake Performance Tests 88 

Pyrometer for Superheater 88 

Twenty Years Ago This Month 89 

The Situation in Brief 89 

Loyalty 89 

Raising the Standard of Efficiency in a Railway Shop 90 

Just Keep On Keepin' On 90 

A Progressive Tool Room 91 

Westinghouse Veterans Organize 97 

New Design McKeen Motor Cars, Sunset-Central Lines 98 

Brake Performance Tests 99 

Reamer for Truing Up Air Pump Stop Bosses 104 

Pacific and Mountain Locomotives, ("., R. I. & P. Ry 105 

Structural Steel Trucks, Canadian Pacific Ry 109 

International Correspondence Schools Ill 

Center Plate Oiler 112 

Electrification of the Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Ry 113 

Pyrometer for Superheater Locomotives 118 

Safety Exhibit, New York Central Lines 120 

Repairing and Applying Superheater Units 121 

Executive Committee Meeting, C. I. C. I. & C. F. Assn 122 

Personals 125 

New Books 126 

Among the Manufacturers 126 

Knife Grinder 126 

Portable Electric Drag 127 

Repair of Pressure Gauges 127 

Lennox Serpentine Shear 128 

Efficient Steam-Water Heater 12S 

Asbestos Car Lining 128 

New Literature 129 

The Selling Side 129 

Center Plate Oiler. 

On another page we publish a short article descriptive of a 
center plate oiler used on the Denver & Eio Grande, which was 
designed by Master Mechanic Stevens of that road. Although 
a simple affair, it is a striking example of overcoming some of 
the small leaks in railway operation. Mr. Stevens says that 
they were able to oil but thirty cars per gallon of oil with the 
ordinary oiler and that they are able to cover sixty cars on 
the same amount of oil with the improved oiler. In addition 
there is a saving effected in the time consumed, and the danger 
to the man handling the oiler is decreased. Another interesting 
feature is that the oiling of center plates has resulted in a 
decrease in the number of truck derailments. 

We need more devices of this sort in our shops and round- 
houses; devices and improvements that will help to cut off the 
small leaks. At this time, more than ever before, efforts should 
be made to cut down costs. It is to be hoped that railway 
mechanical men who have succeeded in cutting costs by means i 
of an improved tool or method will take every opportunity to 
acquaint their fellow railway men with it. Indeed, it should 
be a duty, for what will improve the welfare of the roads as a 
whole will improve the welfare of each separate road. 

Tool Room Work. 

With the incoming of machinery, each man working in a 
shop is being relieved of more and more manual work and is 
becoming to an increasing degree, a director of certain forces 
placed at his command. The power, the machine and the cut- 
ting tool is furnished and it is up to the operator to make 
them work as efficiently as possible. After furnishing good 
machines to the operator, the most important thing is to give 
him good cutting tools which will meet the requirements of the 
work, and to keep these tools in the best of repair for him. 

This is the function of the tool room; to study out the best 
designs for the tools needed, to manufacture all the tools it 
can with economy and to keep the men supplied at all times 
with good tools. The tool room should always keep a step in 
advance of the shop and not simply keep abreast with it or lag 
behind it as is sometimes the case. On the whole, tool room 
foremen are up-to-date and alive to the possibilities of their 
work. This was well evinced at the last convention of the 
Tool Foremen's Association. Although this association has as 
yet a relatively small membership, no convention excelled it 
last year in enthusiasm and in thoroughness in discussing live 
subjects. Better designs of cutters, better means of tempering, 
and cheaper methods of manufacture are constantly being in- 
troduced and the man who is going to make the value of the 
tool room felt in his shop must be constantly studying the 
problems of the shop, devising methods of expediting the work 
and cutting costs wherever possible. 

We present in this issue an article by Owen D. Kinsey, tool 
room foreman at the Burnside, Chicago, shops of the Illinois 
Central, covering the work being done in the tool room at that 
point. The tool room department at Burnside was reorganized 
last last fall and has been brought to a high state of efficiency 
since that time. At present it is manufacturing practically all 
the tools for the shop, aside from drills and taps. With each 
tool the prices of the manufactured product have been obtained 
and compared with the cost of manufacturing the same tool in 



March, 191+ 

the tool room, with the result that a large percentage of the 
tools are being manufactured at home at a decrease in price of 
from one-third to two-thirds. Aside from the decrease in cost, 
the tool room is able to make tools which are especially adapted 
to the work of its shop. The article in question shows a few 
of the interesting jigs used for turning out the work. The 
tool room is located in a separate building adjoining the shop, 
has plenty of room between machines, good light and is kept 
in an orderly condition, all of which have a very good influence 
on the men who work in it. In spite of the fact that the tool 
room is supplying the shop with more and better tools at a 
lower cost, it is working with a smaller force than it did under 
the old regime. The force consists of twenty-four men, one- 
third of which are skilled mechanics, while the rest are bright 
young fellows who have been picked out of the shop. 

It has been said that if you want a thing well done, do it 
yourself. One of the secrets of the success of the Burnside 
tool department is that Mr. Kinsey, the foreman, not only de- 
signed his own jigs but prepared all his own drawings. Al- 
though it used up many of his spare evenings he has a set of 
drawings which he knows to conform exactly to his desires and 
the requirements of the shop. It is such attention to details 
which makes for the success of any work. He is also encour- 
aging the men to take courses in mechanical drawing and 
other studies which will help them in their daily tasks, and 
enable them to work understanding^-. The Burnside tool room 
is turning out work which is a great credit to the Illinois Cen- 
tral Railroad and the shop management. The article referred 
to contains some valuable ideas with regard to tool room work 
and if there are other shop officials who believe they have 
better methods, they are invited to let our readers know about 
them. No one would be more anxious to learn of them than 
the tool room foreman at Burnside. for Mr. Kinsey is always 
in the market for new ideas. That is why the tool room at 
Burnside has cut down costs hundreds of dollars each month. 

Pyrometer for Superheaters 

In the operation of superheater locomotives it is unques- 
tionably a fact that the best results consistent with good 
practice are not by any means always obtained. In the com- 
mittee report and discussions of the American Railway Master 
Mechanics' and of the Traveling Engineers' Associations, there 
is much doubt expressed as to when superheaters are operated 
to best advantage. It has been shown that enginemen often 
carry water at too high a level in the boiler for the principal 
reason that it is possible to do so without the usual evidences 
of priming, which follows such practice with saturated steam 
locomotives, and further there is a tendency to provide as 
large a factor of safety as possible in avoiding danger of burn- 
ing crown sheets. It has also developed that improper atten- 
tion given the cleaning of the superheater flues has often re- 
sulted in a low standard of efficiency. 

Since the evidence of such poor conditions is not at once 
brought to the attention of the enginemen or terminal forces 
for correction, the poor results are apt to continue to the 
detriment of the service. It is for these reasons that a pyrom- 
eter adapted to locomotive practice, has been developed by the 
Locomotive Superheater Co. This device is described on an- 
other page of this issue and it should attract favorable atten- 

tion from those who have realized that they were not obtaining 
maximum efficiency. An indication of what is transpiring, so 
far as the functioning of the superheater units are concerned, 
is constantly before the eyes of the enginemen in the registra- 
tion on the pyrometer dial and in most cases an indication of 
low temperature in the steam delivered to the cylinders will 
result in prompt corrective measures. There is slight increase of 
complication by its attachment to the engine and its simplicity 
is such as to insure its proper action. 

Brake Performance Tests 

"With its characteristic thoroughness, the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road working with the Westinghouse Air Brake Co., conducted dur- 
ing the past year a set of tests on brakes and brake performances 
which are of great value to the railway fraternity. In a paper 
by S. W. Dudley, delivered before the American Society of Me- 
chanical Engineers on February 10, the writer does not go deeply 
into details but his discussion of the tests covers about a hundred 
and thirty pages, so it may be seen how thorough and comprehen- 
sive these tests were. Elsewhere in this issue we publish the in- 
troduction and conclusions of this paper; lack of space prevents 
us from giving more. As indicated in the article, those interested 
can readily obtain complete copies of the test. 

The tests at the outset were to cover five points, namely: A 
determination of the maximum percentage of emergency braking 
power with a consideration of the various factors affecting it; a 
comparison of two brakes per wheel with the standard of one brake 
i>er wheel; a comparison of the improved electro-pneumatic brake 
with the present high speed brake equipment ; observance of effects 
of braking on the brake shoes; the coeflieient of friction between 
the wheel and the rail under varying conditions. 

The improved electro-pneumatic equipment was found to be 
quick acting and very effective. For instance, the time to obtain 
full emergency braking power with the PM equipment on the entire 
train was 8 seconds while with the electro-pneumatic brake the time 
was 2:25 seconds. 

With regard to brake rigging the paper says: "An efficient 
design of brake rigging must be produced before the advantages 
of improved air brakes or brake shoes can be fully utilized. ' ' The 
clasp type of brake rigging (two brakes per wheel) was found to 
be very advantageous both from the standpoint of the brake rig- 
ging and the brake shoe. The rail adhesion was found to vary 
from 15% to 30%, depending on the conditions of the atmosphere 
and weather, and the amount of wheel sliding it was concluded 
depended more on the rails and weather conditions than on the 
amount of braking power. 

The brake shoe bearing was found to be the most difficult factor 
to control and the tests indicated that, with all factors except this 
remaining constant, there was a possible variation of from 15 to 20 
per cent in the length of stops made from a speed of 60 miles per 

With our heavier rolling stock, longer trains and higher train 
speed the braking question is indeed an important one and much 
good should result from these tests. They are the most complete 
tests which have been made since the Galton-Westinghouse trials 
of 1878, which constituted the first scientific investigation of 
the subject, although the Lake Shore tests of 1909 contributed 
valuable data. They are a valuable contribution on the question 
and a study of them will be of great value. 

March. 1914 



enfu^are ^o This Montli 

Henry L. Leach introduces an improvement on locomotive track 
sanding apparatus to cover emergency sanding, the improved de- 
vice retaining the old sand lever in addition to the pneumatic 

The general superintendent of one of the larger roads asks one 
of the railway publications for some information as to the dif- 
ferences in the various types of vertical plane couplers, as his 
road "is considering the advisability of making a change iu 

Whiting Foundry & Equipment Co. and Whiting Car Wheel Co. 
organized, the former with a capital of $100,000 and the latter 
with a capital of $75,000. The incorporators are Nathan G. 
Moore, William B. Mcllvaine and Max Baird, for both companies. 
Shops are under construction at Harvey, 111. 

The Big Four announces its decision to use the Pintsc-h lighting 
system on all passenger and mail cars. 

H. E. J. Porter and Albert Fisher form a partnership to carry 
on a contracting business in the line of equipment of steel plants. 

The civil engineering department of the University of Penn- 
sylvania announces the collection of sufficient funds for the equip- 
ment of a testing laboratory to be placed in the basement of the 
college building. 

A locomotive engineer, Ackerman by name, on the Mexican- 
Interoceanie, is imprisoned on account of the death of a Mexican 
who had been hit by his engine. 

A committee of the Traveling Engineers ' Association asks the 
familiar question: "How can traveling engineers improve the 
service when engines are double-crewed or pooled?" 

A committee of the Master Car Builders' Association, of which 
E. D. Brouner is chairman, issues a circular of inquiry as to hand 
ami air brake apparatus, with especial reference to foundation 
brake gear. 

George Henderson is appointed master mechanic of the Butte, 
Anaconda & Pacific at Anaconda, Mont. 

W. H. Y. Kosing is appointed master mechanic of the first 
division, first district, of the Denver & Eio Grande at Burnham, 
Colo., vice Quincy Lamplugh, resigned. 

The Richmond "tramp" locomotive is tested on the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy, having previously been tried out on several 
of the roads centering in Chicago. T. H. Symington, mechanical 
engineer, Richmond Locomotive Works, is iu charge of the machine 
and is explaining its points to large numbers of railroad men 
each day. 

The Boston & Albany decides to build shops at West Spring- 
field, Mass. 

Announcement is made of the marriage of Clarence H. Howard, 
secretary of the Safety Car Heating & Lighting Co. — ' ' one of the 
best-known young men in the railway supply trade." 

V. B. Lang, general foreman of the West Shore shops at New 
Durham, N. J., is appointed master mechanic of the Louisville 

E. A. Hibbits is appointed master mechanic of the New York, 
Lake Erie & Western at Rochester, N. Y. 

E. B. Gilbert is appointed master mechanic of the Pittsburgh, 
Shenango & Lake Erie. 

Lunkenheimer brings out "the latest thing" in graphite sight- 
feed lubricators. 

Contract is let for the new shops of the Monon at Lafayette. 
Ind. The town toted $130,000 to secure the location of the shops 
at that place, of which amount citizens advanced $50,000 pending 
a tax levy necessary to raise the amount. 

W. E. Bentley is appointed general foreman of the shops of the 
Baltimore & Ohio at Zanesville, O. 

H. C. Buhoup gets a patent on a railway car. 

H. H. Sessions patents a car brake. 

Thomas S. Reilly resigns as general foreman of the San Antonio 
& Aransas Pass. 

Prediction is made that iron car construction has taken per- 
manent root in this country. 

W. E. Dixon is elected a director of the Rogers Locomotive 

A. E. Mitchell, superintendent of motive power of the Erie, 
lenies the reported application to Erie cars of a new-fangled 
brake, said to set the brakes by the simple movement of the cars 
chucking together. 

The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific is considering the advis- 
ability of using compressed air for cleaning passenger cars, several 
other roads having adopted the plan successfully. 

Norway begins the construction of locomotives for its roads, hav- 
ing formerly bought all of its equipment of this kind from 

On account of the growing interest in the possibilities in the 
building of cars of steel, the Harvey Steel Car Works arrange 
for an exhibit of one of their steel tank cars at a convenient point 
in Chicago. 

An Australian invents a car wheel with central flange and 
double tread, designed to enable equipment to pass from a line 
of one gauge to a line of another gauge. 

James McNaughton, superintendent of motive power, Wisconsin 
Central, has his jurisdiction extended over the car department 
also, with headquarters at Waukesha, Wis. 

Per.ny-in-the-slot electric reading lamps are introduced in the 
cars of the London underground railway, a deposit of a penny se- 
curing illumination for half an hour. 

Massachusetts repeals its automatic coupler law of 1886 on ac- 
count of the activity the railroads have displayed in equipping 
cars with couplers of the M. C. B. type. * 


Returns of the steam roads in the United States for December, 
reduced to a per mile of line basis and compared with the re- 
turns for December, 1912, show a decrease in total operating rev- 
enues per mile of 5.2 per cent, and an increase in operating ex- 
penses per mile of 0.1 per cent. Net operating revenue per mile 
was less by $61, or 16.9 per cent, than for December 1912, while 
that for December 1912 was 10.4 per cent greater than for De- 
cember, 1911. 

For the calendar year 1913 total operating revenues per mile 
increased 3.7 per cent, and operating expenses per mile 7.3 per 
cent. Net operating revenue per mile decreased $183, or 4.4 per 
cent, while that for the calendar year 1912 was greater than for the 
calendar year 1911 by 5.1 per cent. Operating income per mile de- 
creased $239, or 6.6 per cent. 


If you work for a man, in Heaven's name work for him. If 
he pays you wages that supply your bread and butter, work for 
him ; speak well of him ; stand by him and stand by the institution 
he represents. If put to a pinch, an ounce of loyalty is worth 
a pound of cleverness. If you must vilify, condemn and eternally 
disparage, why, resign your position, and, if you are a weakling, 
when you are outside damn to your heart's content; but as long 
as you are a part of the institution, do not condemn it. If you 
do, you are loosening the tendrils that hold you to the institution, 
and the first high wind that comes along, you will be uprooted and 
blown away, and probably you will never know why, as many 
have experienced. — Elbert Hubbard. 

A lecent notice in the "Daily Mail," of London, indicates 
that when the Southeastern and Chatham Railway completed 
its annual stock-taking it found that two locomotives were 
missing. Diligent inquiry discovered one of these — the article 
does not state where — but no trace of the other has been found. 
Commenting on this fact in the paper, a railway officer says 
that another prominent British railway, some years ago, abso- 
lutely lost six locomotives, and that its inventory reported as 
missing, in addition, two hundred goods wagons and fifty pas- 
senger coaches. 



March, 1914 


By Frank J. Borer. 

Mark Twain, the late humorist, once said: "Training is every- 
thing; the peach was once a bitter almond, cauliflower is nothing 
but cabbage with a college education. ' ' 

Every industrial enterprise has for its successful operation dif- 
ferent problems to solve, which may vary to some extent according 
to the line of industry. 

For the most part the labor problem is the most difficult one to 
solve. This is especially true of a railway shop. How to deal 
with the human element as it applies to a railway shop so as to 
attain a higher state of efficiency depends in no small degree upon 
the amount of skill and knowledge of human nature possessed and 
displayed by the different foremen and officers of the shops. 

To raise the standard of efficiency we must cultivate the spirit 
of loyalty and responsibility among the employees. We must in- 
still in them the idea that there is a mutuality of interests between 
employer and employees; that a railroad like any other business 
in order to exist and succeed must be run on paying basis, must 
be capable of paying interest and dividends on stocks and bonds, 
must make vast improvements and lay aside money for times of 
depression of business or for unexpected expenditures. 

It has been said that a human being is a suspicious animal. 
There is a good deal of truth in this; therefore, it logically fol- 
lows that those in charge of the force should avoid making the 
men suspicious or discontented, and instead use a sympathetic 
attitude combined with strategy and diplomacy. 

Human nature is about the same the world over in regards 
to certain characteristics, traits or instincts. It is this instinct 
that those in charge of the shop force have to make the best of, 
have to develop or head off certain tendencies, promote those 
that make for education or a higher efficiency and familiarize 
themselves with the ability and capacity of the men. We cannot 
fire large bullets with a small calibre gun; Ukewise if large re- 
sponsibilities are placed upon a small calibred individual the re- 
sults of his service will be unsatisfactory or more or less discour- 
aging. Men that have not had or could not absorb the proper 
training should not be expected to train others. 

If we rightly put so much importance upon training or its 
equivalent, education, then it becomes self-evident that we must 
avail ourselves of the avenues open. 

One of the best and most efficient methods to improve knowledge 
and to keep "posted" is by reading the mechanical press. Every 
railroad man worthy of the name should feel the need of supply- 
ing himself with reading matter conveying in a practical way a 
reflex of the work in which he is engaged. 

Eight here I will say without flattery that the Railway Master 
Mechanic deserves great credit for the pioneer work it has done 
relative to shop-efficiency and the unification of its forces. 

But the mechanical press should not only be read or recom- 
mended to be read from a point of view of gaining knowledge 
by those in charge of the shop force. Every foreman should con- 
sider it his moral duty to do so. 

In conjunction with reading and home study, the exchange of 
ideas by means of railway clubs and associations is very benefi- 
cent as an educational factor. 

Being in possession of knowledge does not mean in itself that 
the company is going to derive any benefit therefrom. There is a 
tendency on the part of some foremen to "bottle up" the knowl- 
edge they have gained. Of course, this is wrong and shows them 
to be narrow minded. Knowledge must be put in practice, must 
be imparted to the men in the ranks, little by little, wherever the 
opportunity arises. 

In every man there are certain potentialities, certain possibil- 
ities which may lay more or less dormant and which have to be 
developed and cultivated in the direction of reaching a higher state 
of efficiency. 

According to the last annual report of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission relating to its investigation on collision accidents, 98 
per cent of them had been caused by some employee failing to do 

his duty. Nearly the same ratio holds good in regards to acci- 
dents and personal injury occurring at the railway shops. Of 
course, in many instances there are a number of contributory 
causes that led to the accident or injuries but that does not mate- 
rially alter the facts at issue. As a logical conclusion it then 
follows that we must aim at overcoming the faults, weaknesses 
and shortcomings in human nature as far as it applies to railway 
work, and arouse a feeling of personal responsibility, of regard 
for duty and a keener understanding of the interests of the em- 
ployer. The task is not an easy one to be sure. An employee 
possessed with a spirit of apathy, indifference and lack of loyalty 
is not easily made into an efficient worker and it would sometimes 
seem far more advisable to eliminate him from the service than to 
try to reform him. If all the employees on the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford had done their duty that road would now not 
be in such a plight financially. 

Biology tells us that if any living organism fails to make any 
progress under favorable conditions, that it will be supplanted by 
a better organism. The same may be said of a railroad organiza- 
tion or shop management. Therefore, we must ever strive for per- 
fection, for the ideal, even though we may never reach it. The 
moment we lose sight of this, the moment we are contented in 
letting well enough alone, we not only stand still, but take a step 
backward. The beacon light of a shop management must be 
co-operation between the different departments and between the 
foremen and their forces, avoiding all unnecessary friction, making 
the environment of the men as pleasant as circumstances will per- 
mit, placing each man at the right place according to his ability 
and a higher efficiency of the force will follow. 


If the day looks kinder gloomy 

An' your chance is kinder slim — 
If the situation's puzzlin' 

An ' the prospect 's awful grim, 
An' perplexities keep pressin' 

Till all hope is nearly gone, 
Jus' bristle up, and grit your teeth, 

An' keep on keepin' on. 

Fumin' never wins a fight, 

An' frettin' never pays; 
There ain't no good in broodin' in 

These pessimistic ways. 
Smile just kinder cheerfully 

When hope is nearly gone, 
An' bristle up and grit your teeth, 

An' keep on keepin' on. 

There ain't no use in growlin' 

An' grumblin' all the time, 
When music's ringin' everywhere 

An' everything's a rhyme. 
Just keep a-smilin' cheerfully, 

If hope is nearly gone, 
An ' bristle up, and grit your teeth, 

An' keep on keepin' on. 

— Exchange. 

THE DYNAMOMETER CAR designed by Professor E. C. 
Schmidt of the University of Illniois for the Imperial Govern- 
ment Railways of Japan is nearing completion and will be 
delivered about May 1. The car is 48 feet long, 8 feet 6 inches 
wide and is adapted for a 3 foot 6 inch gaug« with provision 
for changing later to a 4 foot 8% inch gauge. It is equipped 
with vacuum brakes and the design of drawbars, buffers, 
journal-boxes, etc., conforms to Japanese railway standards. 
The car is of the hydraulic dynamometer type such as has been 
developed at the University of Illinois. The car and apparatus 
is designed for a maximum speed of 85 miles per hour and the 
recording apparatus will permit the measurements of tractive 
efforts up to 80,000 pounds. 

March, 1914 



A Progressive Tool Room 


Ey Owen D. Kinsey, Tool Room Foreman. 

The tool room organization at the Burnside shops of the Illinois 
Central R. R. at Chicago is new, having been developed from a 
careful weeding out of non-producers by substituting skilled 
mechanics for precision work, and specializing and training men 

Being separate and on the ground floor, they are free from the 
vibration and noise of the shop. 

In addition to our electrical heat treating plant, we have access 
to an up-to-date case hardening and heat treating plant located 

View of Tool Room at Burnside Shops, I. C. R. R. Note the Open Spaces Between Machines, the Safety Guards, the Tool Stands at 
Each Machine and the Cabinet Between the Windows. The "Safety First, Higher Efficiency" Sign Occupies a Prominent Place. 

on certain classes of work where multiple production is run 

Careful attention has been given to the selection of men who 
are adaptable and have a progressive spirit; in other words, 
men who are not fixed by precedent and what they used to do 
"when Noah built the ark." This is a progressive age and new 
methods must be employed in order that we may keep pace with 
the times and render profitable service. The old mistaken idea 
of killing the. job is out of date with the new order of things. 
It is now understood that if we cannot produce tools for 
less cost than same can be purchased outside, we are not entitled 
to, nor can we expect to, hold the work. 

The writer is not an advocate of cheap labor, but believes in 
training and specializing workmen, advancing them up into posi- 
tions of increasing responsibilities and opportunities, giving them 
full credit and praise for what they do and compensation accord- 
ing to ability and conditions ; loyalty, time in service and efficiency 
being considered. 

One of the illustrations shows a plan of the general lay-out of 
both the machinery and tool serving departments, and also the 
electric hardening plant adjoining. The machinery and hardening 
departments are located in a building adjoining the main shop. 

in the blacksmith shop, which has made possible the use of soft 
steel for many purposes where heretofore we had to use high- 
priced tool steel. 

We are using punch presses for work formerly done by hand, 
as for instance: M. C. B. wheel defect gauges, tell-tale gauges, 
beading tool gauges, emery wheel dressers, etc. At one end of 
the room we have a tool cabinet where all new drills, taps and 
stock tools are kept by a system of perpetual inventory. Metal 
tool stands are provided for each machine and we have adopted 
a standard eccentric-grip tool holder for all machines, as it shows 
economy in the use of high speed steel. 

The tool room is well lighted and ventilated, and furnishes 
ideal working conditions. In other words, it is a little industry 
by itself, thoroughly progressive, receptive to new ideas and 
following out a clean-cut program for betterment. 

For the general lighting of the tool room twelve 250 watt 
Mazda lamps with 16" enameled steel reflectors are used, all 
spaced an equal distance apart and suspended 12 feet above the 
floor, thus giving an equal distribution of light to all parts of 
the room. These lights are entirely adequate for all general 
work, but a receptacle is placed on each machine for the purpose 
of connecting a portable light which is sometimes needed for 
very fine work. These receptacles also serve for connecting a 


March, 1914 




Toot Qrinder 
Sellers & Co 

~^5fock Cupboard^ 

Bath On Co. 

■:3er^_ ± _ 

Emery Cut-Off 
Saw. Mitxnnxti „ 
a Moot Co. (Belt) "* 

24' Face Mill Grinder 
Ingerx nJi.Co 



Ho.Z Univ. 
On. Mill 
Mac/?. Co 

Floor Grinder "Wiliey Floor Gr 
(Belt) J Clarke Jr FlecCo 

Sensitive \— r 
Drill Press 
Knecht Bmi. Co 

?4" Radial Drill 
Am. Too^VTtuJMotor) 



Gear' Cutter 
' Qcjc 3. Berimtt 


Becker Hand 


I.C.Dili Mach Co. 


ho 3 Univ. Mill. Mack 



no. 3} 

Arbor Press 


Univ. Mill Nidi 
<bn " tbAOn 






Wtotocfoi %' En 9 Lathe 

li\x ?' • ?0\x 
Eny. I ithe Fry Lkthe 
lx)ae bih^iet, 




HeTle/ Mgd Ca 

(to l 






5cale of Feet 
4' 4' 8' J2' 




Tool Stock 

Tool Stock 

Tempering Plant 


Switch hoaro" 

(30. qh^ © 

C la — : 

36' Oil Bath 

Oil Furnace 

'o t\ 


O M 



Plan of Tool Room at Burnside Shops. Illinois Central R. R. Note that the Grinding Machines Are Placed in a Group and as Far from 

the Percisicn Machines as Possible. 

center grinder when required. The general lighting is arranged 
with two lights on a circuit so that two or more lights may be 
turned on or off. thus providing light for any part of the room 
as desired. All cut-outs and lighting switches are placed in a 
steel cabinet in the room. 


All tools are manufactured from drawings which are developed 
by careful study of conditions and the work to be performed. 
The designing is done by the tool department, where the drawings 
are also made and standards established in accordance with 
requirements of the shop. All drawings are of standard folio 
size and are mounted on cardboard and shellaced. They, there- 
fore, always present a clean aud handy reference for the work- 
man, place him in the position of knowing absolutely instead of 
guessing and enable him to perform his work more accurately 
and rapidly. In this connection it might be mentioned that a 
number of our tool room men are studying mechanical drawing 
and tool designing through correspondence schools and night 
schools, and are making commendable progress. Efforts along 
these lines are encouraged, and every advantage possible is given 
the man who produces results. 

Next in importance to a standard design for all tools conies 
the designing and making up of special jigs and devices for 
facilitating accurate and rapid work. No factor is more impor- 
tant to economical production. A few illustrations of efficient 
jig| and devices are shown herewith. 

Figure 1 shows a jig for drilling flue roll cages. This device 
handles all sizes from 1% inches up to and including 2% inches. 
There is a graduated rule extending across the top of the sliding 
block, indicating the position of the drill bushing. This block 
can be quickly moved and locked in any position required. The 
upper part is hinged so that it can be raised to permit the 
removal of the cage and it also serves as a clamp for holding Fj 2 j- for F | Ue Cutters 

Fig. 1 — Jig for Manufacturing Flue Rolls. 

March. 1914 




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1 Btf k 


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Fig. 5 — Triple Head Milling Three Spiral Reamers. 

the cage while it is being drilled. The base plate of the jig has 
an inclined hole bored therein, into which the blank to be drilled 
is inserted at an angle of 5 degrees. The blank has three lines 
scribed on its circumference which are made to coincide with 
zero line on base. Two specimens of work are shown to the 
right of jig, one piece as it conies out of the jig and the other 
after having been turned in a lathe. A completed tool is also 
shown. This drilling is accomplished by an inexperienced man 
at an average rate of 25 minutes per piece. The material used 
is machine steel which "is case hardened and heat treated. The 
rolls and pin are tool steel. 

Figure 2 shows a jig in which we manufacture our standard 
flue cutters, this device being used on three machines, namely: 
Drill press, slotter and milling machine. A complete flue cutter 
may be observed to the right of jig. The barrel is made of 
machine steel, case-hardened and heat-treated. The plunger and 
cutter are made of tool steel and hardened. 

In the background is shown a device for machining flue cutter 
knives. This device fits in spindle of lathe. The outer end is 
similar to a flue cutter, into which the blanks are inserted and 

Fig. 3 — Jig for High Speed Inserted Peg Milling Cutters. 
Right Is a Completed Cutter. 

At the 

turned to correct length and radius, making a very efficient and 
inexpensive cutter. We remove 6,000 to 7,000 flues per month 
at Burnside shops and positively have no trouble with this style 
of cutter. We cut a complete set in from one and cne-half to 
three hours, including the setting up of the machine. 

Figure 3 shows a drilling jig for spacing, drilling and reaming 
the blanks for high-speed, inserted peg milling cutters. The 
blank to be drilled is locked on an arbor which extends through 
the housing. This arbor has a spiral key-way extending thereon 
and a floating key projects into same through left housing, 
causing the arbor and blank to twist spirally as they are moved 
to different drilling positions. The key-ways in the base plate 
space the pegs lengthwise while changing the key, shown extend- 
ing out of end of blank, into different key -ways in arbor divides 
the circumference. 

The first operation is to drill 7/32" dowl pin holes and then 
change bushing and drill and ream. The object of the dowl pins 
is to keep pegs from turning when under severe stress and also 
keep cutting edges dead in line as pegs are driven into place. 
The pegs are milled in a jig, and a 7/32" drill rod is used for 
the dowl pins. A finished cutter ready for grinding is shown to 
right of jig. A number of pegs are also shown in the fore- 
ground. The jig shown is for cutters used on a vertical milling 
machine which mills all rods and motion work. 

The objects in Figure 4 are jigs and tools used in manufacturing 
standard drill sleeves and all other tools having Morse taper 

Figure 5 shows a triple milling device milling three spiral 

Fig. 4 — Tools and Jigs for Manufacturing Drill Sleeves. 



March, 1914 

Fig. 6— Group of High Speed Milling Cutters Made at Burnslde Tool Room. 

Fig- 7 — Some of the Tools Made at the Eurnside Tool Room of the Illinois Central R. R. Showing also the Pans Used for Conveying and 

Handling Small Parts. 

March, 1914 



View Looking West, Showing Tool Room Lathes, Shaper, Slotter and Turret Lathe. 

reamers at one operation. The dividing head may be observed 
under and to the right of the overarm. The three spindles in 
the triple head are revolved by the main drive gear, being advanced 
along the stationary shaft mounted above and parallel to table. 
This shaft has two key -ways extending thereon, one being straight 
and the other spiral, permitting either straight or spiral reamers 
to be made. We also use this device for sawing three sectional 
flue expanders at one time. 

Figure 6 shows a group of modern high-speed milling cutters 
as adopted for tool room work. Attention is called to wide 
spacing of the teeth of milling cutters and our designs for heavy 
duty end facing mills. The shape of cutters are patterned after 
the recommendations of the Cincinnati Milling Machine Co. The 
taper, however, has been shortened from the standard B. & S. 
taper to our own standard of 3" in twelve. This may be par- 
ticularly noticed on the cutter at extreme right of the illustration. 
The shanks and method of holding same are our own designs. 
The output of the milling machinery in the shop has been 
materially increased by the use of the efficient cutters above 

Figure 7 shows tools we have manufactured. All work in 
process of manufacture is handled in metal pans or trays, which 
is in keeping with the general system typical of the new order 
of things. 

To the left in this' illustration are a number of twist drills 
which have been fitted with larger size sockets and fastened by 
a pin which will shear under excessive stress, preventing loss of 
drill. We use the same scheme on all square sockets, "it having 
proved a very efficient safety device. 

Also may be noted our standard high-speed inserted blade rose 
reamers, improved high-speed counter-bores, etc. 


One of the illustrations shows a facsimile of our work card, 
which is an efficiency record of each workman as well as a cost 
record. The card shown covers the manufacture of six dozen 
Xo. 4 Morse taper drill sleeves. Each operation to be performed 
is entered on the card by the foreman, also the time started, time 
finished and number of pieces turned out. This particular order 
was handled as follows: 

First to the turret lathe, where tapers were formed to gauge 
at an average speed of 4 minutes per piece for the entire run. 
The stock was 1%" common soft steel. A roughing cut was taken 
at a spindle speed of 125 r. p. m. with a turret advance of 13% 

FOAM 1460. 


Illinois Central Railroad Company. 

Charge Time to QfrUfrp t^xijU%JL /OS7& 

Date Entered £./' &-/*£ Oa te Closed 2. // 2. - //? 

For -_£<^-£^2^*^ 





N. 8. T« b* MUred &j F «*«*«* I 
to Workaan. 




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Three Lengths !(,» - Z4'> - 30" 


March, 1914 



High 5peed Blade*? 

Blades fv he. corked in with a 
light air hammer 

■* D 

lr ? "-Z» 

Size of 









No. 4 


5 /sz 




&' *> f i" 

No. 4 


s h 




lj z " to 2" 

No. 4-. 


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High Speed Rose Reamers. 

stop nn 
2-Reijd. Morse Taper flo. I. 

Ihrow Pin 

Tool Steel 

Tool bte el- Temper ed Dra* to a Blue 

Mi /led oul tbr 
Chip Clearance 

~-/ic.l. Post 
Capacity Z"to£" 

Pilot Bushings 
y4"up to f'/ 4 " 

'/4"a/4"a/%" G-B. Reverse fo enlarge bore. 
Hardened Steel Ring. ^J"a5.D/a. .997 Inside Dia. 

High Speed Counter Bore. 

/ Tool 5 fee I Collar 
[ Hardened. 

Reverse Collar to 
Enlarge Bore. 

3 /a"Ai't z "Mfgh Speed 
" Steel 

March, 1914 



inches per minute, which was equal to .107" feed advance for 
each revolution of stock. The box forming tool operated against 
a spindle speed of 50 r. p. m. and turret advanced 5% inches per 
minute, which was equal to .107" feed advance for each revolution 
of stock. The cutting blades were not ground during the entire 
run. Tapers were cut off at 125 r. p. m. 

Second, to milling machine, where an old gentleman milled 


For Straight 5/rank Drill* 


Cdfaloque Ho. 

Cspscity Inches 





/Yo.i 'Aforse 


0-to 74 

Ho. 2 Morse 



For No. 10 \ 
Thcr Motor 






No. 4 Morse 


Cafalogue lio. 

Imide Number 

Ouhlde Humber 




















Page from Catalog of Standard Tools. 

the tangs at an average speed of 2 and 7/10 minutes per piece 
on the entire lot, using H. S. Straddle mills and special clamping 

Third, to drilling machine, where a boy drilled key-way. 

Fourth, back to turret lathe, where tapers were drilled, rough 
reamed and finished reamed with high-speed spiral reamers at an 
average time of 10 minutes each. 

Fifth, to bench, where key-way was drifted out and tapers 
finished ready for case-hardening, completing the job. 

iSlHill FORM 1461. 


^n. c 

Illinois Central Railroad Company. 


^~7<73<k?y?Lr. ^. £?%£/... £Q7c) 

(Nam e) (Check Number) 

vorn Out 
HAS 1 Damaged 

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i Defective Material 

' Accident 

J Ignorance 

V Carele^sni 





In addition to our standard folio of detail drawings, we have 
a catalog illustrating and listing under a symbol number all 
standard tools made at Burnside. We also have a tool steel folio 
which specifies the grade of steel to be used for every class of 
work. Different grades of steel are identified by standard color 
marks or stripes painted the full length of bar, a plan which 
eliminates mistakes in the selection of the correct grade desired. 


Every department has a certain series of time check numbers, 
which are further subdivided between the gang foremen. A book 
is kept in the tool room listing each gang foreman separately and 
his series of numbers. Suppose a new man is started to work in 
the boiler shop. After being assigned his time check number and 
turned over to his gang foreman, he is then sent to main tool 
room for a set of tool checks and a tool kit. Six checks are 
issued to him corresponding with his time check number ana 
his name is entered after same number in book. Certain tools 
required by him are listed on a special form, a copy of which is 
given to him, while the original is filed in the tool room. These 
lists are checked from time to time and in event he leaves the 
service the tools must be returned, also tool checks and a clearance 
obtained from tool room before time will be given. 

Our rule is that all tools must be returned to the tool room 
each night unless ordered held on job by gang foreman and 
notice given to tool room, which is recorded. 

Tools are classified and arranged in sections. Each section 
has a separate check board listing all tools therein and a tool 
tender for each section, who is held responsible for all tools in 
his care. In case a tool is lost, damaged, worn out or broken, a 
clearance card must be filled out and properly signed by gang 
foreman, department foreman and tool foreman before it will 
be accepted by window tender and check released. 

A night man regularly oils all pneumatic tools and cleans air 
hammers by washing them out in a coal oil batri every night. 
He also makes up a list of all checks shown on check board each 
night and, after cheeking off the numbers of men who have been 
allowed to hold tools out, makes up a list which is sent to gang 
foreman on the following morning. If the same number appears 
the following night, it is then reported direct to the department 
head and business picks up for all concerned. 

This system has been in force for over a year and is followed 
up to the letter, with highly beneficial results. 

The success so far attained is due to the hearty and untiring 
cooperation of a progressive shop superintendent, general foreman 
and general inspector of tools. 


On Saturday evening, February 21, the employees of the 
Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co. who have been in its employ 
for a period of twenty years or more, held a meeting and 
organized the Veteran Employees' Association of the Westing- 
house Electric & Mfg. Co. A regular business meeting was 
held to formulate the organization and a set of by-laws were 
adopted, and officers were elected for the ensuing year. 

Following a dinner, an interesting program was carried out, 
consisting of speeches and vaudeville. The toastmaster was 
L. A. Osborne, vice president of the Electric Company. 

A striking fact was the youthful appearance of these so- 
called veterans, as the majority of the crowd appeared to be 
men in the prime of life. About 325 employees of the Elec- 
tric Company are eligible to membership, and approximately 
315 of these were present at this meeting. Nor were all these 
of the male sex, as there was also one woman present, she 
being a forelady in the retail division of the shop. 

The speakers were: E. M. Herr, president; Chas. A. Terry, 
vice president, and Jas. J. Barrett, representing the shop. 



March, 1914 



New model McKeen gasoline motor cars (Type "C") have 
been built for and delivered to the Morgan's Louisiana & 
Texas, Galveston, Harrisburg & San Antonio, and Houston & 
Texas Central. One of the new cars and front truck are here- 
with illustrated, from which it will be noted that the car body 
is practically identical with the original design of the McKeen 
standard car, the tri-unit of operation principle being: (1) 
vehicle, car body; (2) prime mover, internal combustion en- 
gine; and (3) mechanical transmission. With this mechanical 
transmission, said to be of 96 per cent efficiency, a transfer to 
the driving wheels of 96 out of every 100 H. P. of the crank 

The chief features of the new power truck are: 

Integral steel casting side frames. 

M. C. B. wheels and axles. 

New design driving box permitting its removal without 
dropping the wheels. 

Machinery and all moving parts enclosed in oil tight, dust- 
proof, fcol proof casings and housings. 

Crank shaft, cam shafts, bearings, rods, air pump, water 
pump, etc., automatically lubricated by an improved circulat- 
ing oiling system, in which the lubricant repeats its circuit 
continuously, with minimum loss. 

Manifold pipes, water jacketed by means of which the gases 
are heated and equally distributed to the different cylinders. 

McKeen Gasoline Motor Car (Improved Design), Sunset-Central Lines. 

shaft renders improvement of transmission efficiency improb- 

While the latest model motor truck maintains the McKeen 
standard motor car principles, the new design is the result of 
nine years' experience in the manufacture of these cars and 
combines the collective experience of fifty odd railroads using 
this equipment. While the new car is of no greater efficiency 
its up-keep and maintenance charges are materially reduced. 
A seven-year-old car recently made the attractive record of 
covering over 5,000 miles during the month, earning $117 per 
day at a total operating charge of 14 cents per mile. The 
gasoline engine is really a motor, entirely enclosed and prac- 
tically fool proof; the machinery is self -lubricated, operates 
automatically as far as practicable, the idea being to eliminate 
almost entirely the personal equation in operation. 



Increased water space around valves and cylinder heads to 
permit of overloading the engine. 

Valves of Tungsten steel. 

Special design of triple piston ring. 

New location of the throttle and spark levers rendering them 
particularly convenient and within easy reach of the motorman. 

New design of mechanical transmission: a multiple disc fric- 
tion clutch which with the increased number of friction ele- 
ments gives more positive action and greater efficiency, the 
larger friction surface reduces the rate of wear and the life of 
the clutch is obviously enormously prolonged. 

Speed gears of transmission have been proportionately in- 
creased in strength, the herringbone type gear is used instead 

of the ordinary involute spur gear. 

General specifications of the Sunset-Central cars are: 

Engine, 200 H. P., McKeen standard, six cylinder, air-start- 
ing and reversible. 

Weight of car in working order, 78,000 lbs. 

Length between pulling faces of couplers 72' — 3%" 

Length over end sills 70' — 0" 

Length of engine compartment 13' — S" 

Length of baggage compartment 8' — 6" 

Length of smoking compartment 16' — 4%" 

Length of passenger compartment 28' — 0%" 

Width inside. . . / 9'— 4%" 

Width over 'side sills 9'— 8" 

Width over sheathing _ 9'— 8%" 

Width over all ' 10'— 2%" 

Height, top of rail to top of car (light) 11'— 9-3/16" 

Height, floor to ceiling at center of car 7' — 5%" 

Seating capacity, passenger compartment, 54; smoking com- 
partment, 29. Total, 83. 

New Design of McKeen Standard Power Trucks. 

The Railway Storekeepers' Association will hold its elev- 
enth annual convention at the Hotel Raleigh, Washington, D. C, 
on May 18, 19 and 20, 1914. 

March, 1914 




By S. W. Dudley, Asst. Chf. Engr., Westinghouse Air Brake Co. 
Bealizing the significance of the knowledge and experience 
accumulated in recent years, the Pennsylvania Railroad, in 
conjunction with the Westinghouse Air Brake Company, in- 
stituted in the spring of 1913 the most scientific and compre- 
hensive investigation of the different factors affecting the oper- 
ation of brakes on steam railroad passenger trains that has 
been undertaken since the Galton-Westinghouse trials of 1878 
and 1879. In addition to an examination of the characteristics 
of brake shoe friction throughout a wide range of laboratory 
and operating conditions, the test included also a study of the 
effect of various types of air brake mechanisms and foundation 

In considering the improvements desirable in the above par- 
ticulars four factors require special attention: 

A. The characteristics of the mechanism available for con- 
trolling the pressure of the compressed air in the brake cyl- 

B. The efficiency of the mechanical transmission of the force 
of compressed air developed in the brake cylinders, through the 
rods and levers of the brake rigging to the brake shoes. 

C. The efficiency of the brake shoe in transforming the 
pressure imposed upon it into retarding force at the rim of the 

D. The available adhesion between the car wheels and the 



















functions OF Tvft LH EOulfEMtNT with lv« cC 

ellctric control causes o*t»*iiON Of eounLHiNtt 




OU'CK action AUTOMAT c ON REDUCTION Of 8ft*'.i 

»iF-E "HSSl/RC SClUvw PR(DE'IRMiw(0 »Ol«*T. 






"CJ)V- HAND*BRAKE LEVER '0»'tioh o» an. BU *T[D muui w. 











The UC Equipment, Giving a Diagram of the Complete Electro-Pneumatic Brake. 

brake rigging and different degrees of emergency braking 

The tests indicated the degree to which existing apparatus 
was suited to existing conditions, the direction in which im- 
provement was necessary and could be made, and the amount 
of improvement actually accomplished. All of the information 
is available in the official report of the tests compiled by the 
test department of the Pennsylvania Railroad, copies of which 
may be obtained from the Westinghouse Air Brake Company. 

The limitations of the old brake apparatus are most marked 
in the following particulars: In the length of emergency stops; 
the uniformity of brake applications on different vehicles com- 
prising the train; the safety and protective features demanded 
by service conditions of great severity and complexity; the 
flexibility and certainty in applying and releasing the brake 
during service application; and the increased difficulty of keep- 
ing the service and emergency functions separate, i. e., insur- 
ing quick action when required on the one hand, and preventing 
it, when not required on the other. 

•Introduction and conclusions of a lengthy paper delivered before the 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers on February 10, 1914. 

The Galton-Westinghouse brake trials on the London, Brigh- 
ton and South Coast Railway in England during 1878, con- 
stituted the first scientific investigations of the action of brake 
shoes in retarding the motion of railway vehicles. They 
have occupied a unique position in the railway art, as the 
classical and in fact, the only source of information regarding 
the characteristics of brake shoe friction under certain typical 
road service conditions. 

But the conditions under which these experiments were con- 
ducted represented an early state of the art when much lighter 
cars, simpler mechanisms and lower braking pressures were 
used than has been common practice in this country for many 
years. In consequence of this, although the results of the ex- 
periments remain conclusive and fundamental as to general 
principles involved, they are far removed, in degree, from mod- 
ern railroad train operating conditions. 

The Lake Shore emergency brake tests of 1909, which ap- 
pear in the Master Car Builders' Association Proceedings for 
1910, directed special attention to the important influence 
of the foundation brake rigging and brake shoe performance 
as affecting the stopping of modern heavy rolling stock. These 



March, 1914 

tests showed clearly the nece>sity for realizing, as nearly in- 
stantaneously as possible, a retarding force as high as the 
limitations of track and equipment would permit, if emergency 
stops, especially at high speeds, were to be made in as short a 
distance as desirable. 

There are four factors which have a controlling influence 
on the length of stop: (1) the maximum brake cylinder force: 
(2) the time in which this is obtained: (3] the efficiency of 
the foundation brake rigging in multiplying and transmitting 
this force to the brake shoe; (4> the mean coefficient of brake 
shoe friction. 

The object of the Pennsylvania Kailroad tests of 1913 was to 
make as thorough a study as might be found practicable of 
the variables mentioned above and their effects, with particular 
reference to: 

A A determination of the maximum percentage of emer- 
gency braking power which can be adopted, considering: 
a The type of brake shoe to be used 
b The type of brake rigging to be adopted 
c The type of air brake mechanism and control to be 

d The degree to which occasional wheel sliding is to be 

permitted under unfavorable circumstances 
e The variation in the condition of the rail surface for 
which it is considered necessary to provide 
B A comparison of the relative performance of the clasp 
brake rigging (two shoes per wheel) and the standard brake 
rigging (one shoe per wheel) with regard to: 

a Maintenance of predetermined and desired piston travel 
b Efficiency of transmission of forces 

Effect upon wheel journals, bearings and trucks 
d Mean coefficient of brake shoe friction for the standard 
plain cast iron shoe 
C A comparison of the performance of the improved air 
brake mechanism | type UC ) with that of the commonly used 
''high speed" (type PM ) brake equipment with regard to: 

a Efficiency and effectiveness, as shown by the length of 

service and emergency stops 
b Safety and protective features 
c Flexibility and certainty of response to any manipulation 

of the engineer 's brake valve 
d Uniformity of action of individual equipments associated 
in the same train and of any individual equipment at 
different times 
e Smoothness of riding during stopping, slack action be- 
tween car?, and the resulting shocks 
f Capacity for future requirements 
D The behavior of the brake shoes as the tests progressed 
and any variation in the results of similar tests which could 
not te accounted for by known changes independent of the 
brake shoe. One type of brake shoe was to be used through- 
out the range of the tests. Eelating to objects A, B and C, ad- 
vantage was taken of this opportunity to establish as definitely 
as possible the characteristics of this type of brake shoe under 
the influence of various combinations of speed, pressure, time, 
weather ami the conditions of the brake shoe. 

E The coefficient of friction between the wheel and the rail 
under varying weather conditions. 

In addition to the investigations outlined in general above, 
it developed during the tests thnt additional data were desired 
regarding the performance of brake shoes under certain specific- 
conditions. In consequence a series of experiments was carried 
out at the laboratory of the American Brake Shoe and Foundry 
Company, at Mahwah. X. J. 

From the outset of the tests an endeavor was made to obtain 
data and develop methods by which the performance (as to 
stopping when placed in service) of any given air brake ap- 
paratus and its related equipment, could be predetermined on 
the basis of the observed action of the individual elements 
which go to make up the whole. 

It will be seen that the desirable stopping distance of 1300 

feet may be obtained by improvement in some or all of the 
controlling factors, namely, the type of air brake mechanism, 
the foundation brake rigging, the nominal percentage of brak- 
ing power, ami the type of and condition of the brake shoe. 
Furthermore, a stop of 200 ft. or more shorter than this can be 
obtained when all the elements having an influence on the 
length of stop are disposed in the most favorable manner possi- 

In proportion as the efficiency of any one or more of these 
factors can be increased, that of the others can be correspond- 
ingly reduced so that a lower maximum can be employed for 
the remaining factors when circumstances render this desirable. 
For example, the reduction in the time of action, secured by 
the use of the electric control of the brakes, increases their ef- 
fectiveness and makes a shorter stop possible, thus permitting 
the use of braking power 30 per cent less than is required 
with a less effective brake for the same stop. 

T, he tests of the standard (type PM i air brake equipment 
were planned to determine the characteristic performance of 
this type of equipment throughout the range of service and 
emergency operating conditions typical of the ordinary service 
in which this equipment is in general use. Inasmuch as ex- 
perience has snown that under the severe requirements of to- 
day the type PM equipment lacks many of the features which 
are necessary to obtain a desirable degree of stopping power 
in emergency applications and prompt and certain response at 
all times in ordinary service brake manipulation, one of the 
objects of the tests scheduled for this type of equipment 
was to bring out its limitations and serve as a standard of ref- 
erence to measure the betterment made possible by the im- 
proved features of the new air brake apparatus, the more 
efficient design of foundation brake rigging and more satis- 
factory brake shoe performance. 

The special features of the improved air brake equipment 
type UC) which received more or less attention during the 
tests may be summarized as follows: 

A The electro-pneumatic brake equipment is adapted to 
meet any requirement, from that exemplified in the PM brake 
equipment to the more exacting requirements of present con- 
ditions, with a degree of efficiency as high as the existing 
physical conditions will permit. 

B Considering cylinder pressure alone the equipment may be 
installed so as to produce any desired pressure, either in service 
or in emergency. 

C The gain by use of the electric control, in addition to 
the pneumatic, is the elimination of the time required for the 
pneumatic transmission of the action of the brake from car to 
car and in addition the elimination of shocks and uncomforta- 
ble surging which results from the non-simultaneous applica- 
tion of the brakes on all cars. 

It is apparent that the gain from the electro-pneumatic 
control is not so much in the shortening of the stop, particu- 
larly in emergency, as it is in the increased flexibility and 
certainty of control of the brake and the assurance that modern 
long heavy trains can be handled smoothly and accurately. 

D The troubles anil inconveniences due to brakes failing to 
release, as well as the undesired application of brakes due to 
unavoidable fluctuations of brake pipe pressure when running 
over the road, are eliminated. 

E An adequate supply of air is available at all times. 

F The emergency braking power is available at any time, 
even after a full service application of the brake, since it is 
impossible for the engineman to use up the reserve emergency 
pressure without making an emergency application. 

G The equipment is adaptable to all weights of cars and to 
any desired percentage of braking power. Two brake equip- 
ments for heavy cars are not necessary nor are two service 
brak* 5 cylinders required, except for cars weighing more than 
the limit of the service capacity of one brake cylinder. Pro- 
vision is made for using one brake cylinder up to the maximum 
percentage of emergency braking power which it can provide, 

March, 1914 



and for using two cylinders when a higher emergency braking 
power is desired. "When using one brake cylinder, the maxi- 
mum service pressure is controlled by means of a safety valve. 
"When two cylinders are used, equalizing pressure from 110 lb. 
brake pipe pressure is utilized for the service brake (instead 
of blowing the air away at a reducing valve) and another 
brake cylinder is used for the additional power required in 
emergency applications. The use of one or two cylinders is 
optional, depending upon the amount of braking power to be 

Duplicate tests were made with the clasp brake rigging, two 
shoes per wheel, for every test made with the standard brake 
rigging, one shoe per wheel, in order to bring out the advan- 
tages of the clasp brake in the following desirable features: 
(A) constant piston travel for all cylinder pressures; (B) 
smoothness of action during stopping; (C) greater certainty of 
obtaining and maintaining the predetermined braking force 
contemplated in the design of the air brake equipment and 
foundation brake rigging; (D) less displacement of journals, 
bearings and trucks, tending toward greater mechanical effi- 
ciency and less cost of maintenance; (E) a coefficient of fric- 
tion equal to or greater than that with the single shoe brake 
with less wear of brake shoe metal and lower wheel and brake 
shoe temperatures. 

The original plan contemplated two 12 ear trains of stand 
ard P-70 cars. These cars have 4-wheel trucks with one 16-in. 
brake cylinder per car. One train was equipped with the clasp 
type of brake rigging (two shoes per wheel) and the other with 
the type of standard brake rigging (one shoe per wheel) exist- 
ing on these cars since they were built, but modified by in- 
creasing the strength of the members to be suitable for 180 per 
cent braking power which necessitated lowering the brake 
shoes lVs i n - below their former position and by anchoring the 
truck dead lever to the car body, instead of to the truck. 

In order to obtain the best data possible, instruments were 
devised for taking records of the friction of the rail, wheel 
sliding, retardation of the train, and slack action between care 
as well as for a number of minor observations. 

The test train was 1040 ft. long, consisting of a Pacific type 
locomotive and tender of the P. B. R. K2s class, weighing in 
working order about 200 tons, and 12 P-70 steel passenger cars 
averaging about 61 tons each. 

The ET air brake equipment was used without any modifi- 
cation on the locomotive, except that in some tests an aux- 
iliary device was used which increased the braking power 
obtained during the early portion of the stop. 

All tests were made under road service conditions, except 
where otherwise noted, the air brake regulating devices on the 
locomotive and cars being adjusted as follows: 

Pump governor, low-pressure head 130 lb. Maximum pres- 
sure head 140 lb. 
Feed valve, 110 lb. 

ET distributing valve safety valve, 68 lb. 

The cars were equipped with 1he present standard air brake 
apparatus (PM) and with the improved type of air brake 
equipment (UC), these installations being so arranged that a 
complete change from the standard equipment (PM) to the 
new equipment (UC) having PM features only or the complete 
pneumatic features of the new equipment or to the new equip- 
ment with complete electrical control could be quickly made. 

The standard plain cast-iron brake shoe was used in most 
of the tests. In several tests flanged, slotted and half area 
shoes were employed. Special care was taken to insure uni- 
formity in quality and the condition of all shoes at the be- 
ginning and during the progress of the tests. 

The high-speed reducing valves of the PM equipment were 
adjusted to open at 62 lb. brake cylinder pressure. 

The standing piston travel was adjusted before each run to 
6!/4 in. with a full service brake application. 

The apparatus on the locomotive consisted of the usual 
gages which indicated main reservoir, brake pipe, and brake 

cylinder pressure, and iu addition a brake cylinder indica- 
tor was used on the tender brake cylinder and served to meas- 
ure the pressure in all of the brake cylinders of the locomo- 
tive and tender, viz., one engine truck, two driver brakes, one 
trailer truck and one tender brake cylinder. A voltmeter, 
calibrated in m.p.h. was connected to a generator, belt-drivea 
from the right front engine tiuck wheel, and served as a 
guide to the engineman in obtaining the desired speed. 

A device for recording automatically the distance traveled 
by the train beyond the point of brake application was driven 
from the left engine truck wheel and was used in connection 
with the wheel sliding indicators on the cars. 

Devices similar to those used in former brake tests were 
employed to operate the track circuit breakers and to automat- 
ically apply the brakes at the zero circuit breaker. 

On the locomotive, observations were taken of the time of 
stop and the main reservoir and brake pipe pressure, the 
tender piston travel and the amount of coal and water on 
the tender. 

Each car was furnished with a brake cylinder indicator 
and a wheel sliding indicator, with the necessary wiring and 

A chronograph, recording the distance of stop, time of stop, 
deceleration of train, the brake cylinder pressure and the brake 
pipe pressure, was located on car six. In connection with this 
chronograph a record was made of the action of the brake shoes 
with respect to sparking. 

Indicators for measuring the slack action between the cars 
were used at different points in the train. 

Specially designed apparatus was used to measure the pres- 
sure delivered to the brake shoes during some of the tests 
the object of which was to determine the efficiency of the brake 

Telephones were located in the first, third, sixth, ninth and 
twelfth cars and greatly facilitated the issuing of instruct 

The- tests were made on the south bound track of the At- 
lantic City division of the W. J. & S. E. R. The portion of the 
track over which the braking was done was level, and part 
of a tangent about 25 miles long terminating at Absecon 
Station. A slight descending (0.3 per cent) grade approach- 
ing the measured test track was in favor of the train at- 
taining speed. The point at which the brakes were applied 
w r as 2880 ft. north of mile post 9. 

The track for a distance of 5000 ft. south of the zero point 
was wired for circuit breakers, which were placed at intervals 
of 25 ft. up to 1200 ft. from the zero point, and at inter- 
vals of 50 ft. from there on to the 5000 ft. point. Preceding the 
zero point, eight circuit breakers were located, 66 ft. apart 
from which the initial speed of train (speed at the trip) was 

A cabin, located near the zero circuit breaker, contained 
the clock and chronograph from which in connection with the 
track circuit breakers, the speed of the train before and during 
the stop was obtained. 

After each test measurements were taken of the total length 
of the stop, and also the running piston travel on each car. 

Of the devices used on the track, the only one which re- 
quires special mention is the rail friction machine. This ma- 
chine measured the force required to move or keep moving 
a block of tire steel resting upon the rail. The pressure of this 
block on the rail could be varied by means of weights of 20, 
40, 60, 80 and 100 lb. Eeadings were taken with each of these 
weights and the coefficient of rail friction recorded was de- 
rived from the average of the five readings. 

"When making a test run the engineman endeavored to reach 
a speed slightly above that desired, just before entering the 
measured track. The throttle was closed just before reach- 
ing the circuit breakers preceding the zero point, no change 
being made in the position of the reverse lever. The train then 
drifted over the circuit breakers preceding the zero point 



March, 1914 

at which point the brake was automatically applied by the trip 
mechanism. At the instant the brake pipe exhaust started 
at the trip, the brake valve handle was moved to emergency 
position for all emergency tests and to lap position for all ser- 
vice application stops. When the engine and ears were to be 
stopped separately (breakaway tests), the same procedure as 
above was followed, except that the coupling pin between the 
engine and tender was pulled out as soon as possible after 
steam was shut off. This permitted the engine to pull away 
from the train as soon as the brake application was made, 
providing the retardation of the cars was higher than that 
of the locomotive. 

However, the engine did not always separate from the 
train when making stops with low breaking powers on the 
cars. On this account it was decided to use steam on the 
locomotive in such tests as soon as the coupling pin was 
pulled out, so as to get the locomotive away from the ears 
and permit the cars to stop without any possible interference 
on the part of the locomotive, the stop of the locomotive in 
such cases being disregarded. For such stops the flexible 
wiper and the tripping mechanism were on the first car in- 
stead of the locomotive. 

In all 691 tests were made, at Absecon, covering a period 
of time from February 10 to May 22, 1913. The average 
day "s work consisted in making from 10 to 12 runs. A max- 
imum of 22 tests were made in one day. 

In service applications with the improved (UC) equipment 
a greater flexibility of operation is provided. That is, the 
braking power per pound of brake pipe reduction is lower, thus 
giving the engineer a greater time in which to use judgment 
when manipulating the brakes. At the same time, however, the 
maximum braking power obtainable in a full service appli- 
cation is higher. 

A more sensitive and prompt release of the brakes is in- 
sured, tending to improve the releasing action of all brakes 
in the same train of mixed old and new equipments. 

The action of the old and the new equipments mixed in the 
same train is harmonious and free from rough slack action 
or shocks both in service and emergency operation. 

The UC equipment is adaptable to any weight of car and may 
be installed to furnish any desired nominal per cent of brak- 
ing power. 

With the new equipment operating electrically or pneumati- 
cally, there is always available a quick acting and fully effec- 
tive emergency brake. This is not the case with the old equip- 
ment, in which the relation of the service and emergency func- 
tions is such that a quick action application could not be 
obtained after a service application of any consequence. The 
following average results indicate the degree to which this 
difference has an effect on the length of stop. Considering 
the ordinary full service stop from 60 miles per hour with both 
brakes (say 2000 or 2200 ft.) as 100%, the attempt to make 
an emergency application with the old equipment does not 
produce any shorter stop than if only a full service applica- 
tion were made. With the improved apparatus operating 
pneumatically, an emergency application following a partial 
service application will shorten the stop about 14% and after a 
full service application about 10%. 

With the electro-pneumatic brake these figures are respect- 
ively 23% and 15 TV. 

An electrically controlled brake application has been recog- 
nized as ideal ever since the report to this effect presented by 
the Master Car Builders' Committee in charge of the famous 
Burlington Freight Brake Trials 1886 and 1887, for the reason 
that thereby the time element in starting the application of 
the brakes on various cars in the train is eliminated, a corre- 
spondingly shorter stop made, and the possibility of shocks at 
any speeds removed. With the new brake apparatus the ef- 
fectiveness of the pneumatic emergency application is so con- 
siderably increased that the saving in time due to electric con- 

trol has proportionately less influence on the length of stop, 
but its effect in eliminating serial action and consequently the 
possibility of shocks due to brake application is of correspond- 
ingly greater importance. 

The graduated release feature of the improved brake appar- 
atus permits stops to be made shorter, smoother and with a 
greater economy in time and compressed air consumption. 

The new apparatus can be applied to give only the equiv- 
alent of the old standard apparatus if desired but in such a 
form the complete new apparatus can then be built up by the 
addition of unit portions to the simplest form of the mechanism. 

The electro-pneumatic brake acts as an automatic telltale in 
cases of malicious or accidental closing of an angle cock 
after the train is charged by permitting all the brakes to 
apply, it being thereafter impossible to release the brakes be- 
hind the closed cock until the cock is opened. 

The PM equipment will start to apply on a brake pipe re- 
duction of 2 lb. A 4-lb. brake pipe reduction is required to 
start an application with the UC equipment, thereby preventing 
undue sensitiveness to application on slight, unavoidable fluc- 
tuations in brake pipe pressure. As a bona fide service re- 
duction of more than 4 lb. continues, the rate of attainment of 
braking power is the same as if no stability feature had ex- 

The attainment of full service braking power on the entire 
train with the UC equipment operating pneumatically was 16 
seconds, 33% longer than with the PM equipment because of 
the smaller size reservoirs used for greater flexibility. 

Full service braking power was obtained in nine seconds 
with the electro-pneumatic brake but without sacrificing de- 
sirable flexibility because of the increased sensitiveness of 
control when operating the brakes electrically. 

The time of transmission of serial quick action through the 
brake pipe is practically the same with UC and PM equip- 

The time to obtain full emergency braking power with the 
PM equipment on the entire train was 8 seconds; with the UC 
equipment operating pneumatically 3.5 seconds or 56% shorter; 
with the electro-pneumatic equipment 2.25 seconds or 72% 

The gain in emergency stopping power of the electric pneu- 
matic equipment over the PM equipment results from: (a) the 
shorter time occupied in applying the brakes; (b) a higher 
brake cylinder pressure obtained; (c) the holding of the pres- 
sure as obtained, without blow-down, as with the high-speed 
reducing valve of the PM equipment. 

Designating the time of equivalent instantaneous applica- 
tion of retarding force by t, and the braking power, correspond- 
ing to the brake cylinder pressure obtained, by P, the values of 
t for emergency applications with the PM equipment 12 car 
train range from 2 to 2.5 seconds, for the UC pneumatic from 
2 to 2.5 and for the electro-pneumatic from 0.7 to .85 seconds. 

The observed average value of P, with the PM equipment 
(for a nominal 113% braking power on the cars) ranges from 
95% to 100%. With the UC pneumatic equipment and electro- 
pneumatic equipment nominal emergency braking powers of 90, 
125, 150 and 180% were used, which, due to locomotive effect, 
become for the complete train 90%, 117%, 137% and 160% 

With the electro-pneumatic brake a uniform increase in per 
cent of braking power results in a substantially uniform de- 
crease in length of train stop. An increase of 5% in braking 
power reduces the length of stop about 2% within the range 
of braking powers tested. 

The available rail adhesion varies through the wide limits, 
e.g., from 15% in the case of a frosty rail early in the morning 
to 30% for a clean, dry rail at mid-day. 

The amount of wheel sliding depends more on the rail and 
weather conditions than on the per cent braking power. Some 
sliding was experienced with braking powers as low as 90% 
and 113% where rail conditions were unfavorable, but 180% 

March, 1914 



braking power did not cause wheel sliding with good rail con- 

The effect of excessive wheel sliding was to make the length 
of the stop about 12% greater than similar stops without wheel 

A braking power low enough to eliminate the possibility of 
wheel sliding on a bad rail results in longer stops than coulu 
be considered satisfactory for general service. Since good rail 
conditions prevail a large part of the time, the preferable 
emergency graking power is that which, considering the in- 
stallation conditions, will stop trains at all times in as short 
a distance as can be accomplished without trouble from wheel 
sliding in such cases as are to be anticipated when emergency 
stops have to be made under unfavorable rail conditions. Advan- 
tage might be taken of this fact to use a higher braking power 
in summer than could be used in the winter with the same de- 
gree of freedom from objectionable wheel sliding. 

The amount of wheel flattening when sliding occurs depends 
upon the weight upon the wheels, the materials in the wheels 
and rails, and the condition of the rail surface. The rail sur- 
face may be such that relatively long slides will produce but 
small flat spots, or, conversely short slides may produce flat 
spots of a size requiring prompt attention. 

When the UC equipment is used on the cars an arrangement 
giving a high emergency braking power on the locomotive, 
with a blow-down feature, has advantages as follows: 

(a) Shocks between locomotive and cars practically elim- 

(b) Shorter stops 

(c) No more wheel sliding than to be expected with the 
present installation of ET equipment. 

An efficient design of brake rigging must be produced before 
the advantages of improved air brakes or brake shoes can be 
fully utilized. 

The use of the clasp type of brake rigging eliminates un- 
balanced braking forces on the wheels and so avoids the un- 
desirable and troublesome journal and truck reactions that come 
from the use of heavy braking pressures on but one side of the 
wheel. This has an important effect not only on freedom from 
journal troubles but also in enabling the wheel to follow 
freely vertical inequalities of the track. 

The clasp brake also improves the brake shoe condition ma- 
terially, both as to wear and variability of performance. 

Although the clasp brake rigging will produce better stops 
than a single shoe brake rigging equally well designed (other 
conditions being equal), its advantage in this direction is of 
less importance than in the improved truck, journal and shoe 
conditions mentioned above. 

The tests indicated that at least 85% transmission efficiency 
could be obtained with either single shoe or clasp brake 

The following features were observed to be of importance 
if maximum overall brake rigging efficiency is to be secured: 

(a) .Protection against accidents that may result from parts 
of rigging dropping on the track. 

(b) Maximum efficiency of brake rigging at all times to 
insure the desired stopping with a minimum per cent of brak- 
ing power. 

(c) Uniform distribution of brake force, in relation to 
weight braked, on all wheels. 

(d) With a given nominal per cent braking power, the ac- 
tual braking power to remain constant throughout the life of 
the brake shoes and wheels. 

(e) Piston travel to be as near constant as practicable under 
all conditions of cylinder pressure. 

(f) Minimum expense of maintenance and running repairs 
of brake rigging between the stopping of cars. 

The brake shoe bearing was the most difficult factor to con- 
trol and at the same time the most potent in producing varia- 
tions in brake performance. 

The tests established the possibility of a variation of 15% 

to 20% in length of stops from 60 m.p.h. with all factors except 
brake shoe condition remaining substantially constant. Con- 
tinued stopping with moderate braking pressures produced a 
constantly improving brake shoe condition and shorter stops. 
This is evidence that with reasonable attention to brake shoe 
maintenance the condition of the shoes on cars in ordinary road 
service is likely to be more favorable to making short emer- 
gency stops than during a series of tests in which the brake 
shoes are worked severely. 

The difference in the efficiency of the clasp and single shoe 
rigging may offset the gain which might be expected from dif- 
ference in coefficient of friction and vice versa. Consequently 
as neither of these factors could be observed uninfluenced by 
the other, a satisfactory comparison of the mean coefficient 
of friction under different rigging conditions or of different 
types of rigging or air brake apparatus under variable shoe 
conditions in road tests, is impossible. 

High braking powers from high initial speeds result in a 
great heating of the working surface of the shoe and a rapid 
abrasion. This effect is most marked under severe braking 
conditions such as obtained when heavy cars equipped with one 
brake shoe per wheel are stopped. 

Shoes of the same type and hardness had a high rate of wear 
per unit of energy absorbed when a low coefficient of friction 
was developed, and, conversely, a lower rate of wear when a 
higher coefficient of friction was developed. 

Both the road and the laboratory tests confirmed previous 
tests and conclusions from analysis that the temperature of 
the working metal is the determining influence in coefficient of 
brake shoe friction. The other factors that may be involved 
become effective chiefly as they affect the change of tempera- 
ture of the working metal. 

The general performance of the shoes as observed during the 
road tests formed the basis of the program established for lab- 
oratory tests, which resulted in the following deductions: 

a The generation of the retarding forces and consequent 
absorption of the energy of the moving train is dependent upon 
but a very small quantity of brake shoe metal. 

b The actual bearing area rather than the total face area of 
the shoe is the important factor in brake shoe performance, 
c The magnitude of the bearing area changes throughout the 
stop and is greatest near the end of the stop. 

d The bearing area shifts continuously from one portion of 
the rurface to another during the stop. 

e The principal factor in producing high friction for any 
given braking condition is the frequent shifting of the bearing 
area from the heated to the cooler spots over the face of the 

f Slotted shoes or shoes that are cracked are more flexible 
than solid shoes and the bearing area shifts more readily than 
in the case of solid shoes. 

g With shoes of the same type and approximately the same 
hardness, the wear per unit of work done is less with the 
slotted shoe than with the solid shoe. The stops with slotted 
shoes were always shorter and the mean coefficient of friction 
higher than with solid shoes. 

h The shifting of the bearing area will tend to be more rapid 
if the size provides more available area for shoe bearing. 

i The greater the pressure per square inch of bearing area, 
the lower will be the mean coefficient of friction. 

j Flanged shoes provide more available area for bearing than 
unflanged shoes. 

k The use of two shoes instead of one per wheel will result 
in a higher coefficient of friction and less wear per unit of 
work done. 

1 A comparison of the values of mean coefficient of friction 
for standard and for clasp brake conditions indicates a decided 
advantage for the clasp brake throughout the entire range of 
braking powers. The gain in favor of the clasp brake with 
slotted shoes amounts to about 40%, at a braking power of 



March, 1914 

180%, and 100%, at a braking power of 40% , an average gain 
for the whole range of braking powers of about 70%. 

m From a brake shoe standpoint the advantage of using two 
shoes instead of one shoe per wheel may be summed up as 

First. The clasp brake shoe is associated with but one-half 
the wheel load and consequently has but one-half as much 
energy to absorb. 

Second: The clasp brake shoe is working at only one-half 
the shoe pressure at which the standard shoe must work under 
the same braking power. 

Third: The availabls work area for the same amount of 
energy to be absorbed is double. 

A possible source of disadvantage when using two shoes per 
wheel is that a warped or poorly bearing shoe is subjected to 
less pressure tending to force it into a good contact with the 
wheel. For tl>is reason though the available shoe area is 
doubled when using clasp brakes the actual amount of working 
metal throughout the stop may be less than with a single shoe, 
which is less capable of resisting the tendency of the heavier 
pressure to cause a better fit of shoe to wheel. 

This, and an especially good shoe condition due to previous 
moderate pressure tests in each case, is an explanation why 
three of the 60 m.p.h. 150% B.P. electro-pneumatic stops with 
the single shoe train were shorter by 50 ft. than the best stops 
of either of the first or second clasp brake trains. 

On the other hand the disadvantage and greater variability 
of the single shoe brake is evidenced in the fact that under the 
same conditions as cited above two stops with this train were 
longer than the longest stops without material wheel sliding 
made with either of the two clasp brake trains. 

With plain solid shoes the durability will be increased 41.1% 

solid shoe; 158% more stops to wear out the flanged slotted 
than the plain slotted shoe, and 171% more stops to wear out 
the flanged slotted than the plain solid shoe. 

For "any given braking condition with cast-iron brake shoes 
the indications are that the best relation will exist between 
shoe wear and mean coefficient of friction when the Brinell 
hardness of the cast iron is about 190. 

Machine and road t^sts show a difference in stopping dis- 
tance for the same type of shoe under the same braking condi- 

The effect of the difference in wheel surface conditions is 
one of the leading factors which go to make up the difference 
between machine and road tests. The difference in braking 
performance can be established anej the factor expressing this 
difference be applied to laboratory results to predict the per- 
formance of a car or train. 

The stops and observed performance of the air brake, brake 
rigging and brake shoe are in agreement with the relation 
generally assumed to exist between the speed and other varia- 
bles mentioned and resultant length of stop. 

By F. W. Bentley, Jr. 

The faces of stop bosses regulating the lift of the lower dis- 
charge and receiving valves of the Westinghouse 9M>" pump are 
in a short time hollowed by the action of the valve. It is not 
an uncommon occurrence to discover an air cylinder on which 
these bosses have been pounded or worn in to a depth of -fe of 
an inch. 

The insertion of a new valve consequently possessing a per- 
fectly true boss face necessitates the truing up of the stop face 

r/G. /. 


Per Inch 


., Per locA 

Reamer for Air Pump Stop Bosses. 



tr- One Tooth 
£fca Milled to 
i Clean Center. 

under clasp brake conditions as compared with that under 
single shoe conditions. 

With plain slotted shoes the durability will be increased 
33.5% under clasp brake conditions as compared with that 
under single shoe conditions. 

The superior durability of the plain slotted shoe as compared 
with the plain solid amounts to 11.7'; under single shoe brake 
conditions and 5.9% under clasp brake conditions. 

The wear of the flanged solid shoes per unit of work done is 
19% less than for plain solid shoes, and for flanged slotted 26% 
less than for plain slotted shoes, or 30% less than plain solid 

The wear of plain slotted shoes per unit of work done is 
5.4' ', less than the wear of plain solid shoes, and the wear of 
the flanged slotted is 13.2% less than the wear of flanged solid 

For the same amount of work done flanged solid cost 16% 
less than plain solid shoes, and flanged slotted cost 23' - less 
than plain slotted, or 27% less than plain solid shoes. 

Approximately 135% more stops will be required to wear out 
the flanged solid than will be required to wear out the plain 

in the pump. The rounding or curved nature of the hollow 
renders it impossible for the valve lift to be perfect otherwise, 
as the result would be as shown in Fig. 1, unless the rim of the 
valve's boss were rounded off, and this is neither expedient nor 

The accompanying sketch is descriptive of a simple reamer for 
use in truing up the faces of the stop bosses, which are a part of 
the air cylinder casting. Its use leaves a perfectly flat face and 
makes it possible to secure an accurate and correct lift of the 
air valves, which it is needless to say is one of the most impor- 
tant points in the repair of the pump. 

TO DO PROPER WORK a man must have perfect control of 
the tools with which that work is to be done — and in this con- 
nection the word tools is used in its very broadest sense. But 
no man can properly control tools until he has learned to con- 
trol himself. Think what would happen if a railway man lost 
his head — lost control of himself — in an emergency. Self- 
control is a habit. Any habit can be acquired. This is one 
habit that will be of value. Cultivate it. — Brill Magazine. 

March, 1914 



Pacific and Mountain Locomotives, C. R. I. & P. Ry. 

Eecent developments in railroad transportation have demon- 
strated that the most efficient way to handle heavy traffic 
is with powerful locomotives and large train loads. Powerful 
operating units, having demonstrated their ability to reduce 
operating costs in freight service, have attracted the atten- 
tion of motive power officials to their heavy passenger service. 

Eemarkable reductions in operating; costs have been ac- 
quired by the Rock Island Lines by the adoption of heavy 
Mikado locomotives. This policy was the direct cause of 
putting into passenger service, thirty large and powerful Pacific 
type locomotives and two of the heaviest Mountain type locomo- 
tives ever built, which have recently been delivered to the Rock 
Island Lines by the American Locomotive Company. 

The Pacific type engines are operating at present between 
the following points: 

Rock Island, 111., to Valley Jet., la. — Maximum grade per 
mile 58 ft. 

Valley Jet., la., to Council Bluffs, la. — Maximum grade per 
mile 69 ft. 

Phillipsburg, Kan., to Goodland, Kan. — Maximum grade per 
mile 53 ft. 

Goodland, Kan., to Limon, Colo. — Maximum grade per mile 
53 ft. 

Rock Island, 111., to Trenton, Mo. — Maximum grade per mile 
79 ft. 

Herington to Liberal, Kan/ — Maximum grade per mile 42 ft. 
Liberal, Kan., to Tucumcari, N. M. — Maximum grade per mile 
53 ft. 

From Phillipsburgh, Kan., to Limon, Colo., is a constant 
up-hill pull 247 miles long. The ruling grades are 53 feet 
to the mile. 

Several test trains were run to determine the capacity of 
these Pacific type locomotives. The following tables show the 
results as compared with the carded time of several trains: 


Between Davenport and Valley Junction, la. 
Distance, 178.9 miles. Maximum grade, 58 ft. per mile 

Carded Time Actual Tests 

L--3 t->o oo — -0 rt <0 

. = c ,c r " 1 e N c n ~ 

O 3 C 3 C 3 .3 .3 .3 

V y r Z "7 3 OO OS C 3 

*& **a *<% Z 2 ££ fc.o 

C x c * C~ on x x 

— w — * ;i* ™i * j qj -^oj *-• o> 

« •=. i-Z. ds> m :> m '~> M :> 

£? t> t® £? t* t^ 

b* Eh E- 1 E-i H H 

Act. running time, hrs. '& min. ... 5:10 4:34 4:47 4:47 5:07 4:4!) 

Number of stops 10 4 4 4 12 8 

Avg. schedule speed, M.P.H 31.7 37.3 35.4 32.1 29.2 31.7 

Avg. running speed, M.P.H 34.2 39.3 37.8 37.0 35.2 37.3 

Number of cars 11 8 B 12 13 13 

Avg. Wt. of car in tons 62.0 65.6 63.5 75.0 58.0 03.3 

Train tonnage 

(Exclusive of lading) 082 525 SOS 900 755 827 

Between Valley Junction, la., and Council Bluffs, la. 
Distance, 130.0 miles. Maximum grade, 09 ft. per mile 

Carded Time Actual Tests 

r. - t-- cc_. ~ -3 _, t-^ 

•5 -S :« 5 L ~5 c c 

03 o3 Oa . 3 3 • 3 e 3 

fcg »| %% g| || |« 1° 

- -J. C X C ~ X I. to ^ m 

b^ H^ E- H Fh 1 ^ E- E- 

Act. running time, hrs. & min.. 3:47 3:27 3:33 3:24 3:43 3:37 3:28 

Number of stops 3 1 1 3 5 3 2 

Avg. schedule speed, M.P.H.... 34.0 38.7 37.0 37.4 34.1 33.0 37.2 

Avg. running speed, M.P.H 30.0 39.0 38.4 40.2 30.7 37.8 39.3 

Number of cars 11 8 8 12 15 13 13 

Avg. Wt. of car in tons 02.0 05.0 03.5 75.0 57.5 03.3 00.0 

Train tonnage 

(Exclusive of lading) 082 525 508 900 805 824 781 


Between Phillipsburg, Kan., and Goodland, Kan. 

Distance, 139.9 miles. Maximum grade, 53 ft. per mile 

Carded Time Actual Tests 

00 Ci r-t rH 

A a ° ° - ° 

^ ^ A z A A 

.£ .2 

d 03 :'. m ifl x 

L. fc- 1J fl> til 01 

E-f Eh Eh Eh Eh Eh 

Act. running time, hrs. & min. .. . 4:04 3:09 3:40 3:42 3:54 3:52 

Number of stops 2 1 - 4 7 4 

Avg. schedule speed, M.P.H 32.9 43.0 35.9 28.0 33.3 33.7 

Avg. running speed, M.P.H 34.3 44.4 38.0 37.8 35.8 36.2 

Number of cars 10 8 12 14 15 15 

Avg. Wt. of car in tons 02.0 65.6 75.0 53.6 50.3 58.0 

Train tonnage 

(Exclusive of lading) 020 525 900 750 844 870 

Between Goodland, Kan., and Limon, Cclo. 
Distance, 107.1 miles. Maximum grade, 53 ft. per mile 

Carded Time Actual Tests 

o t- w co -* 1^ 

do .... 

A A o o o o 

A A A A 

5 c 

G rt w x x x 

H H H Eh H H 

Act. running time, hrs. & min.... 3:25 2:40 3:10 241 3-12 2-56 

Number of stops l i i \ 5 5 

Avg. schedule speed, M.P.H 30.5 38.9 32.4 34.8 31.0 25.5 

Avg. running speed, M.P.H 31.4 40.1 33.8 39.9 33.4 30 5 

Number of cars 10 8 12 14 15 15 

Avg. Wt. of car in tons 02.0 05.0 75.0 53.0 50.3 58.0 

Train tonnage 

(Exclusive of lading) G20 525 900 750 844 870 


Davenport to Eldon Eldon to Trenton 

Distance 111.0 miles Distance 121.5 miles 

Carded Actual Carded Actual 

Time Test Time Test 

Train 1 Test 16 Train 1 il )s<»x 

Act. running time, hrs. & min 2:40 2:40 3:08 319 

Number of stops 4 3 '3 

Avg. schedule speed, M.P.H 38.2 38.5 30 5 34 •> 

Avg. running speed 41. 8 41.8 38.8 30 4 

Number of cars 14 g J4 

Avg. wt. of car in tons 65.0 00.0 65.0 06 

Train tonnage (Exclusive of lading) . .390 933 390 933 

No difficulty was experienced in maintaining full boiler 
pressure at all times. The locomotives steamed very freely 
and very little black smoke was emitted at the stack. The 
maximum cut-off was 16 inches, and the locomotives were 
worked there only for short distances, nearing the apex of 
severe hills. Except for forward hard pulls the locomotives 
were generally worked at 6 to 8 inch cut-off. The handling 
of air was satisfactory, no discomforture being experienced 
by passengers in rear cars of these long trains from this cause. 

While no extensive tests have been conducted to determine 
economy on fuel and water of the new Pacifies it was the 
opinion of the engine crews on these heavy trains that there 
was no increase over the older Pacific types. 

Were it not for their introduction on this line at this time 
it would have been necessary to either double-head or operate 
in two sections. 

By the introduction of the Mountain type locomotives the 
Rock Island has been enabled to consolidate the Chicago and 
St. Louis sections of one of the Colorado trains between 
Phillipsburgh and Limon. This has effected a saving of 180,310 
passenger train miles per annum. 

At present these combined trains consist of 10 to 13 cars, 
which can be satisfactorily handled by the new Pacifies, ex- 
cept in extreme weather. Therefore, there has been no oppor- 
tunity as yet to test the mountain type to its full capacity. 

However, it is anticipated that they will handle 1,000 tons 
in 16 cars on the carded time of these combined trains with- 
out difficulty. The combined train, under normal conditions, 
will be 15 and 16 cars, largely steel equipment, which the 
mountain type locomotives will ably handle over the 247 mile 
1 per cent grade constant up-hill pull westbound from Phillips- 
burgh to Limon. Westbound this combined train has 9 sched- 
uled stops and 20 flag stops between these two points, which 
make the Mountain type more efficient than the new Pacific 
type on account of their greater starting effort. 

In general construction the designs embody the latest ap- 
proved practice and follow the standards of the builders. 
Each design is equipped with a super heater, brick arch, screw 
reverse gear, extended piston rods, long main driving boxes, 
Woodard engine truck, speed recorder, Baker valve gear, 
Chambers throttle, the Mudge-Slater smokebox arrangement 
and vanadium cast-steel frames. The Mountain type is also 
equipped with the Foulder main rod, and engine and tender 
were arranged so that the Street stoker could be applied later 
if desired. 

These designs are the product of the long experience of the 
American Locomotive Company in the development of power- 
ful locomotives. The application of this experience to the 
railroad's specific requirements was directed by the officials 



March, 1914 














March, 1914 



» ' _ 



March, 1914 

Pacific Type Locomotive for the Rock Island. 

of the motive power department, to whose valuable co-opera- 
tion in the preparation of the designs the success of the loco- 
motives is largely due. They furnish another striking example 
of reduced operating costs which have been obtained by com- 
bining fuel saving devices and improved designing in a larger 
and more powerful operating unit. 

The tables contain the principal dimensions of these two 
types of locomotives: 


4'-sy 2 " 

25y 2 "x28" 
Piston, 14" diam. 
40260 lbs. 


Tractive power 
Factor of adhesion 


4'-8y 2 " 


Piston, 16" diam. 

50000 lbs. 


Boiler — 
Working pressure 

Extended Wagon-top 


190 lbs. 

Soft coal 




185 lbs. 

Soft coal 



Heating Surface — 
Fire box 
Tubes & Flues 
Arch tubes 

Superheating surface 
Grate area 

Driving Wheels — 
Diameter, outside 
Diameter, center 
Journals, main 
Journals, other 

Wheel Base — 

Total engine 
Total engine & tender 

Weight — 
In working order 

5%", 34; 2%", 195 5%", 36; 2y 4 ", 207 
20'-0" 22'-0" 

212.8 sq. ft. 

3259.4 sq. ft. 

25.4 sq. ft. 

3497.6 sq. ft. 

805 sq. ft. 

63.0 sq. ft. 




10y 2 "xl3" 





281,500 lbs. 

287 sq. ft. 

3805 sq. ft. 

25 sq. ft. 

4117 sq. ft. 

944 sq. ft. 

62.7 sq. ft. 






70'-2y 4 " 

333,000 lbs. 

Mountain Type Locomotive for the Rock Island. 

Fire Box — 

Thickness of sheets, sides 
Thickness of sheets, back 
Thickness of sheets, crown 
Thickness of sheets, tube 

Water Space — 








:; n" 







K/ rr 









Seamless steel 

Seamless steel 

5y 2 " & 2i/i" 

sy 2 " 

& 2V4" 

5Mj", 0.150" 

sy 2 " 


214", 0.135" 



On driving wheels 
On trailers 
On engine truck 
Total engine & tender 

Wheels, number 
Wheels, diameter 
Tank capacity 
Fuel capacity 




























8,500 gals. 



don E. C, England, has published a souvenir containing twelve 
illustrations of locomotives used on various Canadian railways. 
The illustrations are of large size and on high grade paper, the 
whole booklet making a very pleasing appearance. 

March, 1914 



By R. W. Burnett, G. M. C. B., Canadian Pacific Ry. 

On account of the faults common to all composite passenger 
trucks which cause unsatisfactory service and expense in main- 
tenance, a design of a structural steel truck was prepared by 
the .Canadian Pacific Railway about three years ago, with a 
view of overcoming these defects. 

All-metal trucks of cast steel construction have been used 
quite extensively during the past few years and have proven 
quite satisfactory. The first cost of the east steel truck is con- 
siderably in excess of the composite trucks used heretofore. 
The structural steel truck is considered equal to the cast steel 
and is somewhat cheaper in the first cost and is also much 
easier and cheaper to repair, as in case of any breakage, due to 
accident or unusual conditions, it is only necessary to replace the 
damaged part, whereas with the cast steel truck, in cases of 
breakage it is necessary to replace the entire truck frame. 

In all attempts at designing a truck in the past, the side sill 
has been kept above the equalizer, while it has been necessary 
to keep the transoms down to clear center sills, draft rigging, 
brake gear, etc., making the use of an offset connection between 
transoms and side sill necessary. On this truck, the side sills 
are made of two channels with flanges together, the flanges 
being cut away to let the equalizers come up inside of the 
housing thus formed. The cutting away of the flanges is com- 
pensated for by the extension of the wing on the pedestal plate. 
The housing of the equalizer inside of the side sill makes it 
possible to drop the side sill so that it is flush with the tran- 
soms, doing away with the offset connection which has been 
used heretofore, and permitting the use of flat gusset plates 
above and below side sills and transoms, greatly increasing the 
strength and giving more room for inspection. 

The principal trouble with the composite trucks is the many 
parts bolted together requiring constant attention, the frequent 
renewal of wooden parts that is necessary, and the wear of the 
different members. 

A composite truck made new, of the strongest design, will 
warp before being placed in service, so that the pedestals are 
not plumb on the boxes, and after a year's service the pedestals 
are spread all distances up to 2 inches. This built-up truck is 
made perfectly square and plumb and remains so. It has been 
noted that it requires less than one-half the power to move this 

truck than is required to move a composite truck on account 
of the composite truck getting out of square. 

On this truck it has been found that there is strength to spare 
without end sills, which also allows the side sills to be made 
shorter, which gives better clearance at the steps and makes 
inspection of trucks, platforms, and draft gear easier. This 
strength is secured by the strength of the side sill and the 
clever arrangement of gusset plates. The brakes are iuside 

Four Wheel, Structural Steel Truck, C. P. R. 

hung instead of outside hung, as with the ordinary six wheel 
truck it gives a more effective brake, also greatly reduces the 
tendency to tilt and surge, and leaves the ends free for inspec- 
tion and free for any axle lighting system. 

The frequent breakage and rapid wear of cast iron pedestals 
is an old story. Experience with cast steel pedestals has shown 
that they not only wear out rapidly, but soon cut through the 
sides of the journal boxes. 

The built-up pedestal on this truck has a chilled iron filler 
rivetted between the two plates. Experience has shown that 
in two years there is no appreciable wear and that the journal 
boxes are not injured. 

The cast iron pedestals do not add strength to the truck but 
the plate pedestal can be extended to act as a reinforcement, 
giving increased strength with reduction of weight. 

ft was thought, when these pedestals were designed, that as 
a matter of course they would bend in case of wreck, but in 
wrecks that would have broken cast iron pedestals, these ped- 

Four Wheel, Structural Steel Truck, C. P. R. 



March, 1914 




i; U [h Hill'. ! ! • 


.3'sr- — 

3S S ->j 






— 210. : — > 

March, 1914 



Six Wheel, Structural Steel Passenger Truck, Canadian Pacific Ry. 

estals have always brought the car home. In manufacturing, 
these pedestals are punched out, leaving about &" inside of the 
jaw to be milled out. About twenty are milled at one time. 
They are drilled on a jig and are perfectly interchangeable. 

The time honored pedestal strap, which required so much 
attention in inspection and repairs and caused so much annoy- 
ance when changing wheels, is not needed on these trucks on 
account of the strength of the side sill and pedestal. A small 
bar is pivoted on one arm of the back member of the pedestal 
and fastened to the other arm by a key bolt applied to pre- 
vent the box leaving pedestal if truck is jacked up or car is 
derailed. The brake rigging being on top of the axles, there 
are no nuts and only two cotters to remove to change any pair 
of wheels. 

Instead of the short jointed truck hangers ordinarily used, 
long hangers are used, the hangers on the four wheel truck 
being pivoted on top of the gusset plate while on the six wheel 
truck they are pivoted under the gusset plate. 

The truck hangers and brake hanger pivots are bars of rolled 
steel cut to length without a head which avoids heat treat- 
ment. They are carried in a casting, one end of which is open. 
A cotter is placed through the casting in front of the pin 
while the other end of the casting has a small hole for the 
insertion of a drift to remove the pin. The long truck hanger 
is cheaper to manufacture, easier to inspect and gives an easier 
riding truck. 

Six Wheel, Structural Steel Passenger Truck, C. P. R. 

It will be noted that the brake beam release springs on the 
truck have been done away with. It is considered that they 
have always been a detriment on account of it being impossible 
to keep them properly adjusted, the result being that the 
springs adjusted the strongest, pull the opposite brake beam 
against the wheel, doing the reverse from what they were in- 
tended. The release of the slack is taken care of by coil springs 
on the body. 

It will be noted that these trucks are made almost entirely 
of rolled shapes and flat plates with practically no forging or 
pressing, which reduces the manufacture to almost a question 
of shearing, drilling, punching and riveting. These trucks are 

running under more than 700 cars and have been in service 
long enough to absolutely prove that there is no trouble from 
rivets and that the cost of repairs is reduced to a question of 
changing wheels and brake shoes, and lubrication. These trucks 
were designed by R. W. Burnett, general master car builder. 

Some of their main points of advantage are: 

Reduced weight. End clearance. 

Increased strength. Cheapness of manufacture. 

Ease of inspection. Low cost of maintenance. 

Inside hung brakes, making trucks easier riding, easier to 
inspect, and easier to apply any axle lighting system. 

Chilled iron wearing parts of pedestal, reducing wear on both 
pedestals and journal box. 

Wrought pedestals, being stronger in themselves and adding 
strength to truck sides. 

Only two cotters to remove to change any pair of wheels. 


All classes of railway employes are taking advantage of I. C. S. 
scholarships to increase their efficiency or secure promotion. Be- 
low is noted the occupations of railway employes, enrolled from 
June, 1913, to January, 1914, inclusive: 

Firemen 827 

Engineers 198 

Helpers 175 

Apprentices 143 

Wipers 132 

Repairers 104 

Laborers 104 

Inspectors 102 

Machinists 89 

Clerks 70 

Brakemen 59 

Boilermakers 51 

Air brake men 48 

Foremen 40 

Carpenters 33 

Handy men 30 

Hostlers 27 

Blacksmiths 26 

Telegraph operators .... 25 

Watchmen 24 

Pipe fitters 23 

Painters 23 

Cleaners 22 

Shopmen 18 

Roundhouse men 16 

Electricians 16 

Stationary engineers .... 15 

Storekeepers 15 

Oilers • 14 

Conductors 13 

Callers 12 

Motormen 12 

Section men 12 

Drill press men 12 

Chainmen 11 

Tinsmiths 11 

Agents 10 

Baggagemen 9 

Linemen 9 

Flagmen 8 

Rodmen 8 

Canemen 7 

Engine dispatchers 6 

Fire builders 6 

Switchmen 6 

Timekeepers 6 



Yar dm asters 

Ash pit men 5 

Boiler washers 5 

Checkers 5 

Messengers 5 

Pumpmen 4 

Signalmen 4 

Supplymen 4 

Bolt cutters 


Switch tenders . . . 


Rivet heaters .... 
Master Mechanics. 


Gas men 



Lamp tenders 2 

Patternmakers 2 

Toolroom boys 2 



Asst. master mechanic. 






Trainmaster . . 
Water service . 
Batteryman . . . 
Fire dept. man. 





March, 1914 

By H. C. Stevens, M. M., D. & R. G. R. R., Alamosa, Colo. 

There is no doubt but friction in center plates causes many 
derailments, records of which bear the explanation, "no 
cause,*' and such excuses in time become very wearisome to 
every one concerned. Since inaugurating the practice of oiling 
center plates a noticeable improvement has been effected in 
keeping our freight ear trucks on the rails, and I attribute it 
to the oiling of the center plates. We use a cheap grade of 
summer black oil costing 11 cents per gallon, and *4 oz. is suffi- 
cient for a narrow gauge center plate. 

When the oiling began, a helper was detailed to go over the 
yard oiling all center plates. The long spout oiler used was 
wasteful of oil, and the most serious objection to that method 
of oiling was the danger to the oiler, as he was compelled to go 
under the narrow gauge cars to get at the center plate. 

An average of thirty cars oiled to the gallon was about the 
best we could do with the long spout oiler. With the plain 
center plate oiler shown in the photographic illustration we 
increased the number of cars to sixty cars per gallon, or a little 
over 14 gill per center plate. 

A half gallon can with the valve arrangement attached to 
four foot pipe is light enough to be handled with ease, and 
reduces the time of oiling more than three-fourths, and also 
prevents the man having to expose himself to danger, as all 
center plates can be oiled with the right amount of oil from 
outside the trucks. 

The plain oiler was such a success as to warrant making 
it with the graduating arrangement, as we handle both nar- 
row gauge and standard gauge cars, and some of the narrow 
gauge cars do not require as much oil as the standard. 

The Canadian government has ordered railways to equip their 
locomotives with airtight double windows in front of the the 
cabs from Xov. 1 to April 30. The order was issued at the 
request of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers and the 
Brotherhood of Firemen. It is understood American lines will 
be asked to follow suit. 

Center Plate Oiler with View of Nozzle. 

i^A \ £'—+ 


Qauge Barrel 


Ball Free 

^Discharge Yalre and Spring 

Details of Discharge Valve, Center Plate Oiler. 

March, 1914 



Electrification of the Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Ry. 

The Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Railway is, in many ways, the 
most remarkable example of steam road electrification in this 
country. Besides being the first 2,400 volt direct current road, 
it is also credited with being the first steam road operating 
both freight and passenger schedules, to electrify its lines pure- 
ly for reasons of economy. A number of steam railway elec- 
trifications have been made because of pre-emptory factors, 

made up for transportation to the smelters at Anaconda. The 
main line division extends through a rough mountainous coun- 
try, a distance of about twenty miles, with grades as high as 
0.3 per cent. 

At East Anaconda, the main line trains are broken up and 
hauled up Smelter Hill to the stock bins, where each car is run 
over the scales and weighed. The shifting of cars in connec- 

Map of Electrified Section of the Butte, Anaconda <£. Pacific Ry. 

such as terminal and tunnel operation or for rapid suburban 
service. This road, however, cannot be closed as an "enforced 
electrification, " since no such special limitations have been the 
determining factors. 

The first electric locomotives were put in service May 28, 
1913, hauling ore cars between the East Anaconda yards and 
the smelter. During the first seven months of service, they 
made approximately 201,000 miles and hauled about 2,365,000 
tons of ore. 

The steam locomotive crews consisting of engineman and 
fireman easily acquired proficiency in handling the electric 
locomotives; in fact, two or three days' instruction from a 
competent electrical man were ordinarily sufficient. The 
change from steam to electric haulage was made without any 
change in the personnel of the train crews and without any 
delays or alterations in the schedule. The engineers, without 
exception, have expressed themselves as being greatly pleased 
with the easy operation of the locomotives. 

The electrified lines of this system extend from the Butte 
Hill yard to the smelter, a distance of thirty-two miles. There 
are numerous sidings, yards, and smelter tracks that have been 
equipped with overhead trolley, making a total of about ninety- 
five miles on a single track basis. 

The Butte, Anaconda & Pacific is essentially an ore hauling 
road, the freight traffic from this source originating at the 
copper mines located near the top of Butte Hill. From the 
mines, the ore trains are lowered down the mountain a distance 
of 4% miles to the Rocker Yards located a few miles west of 
the city of Butte. At this point, new main line trains are 

tion with weighing and subsequent delivery to the concentra- 
tors is done by single locomotives. 

The eastbour.d traffic consists in returning empty ears to the 
mines and the transportation of copper ingot to the Butte 
yards, where it is shipped over other roads to refineries. 

Between the cities of Butte and Anaconda, which are located 
at the ends of the electrified portion of the system, there is 
considerable local traffic, both passenger and freight. The city 
of Butte and vicinity has a population of about 65,000, and 
Anaconda about 10,000. At Butte, the Butte, Anaconda & 
Pacific connects with the Great Northern, the Northern Pacific, 
and the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul; and at Silver Bow, 
about six miles from the city, connection is made with the 
Oregon Short Line. 

For a distance of sixteen miles, the Butte, Anaconda & Pa- 
cific is paralleled by the transcontinental lines of the Northern 
Pacific, and the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul. The last 
named company has already contracted for power for the oper- 
ation of electric trains from Harlowton, Montana, to Avery, 
Idaho, a distance of 440 miles. 

The maximum curvature on the system (20 degrees, 285-foot 
radius) occurs on the Butte Hill line. On this part of the road, 
there is an average curvature of 6 to 10 degrees. The locomo- 
tives are designed with sufficient flexibility to take a curve of 
31 degrees (180-foot radius) at slow speed. 


The freight traffic consists largely of copper ore and amounts 
to more than 5,000,000 tons per year. This material is handled 



March, 1914 

Overhead Construction in Switching. 

Interior of Generator Room in the Rainbow Station of the Great Falls Power Co., Containing Six 6.000-H. P. Units. 


Two Unit Electric Locomotive Hauling Freight Train. 

March, 1914 



in steel ore cars weighing about eighteen tons and having a 
capacity of fifty tons each. Trains of thirty loaded cars weigh- 
ing 2,000 tons are made up at the Butte Hill yards and hauled 
by two-unit locomotives to the Eocker yards, where 4,000-ton 
trains are made up for the main line. At the East Anaconda 
yards, the trains are again broken up and 1,400-ton trains are 
sent up Smelter Hill to the 'ore bins. All of the shifting and 
"spotting cars," at the smelters and in the sorting yards, is 
done by single locomotive units. 

Eight passenger trains per day are operated between Butte 
and Anaconda, four in each direction. The main line trains 
were first hauled by electric locomotives on October 1, 1913, 
and promptly demonstrated their ability to make better time 
than was possible with steam engines. Single locomotives are 
used, hauling trains of from three to five passenger and bag- 
gage cars. 


Energy for the operation of electric trains is purchased from 
the Great Falls Power Company. The generating plant is lo- 
cated at Great Falls, Mont., on the Missouri river, and has for 
some time been supplying electric power for the operation of 
the mines and smelters at Butte and Anaconda. Six hydro- 
electric units are installed, having a nominal rated capacity of 
21,000 kw. The machines are of the horizontal type, generat- 
ing 6,600 volts, 3 phase, at a frequency of 60 cycles. The power 
is stepped up to 102,000 volts for transmission to the trans- 
former substation at Butte, a distance of 130 miles, over two 
separate parallel lines constructed on the same right-of-way. 
An extension of the system transmits power at 60,000 volts to 
a second transformer station at Anaconda, twenty-five miles 
farther on. 

The Butte station forms the center of the extensive power 
system operated by the Montana Power Company. Besides the 
Great Falls 102,000 volt transmission lines, there are several 
60,000 volt transmissions terminating at this point, which form 
a part of the Montana Power Company's system. These lines 
bring in power from the Hauser Lake, Canyon Ferry, Madison 
and Big Hole plants. At the Butte substation, this power is 
stepped down to 2,400 volts, 3 phase, and all of these lines are 
tied in on the 2,400 volt A. C. bus. Ample protection is there- 
fore afforded from interruption of service. 

It is an interesting fact that the railway load was taken on 
without any increase in the high tension transmission facili- 
ties. It is estimated that the additional load from this source 
is approximately 20 per cent of the railway, industrial and 
lighting load furnished by the street railways, mines, and 
smelters at Butte and Anaconda. 


The two existing substations at Butte and Anaconda were 
used to house the 2,400 volt motor motor-generator sets re- 
quired for operating the electric trains, so that no additional 
buildings were constructed for this purpose. Power is fur- 
nished by two 1,000 kw., 3-unit motor-generator sets in each 
substation, taking power from the 2,400 volt A. C. buses. These 
units operate continuously twenty-four hours per day, seven 
days of the week, to supply the necessary current for train 
operation. Each set consists of a 3-phase, 60 cycle, 1,450 kv-a., 
720 rpm., synchronous motor direct connected to two 500 kw., 
1,200 volt generators, insulated to operate in series for 2,400 
volts. The generators are compound wound and have both 
commutating poles and compensating pole face windings. These 
fields are connected on the grounded side of the armature, and 
the main fields are separately excited from 125 volt exciters. 

The 1,200 volt generators are provided with heat proof insu- 
lation and, owing to their unusually good commutating char- 
acteristics, will carry three times normal load for periods of 
five minutes, as well as the usual 50 per cent, overload for two 

An automatic voltage regulator is used to maintain an ap- 
proximately constant voltage at the terminals of the m»tor by 

power factor regulation. The motors are protected against 
overload by inverse time limit relays, which are set to open at 
four times normal load. These relays have been adjusted to 
open under sustained overload in about two seconds and upon 
«hort circuit their action is practically instantaneous. 


Excitation for the two generating units in each substation is 
obtained from two induction motor driven sets, rated 50 kw. 
each at 125 volts. One set is used for supplying current to the 
synchronous motor fields and is controlled by the automatic 
voltage regulator. The second unit supplies current to the 
separately excited fields of the direct current generators. 


The 2,400 volt switchboards for controlling these sets are the 
first direct current boards to be constructed for this high volt- 
age. In general, they are similar to the standard 600 volt types 
with increased insulation and special provision for interrupting 
the 2,400 volt current. The circuit breakers and switches are 
also arranged for remote control, and all apparatus on the pan- 
els is provided with ample insulation to insure safety to opera- 

The 2,400 volt circuit breakers and switches are installed on 
separate panels above and back of the main panels, and are 
operated by connecting rods from handles mounted on the 
front of the main switchboard. These handles are similar in 
appearance; and to avoid confusion, the circuit breaker han- 
dles are inverted. The breakers are equipped with special 
magnetic blowouts and arc chutes, and provision is also made 
for automatically inserting a high resistance in the generator 
field at the same instant the main circuit breakers open, thus 
reducing the generator voltage 

The alternating current switchboard contains two panels for 
controlling the synchronous motors by means of remote control, 
solenoid operated oil switches; two panels for the motor fields, 
and a panel for the automatic voltage regulator. These panels 
also contain other necessary instruments, including frequency 
and synchronism indicators, ammeters, wattmeters and relays. 


The overhead construction for this system was especially 
designed to give the flexibility necessary for satisfactory oper- 
ation of the pantograph trolleys used on the locomotives. The 
4/0 grooved copper trolley used over all tracks is supported by 
an eleven point catenary suspension from a stranded steel 
messenger cable. Both side bracket and cross span construc- 
tion are used as required by the local conditions. There is a 
large amount of special work on account of the many yards 
and sidings, and in one case twelve tracks are spanned. The 
cross span construction used at this point is supported by a 
third pole between the eighth and ninth tracks. The hanger 
used on the straight line construction is a rolled steel strap 
looped over the messenger wire. This loop is closed at the car 
and the wire is clamped in place by a single bolt. Special 
pulloffs are used to increase the flexibility of the suspension. 

The section breakers were designed for the 2,400 volt service, 
and at six points insulated crossings are necessary at the in- 
tersection of the 2,400 volt trolley with the 600 volt trolley of 
the city system. On the main line a very simple section insu- 
lator is used. This consists of paralleling the trolley wires 
from the ends of each section at a suitable distance for insula- 
tion so that the pantograph bridges the two circuits for a short 
distance, thus avoiding interruption of the power supply to the 
locomotive. The construction in the yards and sidings is sim- 
plified by paralleling the trolley from the side tracks for a 
short distance along the main line. This avoids the use of 
switch plates or similar devices. At some of these junction 
points the pantograph engages as many as six trolley wires. 

The overhead lines are protected from lightning by 2,400 volt 
D. C. typeME arresters installed on poles at intervals of one- 
third of a mile the entire length of the system. 



March, 1914 

Single Unit Electric Locomotive and Passenger Train at the Butte Station. 

Eighty Ton, 2,400 Volt, D. C. Electric Locomotive. 
&utte, /4rraconcf'a arte/ Pacific f?y. 

May SIS, 1311 

J H A 

■w — 



rc/s £960 






2 r^ 





\ SF0 P 

K 5740 





k \ i 








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\ ssoo 





*wJc /lit 




. r?ocAer_ 





Sy.Afar SS% rorSOOf 




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\Siet/ Bridge S33K 







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M, /es 
Profile Map of the Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Ry. 

March, 1914 




The 4/0 trolley is reinforced between the substations with 
two 500,000 cm. bare copper cables tapped to the trolley at 
intervals of 1,000 feet. A 4/0 negative return wire is also 
installed between Rocker and East Anaconda. This wire is 
carried on the trolley poles and is connected to the cross bonds 
at intervals of 1,000 feet. The rails are connected by 4/0 
bonds at every joint. The substations are normally connected 
together by these feeders, allowing an interchange of current. 
In emergency either station can supply current to the entire 


The locomotive equipment consists of seventeen 80-ton units, 
fifteen for the freight and two for passenger service. The 
freight locomotives are geared for slow speed and are operated 
in pairs for the main line service. The maximum free-running 
speed is 35 m.p.h. 

The two passenger locomotives are of the same construction 
as the freight units, but are geared for a maximum free-run- 
ning speed of 55 m.p.h. A speed of 45 m.p.h. is made with 
three passenger coaches on straight level track. 

The continuous tractive effort of a single 80-toD freight loco- 
motive is 25,000 lbs. at fifteen miles per hour. The maximum 
tractive effort for a period of five minutes is 48,000 lbs. based 
on a tractive co-efficient of 30 per cent. 

Those locomotives arc of the articulated double truck ty\x: 
with all the weight on drivers. The cab contains an engineer 's 
compartment at each end and a central compartment for con- 
trol apparatus. This cab is of the box type extending the 
entire length of the locomotive and is provided with botli 
end and side doors. The entire weight of the locomotive is 
carried on semi-elliptic springs suitably equalized. 

The central channels forming a part of the underframe are 
enclosed and are utilized as a distributing air duct for the 
forced ventilation of the motors. The air is conducted througli 
the center pins, which are hollow, into the truck transoms and 
thence to the motors. The engineer's compartment at either 
end of the cab contains the operator 's seat, controller, air 
brake valves, bell and whistle ropes, ammeter, air gauges, Sand- 
ers and other control apparatus within immediate reach of the 

The contactors, reverser and rheostats, which are located in 
the central portion of the cab, are mounted in two banks run- 
ning lengthwise of the compartment and are conveniently ar- 
ranged for cleaning, inspection and repair. All apparatus and 
circuits carrying 2,400 volts thoroughly protected from acci- 
dental contact. 

The motors are of the GE-229-A commutating pole type, 
wound for 1,200 volts and insulated for 2,400 volts. This 
motor was designed for locomotive service and is provided with 
forced ventilation. The method of ventilation is similar to 
the well-known ventilated motors, but the volume of air cir- 
culated is increased by the use of an auxiliary blower mounted 
on an .extension of the dynamotor shaft. The gear reduction 
on the freight locomotive is 4.84 and on the passenger locomo- 
tive 3.2. The double unit, 160-ton locomotive is capable of 

giving a continuous sustained output of 2,100 h. p. The mo- 
tors are connected to the driving wheels by twin gears similar 
to those used on the Detroit River tunnel, Baltimore & Ohio, 
and the Great Northern locomotives. 

The control equipment is Sprague-General Electric Type M, 
multiple unit, operating the four motors in series and in series- 
parallel. Two 1,200 volt motors are permanently connected 
in series. The controller provides ten steps in series and nine 
in series-parallel. The transition between series and series- 
parallel is effected without opening the motor circuit, and there 
is no appreciable reduction in tractive effort during the change. 
The transfer of circuits at this point is made by a special 
change-over switch, which is operated electro-pneumatically. 

The 2,400 volt contactors are operated from the 600 volt con- 
trol circuit, and are specially constructed to separate the 2,400 
volt part from the coils and interlocks which carry the 600 
volt current. The necessary insulation is obtained by large 
clearances and by the use of porcelain and mica insulation. 
The armature is connected to the contact lever by a wooden 
rod. The contacts, magnetic blowout and arc chutes are also 
especially designed to rupture the 2,400 volt are. 

Current is collected by overhead roller pantographs, pneu- 
matically operated and controlled from either engineer's com- 
partment by an air valve. A 2,4o0 volt insulated bus line runs 
along the center of the cab roof. These bus lines are connected 
together by couplers between the two freight units, so that 
current may be obtained from either one or two collectors. 
The air brakes are the combined straight and automatic type; 
and the compressor is of the CP-26, 600 volt type, having a 
piston displacement of 100 cu. ft. of air per minute when pump- 
ing against a tank pressure of 135 pounds. Radiating pipes 
are provided on the roof of the cab for reducing the tempera- 
ture of the compressed air before it reaches the high-pressure 

For operating the control equipment and air compressor and 
for lighting the locomotive and cars, 600 volt current is sup- 
plied from the 2,400/600 volt dynamotor installed on each loco- 
motive. This machine is similar in construction to the 1,200/ 
600 volt dynamotor installed on each locomotive. This machine 
is similar in construction to the 1,200/600 volt dynamotor, hav- 
ing two distinct sets of armature coils wound on the same core 



i?S v CAt'TC* BvS 








: l3 









' DCSenernUr/i DC6rnerclor 
lo*v ? rt/g/7 

One cf the 1,000 KW., 2,400 Volt, D. C. Motor-Generator Sets in the Sub-Stations. 

Wiring Diagram of the Sub-station. 



March, 1914 

and brought out to a commutator at each end. One of these 
windings is designed for 1,S00 volts and the other for 600 volts, 
the two commutators being connected in series across the 2,400 
volt circuit. The load current is taken from the 600 volt com- 

The mechanical load furnished by the direct connected blow- 
er supplies sufficient current in the series field windings to pro- 
vide for the necessary excitation, so that no shunt windings 
are required. The blower which supplies ventilating air to the 
motors consists of a multivane fan mounted on an extension 
of the dynamotor shaft. It has a capacity of 7,200 cu. ft. per 
minute at four inches pressure. 


The principal data and dimensions applying to the locomo- 
tives are the following: 

Length inside of knuckles 37 ft. 4 in. 

Length over cab 31 ft. 

Height over cab 12 ft. 10 in. 

Height with trolley down 15 ft. 6 in. 

Width over all 10 ft. 

Total wheel base 26 ft. 

Eigid wheel base 8 ft. 8 in. 

Track gauge 4 ft. 8% in. 

Total weight 160,000 lbs. 

"Weight per axle 40,000 lbs. 

Wheels, steel tired 46 in. 

Journals 6x13 in. 

Gears, forged rims, freight locomotives 87 teeth 

Gears, forged rims, passenger locomotives 80 teeth 

Pinions, forged, freight locomotives 18 teeth 

Pinions, forged, passenger locomotives 25 teeth 

Tractive effort at 30 per cent coefficient 48,000 lbs. 

Tractive effort at one hour rating 30,000 lbs. 

Tractive effort at continuous rating 25,000 lbs. 

The locomotives have been maintained by the regular shop 
force with the assistance of one man experienced in electrical 


Standard 600 volt lighting fixtures will be used on the cars, 
and each passenger and baggage coach will be wired for five 
groups of five lamps in series. The lights in each car will be 
controlled by a suitable master switch and fuse with snap 
switches in the individual circuits. Thirty-six watt railway 
type Mazda lamps are used, giving about 26 c.p. at 110 volts 
per lamp. Lighting current will be taken from a 600 volt 
train line bus, which is connected to the dynamotor on the 


All of the passenger and baggage cars now used between 
Butte and Anaconda will be heated as well as lighted by elec- 
tricity as soon as the equipment can be installed. The cars 
will be heated from a single heating unit installed underneath 
the car floor and supplied from a 2,400 volt bus connected 
directly to the 2,400 volt bus on the locomotive. This unit 
will have a maximum capacity of 25 kw., and will be used to 
heat the air which is distributed to different parts of the car 
by means of a small motor driven blower. Cool air will be 
drawn into the insulated case enclosing the heating units from 
some point on the roof of the car. After passing over the 
heating coils the air will be carried through ducts under the 
floor of the car to radiators placed between alternate seats. 
The blower has a capacity of from 500 to 1.000 cu. ft. of air 
per minute, and the motor is connected in series with the heat- 
ing units. 

In order to increase the range of the heating equipment to 
meet the requirements of varying temperatures, provision is 
made for connecting the coils to give a total consumption of 
10, 15, 17.5, or 25 kw. The temperature of the car is regulated 
at all times by a thermostat. 

All apparatus for the electrification of this road was fur- 
nished by the General Electric Company of Schenectady, N. Y. 


The Locomotive Superheater Co. has issued a bulletin de- 
scribing a pyrometer developed tor use with superheater loco- 
motives. A book of instructions for the use of those installing 
and operating the pyrometers has also been printed and dis- 
tributed. Both bulletin and instruction book are copyrighted 
by the Superheater Co. An extract of the bulletin appears by 
permission, below: 

Recognizing the need of an indicator whereby the engineer 
could, at all times, be informed as to the temperature of the steam 
in the steam chest attempts were made to find a suitable pyrome- 
ter for this purpose. Several instruments of both the pressure and 
electrical types were tested and found to be unsuited to the 
severe conditions under which they would have to operate. In 
order to get a satisfactory instrument for this purpose it was 
necessary to develop one that would meet the requirements 
established by the service in which it must operate. 

The conditions to be met with were those of excessive vibra- 
tion, varying temperatures and atmospheric conditions, as well 
as the rough handling to which devices on locomotives are sub- 
ject. To meet these conditions required a delicacy of adjust- 
ment and freedom of operation, combined with increased sizes 
of parts and durability of construction. 

The instrument which has been produced and found satis- 
factory is of the electrical type, consisting of thermo couples, 
constructed and arranged in accordance with the Bristol sys- 
tem; the cold end located in the boiler, in the saturated steam, 
and the hot end in the steam chest, directly in the flow of the 
superheated steam, electrically connected to an indicator of the 
millivolt meter type, located on the gauge bracket in the cab. 

The ends of the couples are so located that a variation of 

Showing Construction of Electro-Thermo Couple and Fitting. 

March, 1914 



the outside temperatures has practically no effect upon them. 
The cold end of the couple, placed in the boiler, in the satu- 
rated steam, is subject to x>nly the slight variation in tempera- 
ture due to the variation of the steam pressure, which does not 
<vary more than a few pounds when the locomotive is in opera- 
tion. The hot end of the couple, placed in the steam chest, in 
the flow of superheated steam, is subjected to a range of tem- 
peratures from that of saturated steam to about 650 degrees. 
The difference in electromotive force generated by the hot and 
•cold ends of the couples is read directly in degrees Fahrenheit 
on the dial in the cab. 

The thermo couples are properly protected against damage 
and deterioration by suitable fittings of bronze and cast iron, 
which are screwed into the steam chest and the boiler shell. 
They are carefully insulated from contact with the boiler shell 
or the steam chest and are suitably packed to prevent the 
leakage of steam around them. These fittings are made in such 
a manner as to completely protect the connection of the elec- 
trical leads to the couples, at the same time providing easy 
access for maintenance. 

the throttle closed, there is, of course, no superheat being 
obtained, and the indicating hand of the pyrometer instrument 
in the cab is located at the left hand side of the dial, reading 
between 350 and 390 degrees, assuming that the boiler pressure 
carried is 200 pounds or less. 

As the throttle is opened and the engine starts to work, 
steam from the boiler passes through the superheater pipes and 
the superheating process begins. As the engine starts, the 
pointer will move from left to right on the scale, showing an 
increased temperature in the steam chest and as the engine is 
worked harder the superheat added to the steam increases 
until, under average conditions, the indicator registers between 
600 and 650 degrees. 

If the pyrometer fails to operate in this manner it shows 
that either the locomotive is not being operated to produce the 
best results or that it has not received the proper attention at 
the roundhouse, and some of the following conditions may be 
looked for: 

First — That the water in the boiler is being carried so high 
that priming is taking place. The superheater, under this con- 

ino»«to« to ec scc«j«euv 



35-rr tEAo 






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CnSXSm l»it.C( 






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\ I 

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^IPKwrATEO Steam 


1 1) A^^UtO CiTij|b,h sTfAw 

*I»»C 0« T>Tt*M CMCST 

Showing Location of Pyrometer Parts on Locomotive. 

The electrical lead and extension between the couples and 
the instrument are designed to provide flexibility and the least 
amount of deterioration resulting from handling and bending. 
They are insulated with an especially prepared composition, 
which is affected by neither moisture nor temperature, and they 
are finally enclosed within a flexible bronze armor which pre- 
vents them from being bruised by substances falling on them. 

The instrument itself is of the milli-volt meter, double-jew- 
eled Weston type, the movement having been very carefully 
designed from a standpoint of accuracy and lightness, in order 
that it may be depended upon to register accurately the ex- 
tremely low electromotive force, generated by the thermo cou- 
ples. At the same time its construction is substantial enough 
to withstand the vibration and the temperature conditions to 
which it is subjected. The dial of instrument is graduated to 
read directly in degrees Fahrenheit, and has a range of from 
250 degrees to 750 degrees. The pointer and graduations are 
•carefully selected with the purpose in view of making them 
distinctly visible at all times, under the light conditions that 
prevail in a locomotive cab. 

The working parts of the instrument are enclosed in a dura- 
ble cast iron case, so constructed as to be absolutely dust and 
water proof, built to withstand the severe conditions of loco- 
motive service. The covers of the case and the connection box 
are held in place by screws, which are so arranged with a seal- 
ing wire that they cannot be removed without breaking the 

The electrical pyrometer or temperature indicator, as applied 
to superheater locomotives, is a device which indicates the 
actual temperature of the steam in the steam chest. Its pur- 
pose is to assist engineers and firemen in obtaining the highest 
•degree of 'efficiency in the operation of superheater locomotives. 

When a superheater locomotive is standing ot drifting with 

dition, is being used to evaporate the water and the heat which 
should be superheating the steam is being used for this pur- 
pose, a condition which will result in reducing the final tem- 
perature of the steam. 

Second — The fire may not be in proper condition, due to 
heavy firing, or occurrence of holes in the fire, which, in either 
case, results in a reduction of the firebox temperature and con- 
sequently the final temperature of the steam. 

Third — A portion or all of the superheater flues may be 
stopped up. 

Fourth — There may be leaks in the front end, which inter- 
fere with the drafting of the locomotive, preventing the free 
passage of the gases through the large flues containing the 
superheater units, thus resulting in a drop in the final tem- 
perature of the superheated steam. 

Fifth — Failure of the damper to operate properly, which in- 
terferes with the circulation of the gases through the flues and 
results in a reduction of the superheat. 

When the pyrometer reading does not show the proper tem- i 
perature of superheated steam, the engine crew can immedi- j 
ately adjust the height of the water, the condition of the fire, 
and inspect the operation of the damper. If the indicator still 
fails to show the proper amount of superheat, the condition 
should be reported at the terminal at the end of the run. 

The roundhouse forces may then investigate the condition of ' 
the flues and inspect the front end for steam leaks that may 
occur there, as well as for the proper operation of the damper, 
correcting any irregularities that may be found. 

The March meeting and annual dinner of the Central Railway 
Club was held at the Statler Hotel, corner of Swan and Wash- 
ington streets, Buffalo, N. Y., on Thursday, March 12, 1914. 



March, 1914 


The "Safety Exhibit Car" which has been ptit in service by 
the safety department of the Xew York Central Lines, is the first 
car of its kind to be put in use on any railroad. The car was 
first opened at Grand Central Terminal on July 30, 1913, and is 
one of the features of a systematic plan of educating employes 
along the lines of safety that is being conducted by this railroad. 
The car is being taken over all of the New York Central Lines, 
and was equipped and put in commission primarily as an instruc- 
tion car for the purpose of inculcating the doctrine of "Safety 
First" in the minds of the employes. The car, however, contains 
an exhibit that is interesting to the public. 

The interior of the car is finished in white enamel. Along both 
sides of the car is a shelf about three feet from the floor finished 
in mahogany, which contains models of every kind of machine 
used in the many shops on the system. The company requires 
all machines to be properly guarded so as to prevent workmen 
becoming caught in the various parts and injured. These models 
show the proper manner of applying these guards. The models 
of machines are perfect in detail and show at a glance how to 
make the machines safe. 

Along the side walls of the car above the models are several 
rows of pictures, some of them showing machine guards, and 
various safety appliances. These pictures are neatly framed and 
form an interesting and instructive feature of the exhibit. On 
one side of the car the picture space is devoted entirely to 
unsafe practices, and there are about two hundred photographs 
which explain graphically the common practices of railroad em- 
ployes that cause accidents resulting in injuries to themselves 
and others. Alongside of a picture showing the improper or 
unsafe way of doing a certain kind of work, is another picture 
showing the safe and proper way. Employes will be taken 

through this car by an attendant and instructed in the matter of 
safeguarding, not only themselves, but the public from injury. 
One section of the picture gallery is devoted to the trespass 
question and there are a number of pictures showing how persons 
risk their lives needlessly trespassing on railroad property. Above 
these trespass pictures is a statement calling attention to the fact 
that more than ten thousand trespassers are killed and injured 
annually on railroads in the United States. 

At one end of the car is a stateroom and toilet for use of the 
attendant who will accompany the car over the entire system of 
the road. Attached to the Exhibit Car there will be a coach 
which will be used as a lecture car. This car is equipped with a 
stereopticon and illustrated lectures on safety will be given to 
employes at various points. 

One of the exhibits shows the dangers of certain classes of 
work when performed without protection for the eyes. The Julius 
King Optical Company, New York, has collected information 
illustrating the necessity for eye protection and the results are 
surprising to those who have not investigated. The goggles manu- 
factured by this concern are used on the Xew York Central Lines,, 
and are appreciated by the men. The glass is of a quality which 
does not interfere with eyesight and the frames are made in 
many adaptations. 

The Xew York Central Lines have a department devoted en- 
tirely to safety work and a systematic effort to bring about a 
reduction of all classes of accidents has been made for some 
time past. That the work is proving successful is indicated in 
a statement appearing in a frame in the car, showing that on 
the Xew York Central & Hudson River, and Lake Shore & Michi- 
gan Southern, two of the Xew York Central Lines, there were 
thirty-five fewer employes killed on duty in the first four months 
of 1913, as against the same period in 1912. 

Safety Exhibit Car, New York Central Lines. 

March, 1914 



By E. J. Brewster, General Foreman, C. & N. N. Ry., Chicago 


A new element has sprung up in the repair of the locomotive 
of today, consisting of the removing, repairing and applying units 
and connections of the superheater, which is one of the most 
efficient appliances applied to a locomotive since its introduction. 

The superheater with whicli I have had experience is the 
Schmidt type. The removal of these units is sometimes difficult 
if the tubes have not been cleaned out, due to a formation 
on end of units or at unit supports which also retards the 
efficiency of superheat due to retarding the passage of the hot 

of shape I simply put them in babbitt pot and melt off shank 
and pour new shape on shank. Any information in regard to these 
forms and shapes ean be procured from the Locomotive Super- 
heater Co. 

In using these shapes, I use a No. 4 Little Giant air motor and 
in grinding them, give the motor a wabbling motion using car- 
borundum grains Xo. 50. Do not grind joint too much, as you 
will find this will grind fast. After grinding unit joints, put on 
protecting blocks to protect joints, the same as the Superheater 
Company uses in shipping outfits. Before doing this, test all units 
for leaks in tubes or return bends by filling with water under 

8a, >b/tf 

Threads to suit 



?'* \> — \ \ 

/ • I / / 

Shape Ho. 2. 

Shape Ho. I. 

Use Forms land ^ to mo/a shape I 
Use Forms I and 3 to mold shape 2. 

Forms for Making Shapes for Grinding Superheater Unit Joints. 

gases around unit. After removing these units, the first opera- 
tion is to grind units and header joints. This is quite a propo- 
sition unless you are fixed for this work. In order to handle this 
work quickly, I have devised a set of grinding forms, male and 
female, cast of any kind of metal in a form which will produce 
the required form without any kind of machining. 

The illustration shows forms Xos. 1, 2 and 3. Form No. 1 is 
used at all times in making these shapes in connection with forms 
Nos. 2 and 3. Form No. 2 is the male form and No. 3 the 
female. In-order to first make these grinding shapes, it is neces- 
sary to make the shanks as shown, in order to cast these shapes on. 
These are made of wrought iron, mild steel, or brass with shank 
threaded to suit any socket for air motor shank, as shown (1" 8 
thread U. S. Std.). After shanks have been made, it is necessary 
to make the forms, which can be made of wrought iron, mild steel, 
or cast iron. 

After shanks and forms are completed, all that is necessary 
to make shape No. 1 is to put form No. 1 on top of form No. 2 
and drop No. 1 shank through hole in top of form No. 1. The 
point on shank will drop into center of form No. 2, lining it up. 
Then pour metal through hole in shank until it is full and the 
shape is ready for use. The same operation for shape No. 2 
can be made with forms Nos. 1 and 3. 

I also have gauges for trying these shapes and if they get out 

The next operation is the grinding of the unit seats on header. 
First clean off and grind by using shape No. 1, at the same time 
giving the motor a wabbling motion. It is very necessary to get 
a true joint and seat. After these seats are ground, we are 
ready to apply units. Put a little oil on seats on header with 
your finger. 

In putting in units, be very careful to not bump or mar joints 
by striking against header. Joints must come on seats without 
springing. After one row is applied, slip in bolts and tighten up 
with a socket ratchet wrench with a bar 30" long. Be careful in 
tightening up so as to not put excessive strain on bolt, as you 
are liable to break out slot in header on tee head slot type of 
header. After first row is in, follow up in the same manner until 
all are in. Be sure* to have supports and baud on units, as these 
are necessary to hold unit in center of tube to allow hot gases 
to pass all around it. The most essential part of this job is to 
have good true spherical joints and when this is the case you will 
have no trouble. 

The Soo Line will move from the Illinois Central depot to the 
Grand Central Terminal at Chicago on April 1, 1914. 

The annual convention of the Chief Interchange Car Inspectors 
& Car Foremen *s Assn. will be held at Cincinnati, 0., on August 
25, 26 and 27, 1914. 



March. 1914 


A meeting of the executive committee of the Chief Inter- 
change Inspectors" and Car Foremen's Association of America, 
was held in the Karpen building at Chicago on Feb. 21, 1914. 

The following officials and numbers of the executive com- 
mittee were present: 

F. C. Sehultse, President. C. T. I.. Chicago Car Interchange 

F. H. Hanson. Vice-President. A. M. C. B., L. S. & Iff. S. By.. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Stephen Skidmore, Secretary and Treasurer, F. C. D., C. C. C. 
L. Ry.. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

F. W. Trapnell. Chairman Executive Committee, chief inter- 
change inspec-Tor, Kansas City, Mo. 

Members of the executive committee: 

J. J. Devaney, F. C. D.. Terminal Railway Association, St. 
Louis, Mo. 

J. P. Carney. G. C. I.. Michigan Central R. R., Detroit, Mich. 

W. J. Stoil, chief interchange inspector, Toledo, Ohio. 

E. R. Campbell, G. C. F., M. T. Ry.. St. Paul, Minn. 

Fifty car foremen, representing the various Chicago roads, 
were present and took part in the discussion. 

The meeting was presided over by F. W. Trapnell. chairman 
of the executive committee. The following recommendations 
for changes in the M. C. B. rules were recommended to the 
Arbitration Committee of the M. C. B. Association. 

rule 1. 

Each railway company must give to foreign ears, while on its 
line, the same care as to inspection, oiling, packing, adjusting of 
brakes and repairs that it gives to its own cars. 

Reason: The words, "running repairs" is not generally 
understood by the car foremen, some claiming that this simply 
means that such repairs as applying wheels, draft timbers, 
draw bars, etc., are meant by ; ; running repairs. ' 

Each railway company should give the same attention in the 
way of repairs to foreign cars while on their line, as it does to 
its own cars, until such time as the car gets in a wornout 
unserviceable condition, as provided for in Rule Xo. 120. 

Add second paragraph: Oil boxes not found repacked within 
twelve months, may be repacked and charged to the car own- 
ers, car to be properly stenciled at a convenient location. 

Reason: Many car owners neglect to take care of the pack- 
ing in their cars, and as a result, the cars run hot and journals 
are cut due to journals not receiving the proper attention. 
Experience has proven that oil boxes should be repacked at 
least once every twelve months. 

RULE 2. 

Change first paragraph to read as follows: 

Cars having defects for which delivering company is respon- 
sible must be properly carded when interchanged. 

Reason: It is the general practice to inspect cars in the 
receiving line's yard, and this is good practice for the reason 
the receiving line is the judge. 

Change second paragraph to lead as follows: 

Empty cars offered in interchange must be accepted if in 
safe and 'serviceable condition, the receiving road to be the 
judge. Owners must receive their own ears, when offered home 
for repairs, at any point on their lines, also foreign ears origi- 
nating with them, when offered at originating point, subject 
to the provisions of these rub - 

Reason: The present rules permit the receiving line to 
technically object to foreign cars offered that have been away 
from their line for a short period. This suggestion compels 
the delivering line to take the cars back in the same general 
condition as when delivered. This is necessary in order not to 
delay foreign cars that are on their way home. 

Change third paragraph to read as follows: 

Leaking cars containing inflammable liquid must be repaired 
or transferred without any unnecessary movement, or at near- 
est available point, with least possible risk. 

Reason: The above suggestion eliminates the word "tank" 
from the rule, for the reason that it is just as dangerous to 
handle cars containing inflammable material in packages as 
it is in tank cars. 

Paragraph (e). 

It is recommended that the official clearance be published in 
the M. C. B. rules, for the reason that it is not feasible to place 
in the hands of inspectors where they are readily available, 
publications in which the official clearances are now published. 

RULE 3. 

If a car has defects for which the owners are not responsible, 
the receiving line shall require that a defect card be securely 
attached to the car, as per Rule 14. 

Defect cards shall not be required for any damage that is so 
slight that no repairs are necessary; at outlying points where 
joint inspection is not in effect, the matter will be left to the 
judgment of the receiving line: at the larger points where 
chief interchange inspectors are employed, the decision will be 
made by the chief interchange inspector as a representative of 
the car owmer and the receiving line. 

RULE 9. 

Fourth bracket, first line. 

Change the words "make or name" to "M. C. B. Xo. 1 or 

Xo. 2. ' ' 

RULE 14. 

Change rule 14 to read as follows: 

The end of car toward which the cylinder push rod travels 
shall be known as B end and the opposite end shall be known 
as A end. 

Facing the B end of car, in their order on the right side of 
car, the journal boxes and contained parts shall be known as, 
BR 1, BR 2 and BL 1 and BL 2. Facing the A end of car, the 
journal boxes and contained parts shall be known as, AR 1, 
AR 2 and AL 1 and AL 2: the same to apply to defects upon 
the body of the car; the center of the car to be the dividing 

TVe further recommend that a diagram be inserted in the 
M. C. B. Rules showing the various locations on body as well as 
trucks. Diagram to be as shown below: 

- 1- 

li — 



— BO 

> > 

7~ — 

! C — 

Reason: It is found necessary, that in order to locate dam- 
age upon the body of the car, the#rule should be changed as 
outlined above, and the diagram will be a guide to the inter- 
change car inspectors. 

RULE 17. 

Change the first line in the third paragraph to read 
•Malleable iron or steel M. C. B. Standards," etc. 

rule IS. 

Add to the third paragraph of rule 18. 
"Unless enroute home." 

Reason: This will permit the cars to move home to the 
owners after October 1st. 1914. 

March. 1914 



RULE 19. 

Change the last line to read: 

"Malleable, filled, or steel backed journal bearings." 

Eeason: To permit the use of the filled bearings. 

rule 35. 

Add paragraph to this rule. 

"That on and after October 1st, 1915, cars of 40,000 lb. ca- 
pacity will not be accepted in interchange." 

Reason: Cars of 40,000 lb. capacity are not considered safe 
in heavy trains. 

rules 37, 38, 39 and 40. 

These rules should be eliminated. 

Reason: The majority of defects resulting in damage as 
enumerated in rules 37 to 40 inclusive, are the result of poorly 
constructed and weak cars, for which the car owner is re- 
sponsible and which give away in ordinary handling. The 
elimination of these rules also permits extensive repairs to be 
made to foreign cars which will result in the life of the cars 
being extended and cars kept in more serviceable condition, as 
outlined in recommendation made in M. C. B. rule No. 2. 

RULE 41. 

( hange to read: 

"Damaged longitudiral sills, if necessitating replacement 
or splicing of more than three sills." 

Reason: The majority of wooden center sills become de- 
fective by the bolt holes wearing oblong which is an owner's 
defect. The adding of one additional sill will make the de- 
livering line responsible for rough usage. 

rule 42. 


Reason: As for rules 37 to 40 inclusive. 

rule 46. 

Add after word "risk" also if equipped with contrifugal 
dirt collectors. 

rule 47. 


Reason: That the chains in interchange are protected by 
being way-billed as advanced charges by the agent. Under 
the present practice of returning chains, many chains are re- 
turned which are being settled for through joint freight agents 
by advanced charges. 

rule 52. 

Eliminate first paragraph and substitute the following: 

"All safety appliances when renewed or removed for re- 
pairs must be secured in accordance with Interstate Commerce 
Commission requirements. ' ' 

Reason: On such cars where it is necessary to remove or 
renew such parts, they should be made to require with the 
Interchange Commerce Commission requirements. 

rule 59. 

In the seventh line eliminate the words "on account of in- 
secure fastenings" and substitute the words "unless damaged 
by derailment cr accident." 

Reason: This makes car owners responsible for broken air 
brake fittings unless car has been accepted or in accident. 

rule 60. 

Add to the first paragraph of last line, "old dates must be 
thoroughly obliterated. ' ' 

Reason: It is found in many cases old dates are not being 
removed resulting in confusion. 

rule 68. 

Add to paragraph 1: 

"Except in eases of flat spots of 2" or over on cars of 
80,000 capacity or over, should be made delivering line de- 

Reason: It is felt that slid wheels of 2" on cars of 80,000 
capacity or over are dangerous and should be removed. 

from this 

RULE 69. 
rule after 

the figure 

7ff* the word 


Reason: This will eliminate chipped flanges as a delivering 
line defect. It is felt that many flanges are chipped in' ordi- 
nary handling for which the car owner should be responsible. 

RULE 82. 

Eliminate the word "the" in the first line, and in. the 
second line the words, "opposite," "from" and "throat," 
and substitute after the word "on," the word "either." This 
will include flanges chipped on both sides owner's defect and 
increase length of the chip from 1% to 1%. 

Reason: It is felt that the present dimension of a chipped 
flange is too small, and also under all conditions, all flanges 
should be an owner's defect, except in case of derailment or 

RULE 83. 

A gauge should be provided showing a slid flat spot of 2". 
Reason: To take care of change provided in rule No. 68. 

RULE 84. 

Eliminate from this rule the words "cut journals." 
Reason: It is felt that cut journals are due to the careless- 
the car owner, and same should be an owners defect. It is 
also noticed that defect cards in interchange are demanded by 
the receiving line for journals that are slightly cut and where 
the brass and other parts are in perfect condition, which can- 
not be discovered in ordinary inspection in interchange. 

RULE 85. 
Change to read: 

"Cut journals, axles broken of having seamy journals." 
Reason: To comply with change recommended in rule 84. 

rule 86. 

It is felt that there is a typographical error in the size 
shown of wheel seats for 79,000 limit weight axles. This 79,000 
dimension compares with the 50,000 capacity axle, and the 
maximum M. C. B. size for the wheel seat on a 50,000 ca- 
pacity axle is 5%". This exceeds the size by Vs inch. The 
same limit applies to limit weight No. 2. 

rule 93. 

Add the words: 

"Unless otherwise designated in The Equipment Register." 

rule 94. 

Change this paragraph to read: 

"For repairs made on defect cards, the card must accompany 
the bill as voucher for the work done, but no bill shall be 
rendered for repairs that have not been made, except when 
cars are taken out of service by the owner and dismantled, 
in which case bill may be made against the road issuing defect 
card for cost of material only. In case of ear dismantled on 
intermediate line bearing a defect card, the handling line has 
authority to bill the road issuing the defect card for 50% of 
the value of defect card." 

Reason: It is felt that the car owner is entitled to be re- 
imbursed for loss of his car which in many instances was fit 
for a number of years of service, and it is felt that he should 
be entitled to bill the road responsible for damage for the cost 
of material, but no labor for the reason that no labor was ex- 

rule 98. 

Attention of the Arbitration Committee is called to the fact, 
that in the operation of the present rule, there has resulted in 
many usable second hand wheels being left on the hands of the 
railroad companies, and it is felt that some method should be 
worked out for which the railroad companies may be per- 
mitted to use the good second hand wheels. It is also sug- 
gested that a price be provided for a 33 inch cast wheel which 
weigh more than 625 lbs. for the reason, that such wheels are 



March, 1914 

now being applied by railroad companies and a price should 
be provided for same. 

Attention of the Arbitration Committee is also called to the 
fact 1hat it should be permissible to bill the car owner in many 
cases for the application of the opposite wheel. 

RULE 101. 

Add an item after the second item under "material" 
"Brake beams No. 1 and brake beams Xo. 2"' with the proper 

rule 104. 

Additional recommendation: 

"In case of defective brake beams removed when another 
make is applied, credit shall be confined to the beam section, 
heads, fulcrum and truss rods on trussed beams." 

RULE ]l)7. 

The Arbitration Committee 's attention is called to the fol- 
lowing items in rule 107: 

"Hand holds straightened on car, one or two." 

"Turn buckle," insert "uncoupling lever renewed." And 
under the item ' ' truck springs one or all in the same truck 
renewed"' add item "truck springs replaced one or cluster 
when out of place, empty car," "one under bolster and price 
for both ends of bolster. ' ' 

The Arbitration Committee 's attention is called to the fact 
that a price should be provided for making a double splice on 
side sills in the center of the car; for the reason; at the present 
time a single splice is made on side sills so as to renew that 
part of the side sill under the side door post, and the present 
charge of a double slice is made which is excessive. 

rule 110. 

After the second paragraph on page 75 insert the following: 
"Applying center plate bolts, when one or two long draft 

timbers are applied, when the bolts are removed on the opposite 

timber, they should read one timber. ' ' 

rule 113. 
"For the mutual advantage of railroad companies interested, 
the settlement for a car when damaged or destroyed upon a 
private track shall be assumed by the railway company de- 
livering the car upon such tracks," except in cases of cars de- 
livered upon the owner's track." 

Reason: Under the present rule, the owner of a private car 
has no redress for loss of his car destroyed upon a private 
track. It is unfair to discriminate between private and rail- 
road owned cars. 

rule 115. 
In the first line of the second paragraph it is recommended 
that the item 50,000 be changed to read 60,000. 

RULE 116. 
The attention of the Arbitration Committee is called to the 
fact that in the settlement prices for bodies of eight wheel 
steel cars, the second item is less in price than it is for the fifth 
item, the latter being $10.00 greater. It is felt that this is a 
mistake and the second price should be reversed. 

On page 86 of the same rule, it is recommended that a para- 
graph be inserted, allowing for additional arbitrary allowance 
for cars equipped with all steel ends and all steel roofs. 

Eeason: Many cars are not being so equipped with thif 
additional expense and the car owner should have attention. 

rule 117. 

Add to this paragraph the words: 

"Except when owners authorize the destruction of the cars 
in accordance with Eule 120, in which case scrap credit should 
be allowed for the different metals under M. C. B. rules, to 
conform with circular 18." 

rule 120. 

The following rule was recommended: 

"A car unsafe to load on account of general worn out condi- 
tion due to age, decay or corrosion, shall be jointly inspected 

by the handling line and a representative of the owner or dis 
interested line, whichever can be most conveniently obtained 
by the handling line. If inspectors agree that home route cards 
are justifiable, joint inspection shall be sent to owner showing 
in detail, all defects found on car, and upon receipt of this 
information the car owner shall either furnish authority au- 
thorizing the handling line to either make repairs or destroy 
car at the owners expense and allow the proper credit for 

Eeason: Cars that have become in a general worn out, un- 
serviceable condition, should be either rebuilt or destroyed at 
the car owners expense. 

It is also felt that a uniform price should be made for the 
dismantling of cars of various capacities. 

RULE 121. 

This rule should be eliminated. 

Eeason: When cars cannot be handled under M. C. B. Eule 
2 they should be repaired or destroyed by the handling road. 

rule 121 a. 

Following is recommended: 

"A car having a combination of defects due to ordinary 
wear and tear and not account of unfair usage as provided by 
these rules, shall be jointly inspected by the handling line, 
and a representative of the car owner or disinterested line. 
If this joint inspection shows defects are properly chargeable 
to the car owner, the handling line shall be furnished with 
authority to bill." 

RULE 122 

In the last paragraph eliminate the word "hairfelt. " 
Eeason: It is felt that it is not practicable to have this 
class of material on hand at all times. 

rule 124. 
Additional paragraph should be inserted empowering the 
Arbitration Committee to have the arbitration decisions re- 
vised from time to time so as to eliminate all obsolete decisions, 
that are not consistent with the current M. C. B. Eules. 

On page 98, M. C. B. return card. It is recommended the 
wording of this card be changed to read: Eeturn card, car 

number and the word ' ' from ' ' to 

"to," so that it will be understood by trainmen. 

The attention of the Arbitration Committee is called to the 
fact that A. E. A. Car Service Eule 15 should be changed by 
omitting the first three words in the first paragraph which 
read "unless otherwise agreed." 

It is felt that the elimination of these three words would 
result in A. R. A. Eule Xo. 15 being uniformly adopted through- 
out the United States and Canada, and for the further reason, 
it is inconsistent to accept cars at one terminal under one rule 
and be obliged to transfer them before cars will pass to the 
next terminal. The transferring and rearrangement of cars 
should be uniform. , 

It is also recommended that another addition be added after 
paragraph F to read as follows: 

"The initial road shall pay the cost of transfer or rearrange- 
ment of closed cars when transfer or rearrangement is due to 
contents being improperly loaded according to M. C. B. loading 

Eeason: It is found that under aE. C. B. loading rule Xo. 124 
the delivering line is held responsible for load shifting and lack 
of door protection, which defects they cannot detect in ordi- 
nary inspection upon receipt from connecting line, and it is 
felt that the originating line shall be responsible. 


Add a paragraph as follows: 

"Equipment and tolls missing from the inside of baggage, 
mail and express cars is an owner's defect when found at the 
time of unloading." 

Eeason: Baggage cars usually pass in interchange with 

March, 1914 



doors locked or sealed and there is no opportunity of inspection 
until the time of unloading. 

It is also recommended that a standard steam hose should 
be adopted for the reason that it is very inconvenient to 
change steam hose on passenger cars moving in interchange, 
and for the further reason, that the road removing the hose 
has no use for same as it is not standard to their cars, and in 
many cases cars are returned by a different route and hose 
cannot be utilized. 

It is recommended for the convenience of inspectors and 
foremen that changes in the M. C. B. rules hereafter be 
printed either in italics or small capitals so that changes can 
be readily noticed. 


A number of cities made application for the next annual 
convention, and it was finally decided to hold it at Cincinnati 
on August 25th, 26th and 27th. 

W". A. Deems has been appointed general foreman of the Glen- 
wood shops of the Baltimore 4' Ohio at Pittsburgh. He was for- 
merly general foreman of the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton at 
Lima, O. 

S. D. Page has been appointed general car foreman of the 
Bangor 4' Aroostoclc, with office at Milo Junction, Me. He suc- 
ceeds H. A. Martin. 

W. H. Keller has been appointed general foreman of the Cin- 
cinnati, Hamilton $ Dayton at Lima, O., succeeding W. A. Deems. 
Mr. Keller was formerly general foreman of the Baltimore & 
Ohio Southern at Flora, 111. 

B. Preston has been promoted to assistant superintendent of 
motive power of the western lines of the Canadian Pacific with 
office at Winnipeg, Man. 

J. A. Moore has been appointed car foreman of the Canadian 
Pacific at White Biver, Ont., vice F. Guy. 

H. Osborne has been appointed assistant mechanical superin- 
tendent of the Canadian Pacific, with office at Montreal. His 
former title was assistant superintendent of motive power. 

W. E. Woodhouse has been appointed superintendent of motive 
power of the Canadian Pacific, Eastern Lines, with office at Mon- 
treal, Que. Mr. Woodhouse was formerly assistant superintendent 
of motive power at Winnipeg. 

F. B. Pennyfather has been appointed master mechanic of 
the Manitoba division of the Canadian Pacific, with office at 
Winnipeg, Man., vice B. Preston. 

W. J. Benin has been promoted to district master mechanic of 
the Canadian Pacific with office at Cranbrook, B. C. He succeeds 
F. B. Pennefather, promoted. 

C. Perry has been promoted to general foreman of the Canadian 
Pacific at Sutherland, B. C, succeeding W. J. Benix. Mr. Perry 
was formerly shop foreman at Brandon, Man. 

G. W. Bobertson, formerly master mechanic of the Ashland 
division of the . Chesapeake 4' Ohio, has been appointed master 
mechanic of the Hinton division, with headquarters at Hin- 
ton, W. Va. 

W. S. Butler has been appointed master mechanic of the Hunt- 
ington and Big Sandy division of the Chesapeake 4' Ohio with 
headquarters at Huntington, W. Va. Mr. Butler was formerly 
master mechanic at Hinton, W. Va. 

W. P. Hobson, master mechanic of the Cincinnati division of 
the Chesapeake $• Ohio, has had his jurisdiction extended over 
the Ashland division. His office remains at Covington, Ky, 

Emil Marx succeeds G. C. Bingham as general foreman of the 
Chicago # Xorthwestern at Winona, Minn. 

F. Davidson lias been appointed purchasing agent of the Chi- 
cago, Indianapolis 4~ Louisville, with office at the Transportation 
building. Chicago. 

B. E. Wood has been appointed road foreman of equipment of 
th Chicago, Bock Island 4" Pacific with office at Pratt, Kan. 

E. I. Partlow has been appointed road foreman of engines of 
the Cincinnati, Hamilton 4' Dayton, succeeding B. W. Brown. 

H. Booth succeeds M. W. Sullivan as road foreman of engines 
of the Dehcare 4' Hudson, with office at Carbondale, Pa. 

W. E. LeFaivre succeeds Thomas Tipton as purchasing agent 
of the Denver 4' Bio Grande with office at Denver, Colo. 

George Gilmore has been appointed foreman of the Detroit, 
Toledo 4" Ironton at Delray, Mich. 

J. Coots has been appointed supervisor of locomotive operation 
of the Erie, with office at Jersey City, N. J. 

J. Cunneen has been appointed supervisor of locomotive opera- 
tion of the Erie, with office at Jersey City, N. J. 

H. Evans has been appointed foreman of the Grand Trunk Pa- 
cific at Bivers, Man., vice B. W. Moore, transferred. 

D. W. Hay, locomotive foreman of the Grand Trunk Pacific, has 
been transferred from Eedditt, Ont., to Jasper, B. C. 

F. Lozo, locomotive foreman of the Grand Trunk Pacific, has 
been transferred from Jasper, B. C, to McBride, B. C. 

A. H. Mahon, locomotive foreman of the Grand Trunk Pacific, 
has been transferred from McBride, B. O, to Prince George, B. C. 

H. Darling has been appointed locomotive foreman of the 
Grand Trunk Pacific at Smithers, B. C. 

H. Saunders, car foreman of the Grand Trunk Pacific, has 
been transferred from McBride, B. C, to Fort George, B. C. 

A. K. Leighs has been appointed tar foreman of the Grand 
Trunk Pacific at McBride, B. C. 

Clarence Fife succeeds J. P. Cooney as locomotive foreman 
of the Great Northern at Casselton, N. D. 

Charles F. Barnhill succeeds the late A. B. Adams as master 
mechanic of the Gulf, Colorado 4' Santa Fe with headquarters at 
Silsbee, Tex. 

Millard F. Cox has been promoted to assistant superintendent 
of motive power of the Louisville 4' Nashville, with office at Louis- 
ville, Ky. Mr. Cox was formerly mechanical engineer. 

James Fahey succeeds L. M. Hunter as traveling engineer of 
the Nashville, Chattanooga 4~ St. Louis, with office at Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 

J. F. Hoyer has been appointed purchasing agent of the New 
Orleans Great Northern, with office at 505 Millsap building, Jack- 
son, Miss. He succeeds F. L. Kinsman. 

W. B. Geiser has been appointed acting chemist and engineer 
tests of the New York Central 4~ Hudson Biver, with office at 
West Albany, X. Y. He succeeds B. W. Mahon. 

James O'Neal, formerly general foreman, car department of 
the New Orleans, Mobile 4' Chicago, has had his title changed to 
master car builder. 

C. C. Elmes has been appointed assistant engineer of motive 
power of the Philadelphia ,)'• Beading, with office at Beading, Pa. 

Charles A. Bingaman has had his title changed to assistant 
engineer of the Philadelphia 4" Beading, with office at Beading, 
Pa. His former title was engineer of tests. 

B. B. Basbridge has been appointed superintendent car depart- 
ment of the Philadelphia 4' Beading with office at Beading. Mr. 
Basbridge was formerly chief car inspector. 

E. D. Wilson has been promoted to general car inspector of the 
Philadelphia 4~ Beading, with office at Beading, Pa. 

T. E. Hessenbruch has been appointed assistant general car 
inspector of the Philadelphia 4~ Beading with office at Beading, Ba. 

W. E. Grove has been appointed inspector, car department, of 
the Philadelphia <j- Beading with office at Beading, Pa. 

E. T. Worm vn has been promoted to general foreman of the 
Butland with office at Malone, N. Y., succeeding C. V. McMaster. 

H. F. Holden succeeds E. T. Worman as road foreman of en- 
gines of the Butland with office at Butland, Vt. 

D. C. Fitzgerald, assistant general superintendent of motive 
power of the St. Louis 4" San Francisco, has resigned. 

J. H. Buxton has been appointed superintendent of motive 
power of the San Antonio, Uvalde £ Gulf with headquarters at 
Pleasanton, Tex. 



March, 1914 

Lewis D. Freeman has been appointed shop engineer of the 
Seaboard Air Line with office at Portsmouth, Va. Mr. Freeman 
was formerly chief draftsman of the Kansas City Southern at 
Pittsburg, Kan. 

H. G. White has been appointed general foreman of the South- 
ern with office at Atlanta, Ga. 

T. W. Heintzelman has been appointed general superintendent 
of motive power of the Soutliem Pacific with headquarters at San 
Francisco, vice H. J. Small, retired. 

T. W. Younger succeeds T. W. Heintzelman as superintendent 
of motive power of the northern district of the Soutliem Pacific 
with headquarters at Sacramento, Cal. 

Samuel F. Clark has been appointed purchasing agent and 
general storekeeper of the Spokane, Portland 4' Seattle with head- 
quarters at Portland, Ore. He succeeds J. F. Mahoney. 

D. C. Wilson succeeds A. J. Collett as electrical engineer of the 
Union Pacific with office at Omaha, Neb. 


A. B. Adams, master mechanic of the Gulf, Colorado Sr Santa 
Fe at Silsbee, Tex., died on February 16. 

D. C. Idler, for many years master mechanic of the Vandalia, 
died at Indianapolis on February 23. 

ERS. Proceedings of the twenty-fifth annual convention. 
Cloth, 6x9% inches, 612 pages, unillustrated. Published by the 
Law Reporting Co., 115 Broadway, New York. Price, $1. 

This volume includes all the committee reports and discus- 
sions given before the annual convention held at Washington, 
D. O, on October 28-31, 1913. This association has some twen- 
ty committees covering such subjects as car service, express 
service, grade crossings, legislation, powers of commissioners, 
railway taxes, rates, capitalization, safety appliances, statis- 
tics, shippers' claims, telephones and telegraph service, uni- 
form classification, rails and equipment, and valuation. As the 
membership of the organization is composed of state and 
national railway commissioners, the topics discussed are of 
particular interest as giving the views of these officials on the 
various questions and the book is well worth having for this 

mong^ I5I&nufacturen5 


The need for a machine that will quickly and accurately 
grind the knives of planers and jointers without the trouble of 
taking the knives off the machine has for some time been recog- 
nized by users of wood-working machinery. 

The time spent in removing knives and putting them back 
properly adjusted is a difficult and unsatisfactory task. The 
work is often done hurriedly and improperly, resulting not only 
in poor work, but inefficiency in production. 

This is especially true of the thin, hard knives used on 
modern cylindrical head planers which it is almost impossible 
to grind on an automatic, and reset knives in perfect align- 
ment the entire length of head. 

The requirements of a knife grinder are that it must grind 
true, must be adaptable to all makes and sizes of planers, must 
be easily attached, and must be light enough to be easily car- 
ried from machine to machine. 

In the "Quicsharp" grinder these requirements have been 
combined. This grinder is motor driven, the motor being 
mounted in grinder head, and current is taken from an ordinary 
lamp socket. To the saddle is attached a split nut engaging 
the feed screw which lays along the top of bridge. This saddle 
can be fed the length of the bridge in either direction and at 
any speed desired, the bridge being supported at the ends, or 
any point most convenient, by two angular brackets which are 
bolted to the jointer bed, holding the grinder perfectly rigid. 
The grinding wheel, which is cup-faced, can be raised or lowered 
by a thumb-screw and can be set to grind the required amount 
from knives, automatically feeding itself to a positive stop. 
A tension spring maintains a constant and uniform pressure 
on the grinding wheel, but never too much, thus eliminating 
all danger of overheating and burning the knives. 

The grinder head is pivoted at the center and can be tilted 
to either side of the perpendicular and is held in place against 
a stop which gives the same angle on either side of the perpen- 
dicular. The tilted head gives a concaved grind to the knives. 
A positive stop holds each knife in exactly the same relative 
position to the wheel; therefore, each knife must be ground 
true to the bed. 

One of the illustrations shows the "Quicsharp" grinder 
attached to a Baxter D. Whitney & Son surfacer. When used 
on a surfacer, the angular brackets are reversed, the brackets 

being held in place by fixed pins located in the frame of the 
planer. These pins fit into holes in the foot of the bracket. 
Adjustments having once been made for each machine, it is 
only necessary when using the grinder to place it in position 
on the supporting pins. 

The following attachments can be furnished: Attachment for 
jointing knives while running; machine for setting the knives 
and back grinding; an attachment which grinds knives of 
curved or irregular shape, knives being ground exactly the 

Among the advantages of this grinder are: A pair of knives 
once put on a machine are never taken off until worn out; 
harder knives can be used than is possible with the old method 
of whetting knives with a file and oil stone; the knives are 
always in perfect alignment with the bed and with each other, 
making each knife do its share of the cutting, thus insuring 
smooth and accurate work. 

With cylindrical head planers, the knives are so thin and 
pliable that it is very difficult to grind them on an automatic 

'Quicsharp" Grinder on Joiner. 

March, 1914 



"Quicsharp" Grinder on Surfacer. 

and put them back on the machine in perfect alignment. A 
great deal of time is used up adjusting knives. With the 
"Quicsharp" grinder, these knives are ground to a razor-edge 
right on the machine in five to ten minutes, where it is usual 
for an operator to spend one-half to three-quarters of an hour, 
two or three times a day. With a ' ' Quicsharp ' ' grinder in the 
shop, there is no excuse for idle machines. If a nail or gravel 
stone is run into, usually, instead of having to take off the 
knives and adjust a new pair, a few minutes with the grinder 
will clean up the gap and work started again without any seri- 
ous delay. Machines will take care of from 25 to 40 per cent 
more work than with the file and oil stone method. In the 
shop where the grinder was first used, four buzz planers are 
now doing the work with ease, that required five before its use, 
and with a reduction of one-half in the cost of knives. If one 
man takes char*ge of the grinding of knives, using grinder once 
a day, knives will be in better shape than the most expert 
operator could keep them. 

"Quicsharp" grinders are furnished by Baxter D. Whitney 
& Son on Whitney surfacers and are manufactured by the 
Stockbridge Machine Co., Worcester, Mass. 


The type of drag shown in the illustration is extremely use- 
ful and admirably suited for handling cars in freight sheds or 
repair shops, as a portable electric winch, as a stationary hoist 
for general contracting work and kindred sendee. 

The frame consists of heavy cast steel sides securely con- 
nected by cast and structural steel cross pieces, forming a rigid 
unit. Bottom of frames are flush for skidding and provided 
with bosses for holding down bolts. Lugs are also provided 
for attachment to hauling links for moving the machine to 
different locations. The winding drum is of cast iron, machined 
with grooves to keep the hauling cable in place. The cable is 
of special plow steel rope, %" in diameter, 19 wires to the 
strand, 6 strands and a hemp core. 

The drum pinion is free on the shaft and a jaw clutch is 

provided thereon for coupling same to haft. The drum is, 
therefore, free to rotate when necessary to unwind the rope by 
pulling on it. The clutch may be left in engagement and motor 
controlled at proper speed to unwind rope as the end is carried 

The motor is rated on a basis of 40° C. temperature rise after 
30 minutes run with full load and is designed exclusively for 
crane and hoist service. 

This drag is manufactured by the Shaw Electric Crane Co. 
and handled by Manning, Maxwell & Moore, New York. 


The use of gauges on railway locomotives is practically as 
old as the use of locomotives themselves, and the testing, main- 
tenance and upkeep of the various gauges used on a locomotive 
lias come to be quite a business in itself. The testing depart- 
ment of every railway is frequently taxed beyond its capacity 
for repair work, and when this occurs it is necessary to fall 
back on the original maker for gauge repairs. 

A consideration of the number of different gauges used and 
the number of makers of each variety of gauge has suggested 
to a student of economic maintenance the necessity of a central 
western expert gauge repair establishment, and the Bogardus 
Company of Chicago, Illinois, has taken up this work. Real- 
izing that present conditions prohibit railways from carrying 
excess stocks of the different styles and sizes of pressure 
gauges necessary for their equipment, and that, therefore it is 
imperative that repair work on these gauges should be accom- 
plished in the shortest space of time commensurate with skilled 
and accurate workmanship, and that a central location is de- 
sirable to facilitate delivery to and receipt from the repair 
station. This concern which manufacturers "Tre-foil" gauges 
has established a department to exclusively handle rush repair 
work for railways, which is equipped to handle the large 
volume of business which will naturally follow this departure. 

Establishing itself some five years ago as a gauge "special- 
ist" rather than manufacturer, the Borgardus Company has 
practically confined itself to the construction of "special" or 
"to order" gauges. This necessitates maintaining an efficient 
staff of skilled mechanics and carrying in stock at all times 
the essential working parts of practically every well known 
standard gauge. 

The company is thus equipped for railway gauge repair work, 
regardless of the kind of gauge or the original make, as it has 
constructed high grade gauges made in the electric, steam, 
vacuum, air, hydraulic, ammonia, and other lines. 

It has also done repair work for several of the big railways 

Portable Electric Drag for Use as a Car-Puller. 

Bogardus Standard Gauge ("Tre-foil"). 



March. 1914 

whose satisfaction with the work and confidence in the house 
is shown by steady repetition 01 repair work orders. Such re- 
pair work has comprised furnishing new main springs, new 
movements, new •Hals, new rings, new glasses, etc.. the mend- 
ing of broken parts, and the careful re-assembling and testing 
of the gauges before return. 

A few moments' reflection will prove to any thinking master 
mechanic or superintendent of motive power that, being able 
to centralize the repair of any gauges, is an efficient saving of 
time, trouble. and monev. 


The Lennox serpentine shear, a new type of machine now 
being offered by Joseph T. Ryerson & Son, Chicago, 111., is de- 
signed particularly for the straight and irregular cutting of 
sheets and plates. 

The frame is a steel casting of spiral construction designed 
to provide sufficient clearance for material of unlimited length 
or width. This machine will handle not onlv straight cutting 
but also in or out curves having a minimum radius only slightly 
larger than the diameter of the blades. The spiral steel frame 
carries all gearing and is mounted on a substantial cast-iron 

All gears have teeth cut from solid metal and are provided 
with cast-iron gear guards so the workman is fully protected 
while operating the machine. 

The blades, which are made of high grade tool steel, are set 
in approximately a horizontal plane. This gives a very large 
cutter bearing on the sheet or plate and consequently there is 
very little distortion in the cutting. The upper cutter is posi- 
tively driven, while the lower cutter is mounted in an adjust- 
able sleeve, so that its position may be varied to allow for 
different thickneses of material and for redressing. In addi- 
tion to this, a cam is provided so that the lower blade can be 
dropped enough to permit the removal of sheets without re- 
versing the machine. The cutters have a flush fastening to the 
shaft so that no nut projects to interfere with the handling of 
the work and the knurled edges feed the sheet automatically 
into the machine. A tool-steel pin is provided to take up the 
end thrust on the lower cutter shaft. 

Where a number of sheets are to be cut to the same pattern, 
a template may be bolted to the work and this template fol- 
lowed by guiding against the top cutter. 

The machine is driven by means of a two speed pulley, giving 
slow speed for intricate curve cutting and high speed for 
straight work. The main drive shaft is extended and squared 
on one end so that a hand crank may be used if power is not 

This shear will reduce cutting costs fully one-half by replac- 
ing old style hand and power cutters and thus saving time and 
labor in handling. 

The shear illustrated has a capacity for cutting Xo. 10 gauge 
material and lighter, while other sizes having capacities of 
Xo. 16 gauge, % inch and % inch material, can be furnished. 
All machines are arranged for either belt and hand power or 
direct motor drive. 


The illustration shows a device for the purpose of heating 
water by steam in contact, manufactured by the Warner-Eeiss 
Sales Co.. Frisco Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. It is called the Starwal 

The quickest and most economical manner of heating water 
is by steam in contact, but this method is troublesome under 


Steam-Water Combiner. 

ordinary circumstances, and frequently separate coil or storage 
equipment is requh 

The heater consists of a conical outer shell 5%"x9%", inside 
of which is a perforated cone, both of cast iron. The water 
enters the outer shell through a 1^4" opening and forms a thin 
wall of water around the perforated cone. The steam enters 
the cone through a similar opening and is sprayed into thi* 
water, heating it instantaneously to any desired temperature, 
dependent upon the volume of steam admitted. The discharge 
is through a l 1 ^" opening. This device is said to render such 
additional facilities unnecessary as it combines steam and 
water without difficulty. The applications for the device about 
roundhouses, shops, and terminals should be many. 

Lennox Serpentine Shear. 


The Franklin Mfg. Co.. Franklin. Pa., has developed a very 
efficient insulating material for steel passenger and postal ears. 
This insulatiou is manufactured wholly of pure asbestos. It is 
made in sheets 3 ft. by (5 ft., or smaller, and in thicknesses of 
% in. to % in. 

One of the features of this car lining is that it will not dis- 
integrate or jar off the sides of cars. It is fireproof and an 
excellent non-conductor. In application, ordinary car paint to 
which is added a small amount of iron oxide, is used. 

The material has passed, with credit, many tests of stringent 
nature and it is expected that it will be found satisfactory in 
all steel car lining applications. 

A I arch. 1914 


12 f » 


and for the past six years lie has been with the Curtain Supply 
Company as western representative and western sales manager, 
until his appointment to the present position. 

The fiesta Machine Co., Pittsburgh, Pa., has issued Bulletin 
"M," entitled "Mesta Improved Pickling Machines." Pick- 
ling means the removal of scale and other substances from the 
surface of metals by the chemical action of acid. The ma- 
chines described are adapted for pickling objects of any shape 
and are made in many sizes. 

* * * 

The Terry Steam Turbine Co. has published a description of 
its return flow steam turbine in Bulletin 17. This turbine com- 
bines velocity staging and pressure staging. The steam after 
expanding in the high-pressure element from boiler pressure to 
a pressure slightly above the atmosphere, flows through the 
passage to the opposite end of the turbine; whence in return- 
ing through the low-pressure element towards the high-pres- 
sure end, it is further expanded to condenser vacuum. It is 
this feature that gives the turbine its name. 

The National Tube Co., Pittsburgh, Pa., has compiled a list 
of "National" products and published it in bulletin form for 

quick and ready reference. 

* * » 

Tho Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co. has published an in- 
teresting booklet entitled ' ' The Power of a Name. ' ' It con- 
tains reproductions of full page advertisements which have re- 
cently appeared in The Saturday Evening Post and a number 
of other popular journals. A catalogue section on catenary 
line material has also been sent out by this firm. 

* * * 

The Northern Engineering Works, Detroit, has issued a new 
crane catalog, No. 26, illustrating the electric traveling cranes, 
hand-power traveling cranes, electric and pneumatic hoists, 
which they manufacture. Their overhead track systems, buck- 
et handling cranes and railway cranes are also shown. This is 
a condensed catalog but contains references to various bulle- 
tins which more fully explain th^ numerous designs. 

BBfe>SellBrf >Side 

The Safety First Manufacturing Co. has been organized 
Avitli offices in rhe Railway Exchange building, Chicago. It will 
handle various high-class railway specialties, besides taking over 
the business of the E. D. E. Company, of which the late Frank 
M. Gilmore was president. 

The Akmspear Manufacturing Co., 447 West Fifty-third 
street, New York, will be represented in southern territory after 
March 1 by E. II. Pilson, with offices at 907 Woodward building, 
Washington, D. C . 

Samuel N. Pond and Ira J. Wilson, the former having been 
associated with the firm of Offield Towle, Graves & Offield, and 
the latter having been associated with Linthicum, Belt & Fuller, 
have formed a partnership for the practice of patent and trade- 
mark law. The new firm is known as Pond & Wilson and has 
taken offices in the Monadnock building, Chicago. Both Mr. 
Wilson and Mr. Pond have had long experience in patent law 
and their success is assured. 

The Acme Supply Co., Steger building, Chicago, announces the 
appointment of Stanley W. Midgley as general sales manager. 

Mr. Midgley is the eldest son of J. W. Midgley, who was for 
over twenty years the commissioner of the Western Freight Asso- 
ciation, which comprised the several railroads that extended west- 
wardly from Chicago and St. Louis. He has been in the railway 
supply business for the last twelve years, beginning with the 
National Car Coupler Company as general sales representative, 

Stanley W. Midgley. 

D. R. Niederlander has been elected president and treasurer 
of the Adreon Manufacturing Co., of St. Louis, Mo., succeeding 
the late E. L. Adreon, Jr. Mr. Niederlander has been in the rail- 
way supply business for the past twelve years, having organized 
the Inland Equipment Co. in 1901. This company was con- 
solidated in 190.'i with the railway supply interests of E. L. 

D. R. Niederlander. 

Adreon, Jr., in the formation of Adreon & Co., afterwards the 
Adreon Manufacturing Co. The latter firm controls valuable pat- 
ents on railway supply devices in both the mechanical and en- 
gineering departments of railways, and also represents in the 
Southwest prominent manufacturers of railway materials. 

After long litigation the American Roll Gold Leaf Co., 
Providence, B. I., has been awarded a decision against the 
W. H. Coe Mfg. Co., in its appeal of an infringement decision 
previously rendered and favoring the latter concern. The suit 
was brought by the W. H. Coe Mfg. Co., claiming infringement. 
The defense of the American Boll Gold Leaf Co. was non-in- 



March, 1914 

Geo. P. Nichols & Bro., Chicago, have recently received an or- 
der for nine electric turntable tractors from the Cleveland, Cin- 
cinnati, Chicago & St. Louis. This is said to be the largest single 
order for turntable tractors yet placed. The management of the 
road, having ascertained the saving affected by the Nichols tractor. 
made an investigation to determine at what points tractors could 
be used and placed this order to supply all these points. 

William D. Maixwarixg, who has been connected with the 
Detroit plant of the Eailway Steel Spring Co., has opened a con- 
sulting business as production engineer, with offices at 866 Rock- 
efeller building, Cleveland, Ohio. 

H. F. Wardwell has been appointed Chicago representative 
of the Monarch Steel Castings Co., of Detroit, with office at 359 
Railway Exchange. 

John L. Randolph has been appointed eastern sales manager 
of the Economy Devices Corporation, 30 Church street, New York. 

The W. J. Baker Nut & Bolt Lock Washer, Co., Newport, 
Ky., has succeeded the Universal Nut & Bolt Lock Co. 

F. W. Davis, Jr., vice-president of the Detroit Graphite Com- 
pany, Detroit, Mich., has been elected president of that com- 
pany, succeeding the late A. A. Boutell, with office at New York. 

T. R. Wyles, second vice-president, has been elected vice-presi- 
dent of the Detroit Graphite Co., succeeding Mr. Davis. 

Frank Gregg, for many years with Adams & Westlake, has 
made a connection with the Rostand Mfg. Co., of Milford, Conn., 
and is opening an office at Richmond, Va., from which point he 
will cover the Southern territory in the interests of that com- 

The Edgar Steel Seal & Mfg. Co. has received a contract from 
the Great Northern for its car seal supply for the next five years. 

The Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co. has moved its New 
Haven, Conn., office from the Woods building to the Chamber of 
Commerce building at 185 Church street. 

The Interstate Car Co., Chicago, has been incorporated with 
a capital of $100,000; to manufacture, build, and deal in railway 
supplies, equipment, etc. The incorporators are: C. E. Fitch, 
Chester S. Holzman, Conrad M. Bentley, Joseph Holzman and 
David L. Bleloch. 

The Northern Insulating Co., St. Paul, Minn., has received 
orders for Flaxlinum insulation for 150 Illinois Central refrigera- 
tor cars and 50 dining cars for the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe. 

H. E. Gifford, general sales manager of the National Electric 
Specialty Company, has recently been appointed sales agent for 
the Handy die stock and the Becker receding pipe threader. 

W. F. Bauer has severed his connection with the United States 
Light & Heating Co. to accept the position of assistant manager 
of the railway department of the Edison Storage Battery Co., 
Orange, N. J. From 1903 to 1905 Mr. Bauer was chief elec- 
trician of the Missouri Pacific at St. Louis. Later he became 
sales engineer for the Electric Storage Battery Co., Chicago, and 
in 1907 he took a similar position with the National Battery Co. 
Soon after he became manager of the United States Light & 
Heating Co. 's railway department in Chicago. Mr. Bauer will 
continue to make his headquarters in Chicago. 

O. P. Wilson has resigned his position in the purchasing de- 
partment of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. to 
accept the position of assistant general manager of the Norma 
Company of America, 20-24 Vesey street, New York City, manu- 
facturers and importers of ball bearings, roller bearings, pre- 
cision instruments, etc. 

Charles A. Carscadin has been elected president of the Na- 
tional Car Equipment Co., with offices in the Railway Exchange 
building, Chicago. George A. Woodman, formerly of the Kirby 
Equipment Co., is general manager of the company. 

C. W. Owston has been appointed to the railway appliance 
sales department of McCord Mfg. Co., Detroit, Mich. 

Scott R. Hayes has been appointed assistant to the president 
of the New York Air Brake Co. Mr. Hayes has been with the 
Railway Steel-Spring Co., New York, since its organization, and 
resigns to go to the New York Air Brake Co. 

The Union Draft Gear Co. has made the following changes 
in its staff: W. G. Krauser, formerly mechanical engineer, has 
been promoted to assistant to vice-president. James E. Tarelton, 
formerly assistant mechanical engineer, has been promoted to 
assistant to vice-president. K. Barnard, formerly chief drafts- 
man, has been made mechanical engineer. 

Edward W. Hodgkins, formerly with Guilford 8. Woods, Chi- 
cago, has gone into business for himself. 

Charles I. Webb has been elected vice-president of the Inter- 
national Seal & Lock Co., of Chicago. 

The Chicago offices of the Okadee Company have been moved 
to the Lytton building, Jackson boulevard and State street. 

The Independent Pneumatic Tool Co. of Chicago has an- 
nounced the following appointments of district managers, effect- 
ive March 1: R. T. Scott, manager of the Pittsburgh district, 
with office at 1208 Farmers' Bank building, Pittsburgh, Pa.; 
F. H. Charbono, manager of the Southern district, with office at 
1629 Chandler building, Atlanta, Ga. 

The Duff Manufacturing Co., Pittsburgh, Pa., has opened an 
office in the Peoples Gas Building, Chicago. This company has 
recently appointed G. W. Parsons, district sales agent, with offices 
in the Pioneer Building at St. Paul, Minn. The company also 
announces that by mutual agreement the Fairbanks Morse Com- 
pany has discontinued acting as exclusive steam railway agents 
for the Duff jacks. 

A. C. Adams, who recently r esigned as superintendent of 
motive power of the Spokane, Portland & Seattle, has been 
made the Pacific coast general agent of the General Brake 
Shoe & Supply Company, Chicago. He will have headquarters 
at 907 Wilcox building, Portland, Ore. 

The Chicago Car Heating Company has recently opened a 
branch office and factory at 61 Dalhousie street, Montreal, to 
take care of its business in Canada. A. D. Bruce, of Guelph, 
Ontario, formerly the purchasing agent of the company at Chi- 
cago, has been placed in charge. 

Joun F. Schurch has been elected vice-president of the Damas- 
cus Break Beam Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 

The Whiting Foundry Equipment Company, Harvey, 111., has 
arranged with S. R. Vanderbeck, 217 ,Walnut street, Philadel- 
phia, Pa., to handle the company 's complete line in Philadel- 
phia territory. 

Karl A. Heine has joined the sales department of the Chicago 
Car Heating Company, Chicago, and will be connected with the 
New York office at the Grand Central Terminal. 

J. T. Wilson, president of the American Balance Valve Co., 
Jersey Shore, Pa., has left for a three months' trip to the 
Pacific Coast. 


William H. Boardman, for many years president of the Bail- 
ivay Age Gazette, died on February 16 at his home at Ridgefield, 
Conn. He was 68 years of age. 

Edwin M. Hall, treasurer of the Jefferson Union Co. Lexing- 
ton, Mass., died on Wednesday, February 11. 


AGENCi" Wanted: Firm having warehouse and shipping facil- 
ities would like to handle the St. Louis agency for a good live 
line, preferably paints or varnishes, or a good specialty, and 
calling on the railroad trade in particular. Address A. S. L., 
care The Railway List Co., 431 So. Dearborn St., Chicago. 

Position Wanted: Salesman with 12 years' experience in 
selling supplies and equipment desires to represent an established 
concern dealing in either mechanical or engineering supplies or 
both. Can furnish the very best of references as to abibty, in- 
tegrity and record of sales. Address H. A. C, care The Railway 
List Co., 431 So. Dearborn St., Chicago. 

April, 1914 




The World's Greatest Railway Mechanical Journal 
Published at the World's Greatest Railway Center 

Established 1878 

WILLIAM E. MAGRAW. Pres. and Treas. 
CHAS. S. MYERS, Vice-Pres. L. F. WILSON, V. P. & Editorial Director 


J. M. CROWE, Mgr. Central Dist. KENNETH L. VAN AUKEN, Editor 


Office of Publication : Manhattan Building, Chicago 

Telephone, Harrison 4948 
Eastern Office: SO Church Street, New York 

Telephone, Cortlandt 5765 

Central Office: House BIdg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Address all editorial and business communications to the Com- 
pany, at Chicago. 

A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, car equipment, 
shops, machinery and supplies. 

Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are solicited. 

Subscription price, $2.00 a year; to foreign countries, $2.50, free of 

postage. Single copies, 20 cents. Advertising rates given on 

applicaUon to the office, by mail or in person. 

In remitting, make all checks payable to The Railway List Company. 

Papers should reach subscribers by the 16th of the month at the 
latest. Kindly notify us at once of any delay or failure to 
receive any issue and another copy will be very gladly sent. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter June 18, 1895, at the Post Office 
at Chicago, Illinois, Under Act of March 3, 1879. 

Vol. XXXVIII Chicago, April, 1914 

No. 4 

Editorial — 

George Westinghouse 

Encourage the General Foreman 

Individual Motor Drive for Machine Tools 

Making Mechanics 


England Losing Big Railway Contracts 

The M. C. B. Billing Department 

Making Mechanics on the Santa Fe 

Jones Waste Cleaner 

A Brick Arch in Locomotive Practice 

A Mix-up 

Railroad Phonetic Spelling 

High Speed Passenger Locomotives 

Gauging Lift of Air Pump Valve 

Air Line Junction Improvements 

George Westinghouse 

Niagara Frontier Car Men's Association 

Past and Present Railroading 

Heat-Treated Chrome-Vanadium Steel Tires 

Car Coupler Tests, University of Illinois 

Special Machine for Steel Car Building 

Water Cooling Device for Trailing Trucks 

Superheater Flue Welding Machine 

Stresses in the Plates of Cast Iron Wheels 

Mechanical Conventions for 1914 

Gauge for Driving-Wheel Tires 

Hydrostatic Test Pump 

List of Exhibitors, M. C. B. and M. M. Convention. 


Among the Manufacturers 

Journal-Box Packing Guard 

Hancock Coal Sprinkler 

Car Seal 

New Literature 

The Selling Side 

Reopening of the Southern Hotel 

Railway Supply Exhibit in New Quarters 


George Westinghouse 

Of all the honorary titles conferred upon the late George 
Westinghouse, none was more full of meaning than that of 
"Engineer.' - America has many distinguished engineers, but 
as a constructor and inventor Mr. Westinghouse stood alone. 
He has left companies bearing his name which are capitalized at 
$200,000,000 and give employment to 50,000 people, but all this 
is only a fraction of his contribution to civilization, which it 
seems has touched nearly every branch of engineering activity. 
In the sketch of his life and activities, published elsewhere, one 
cannot help being amazed at what he was able to accomplish 
in sixty-eight short years. Possibly one of the secrets of his 
work was that his mind was unceasingly active; that he was 
always interested in all which came under his observation. 
A collision between two freight trains suggested to him the 
need of having the brakes under control of the engine driver. 
An article in a magazine told him of the use of com- 
pressed air and the result was that his active mind finally 
evolved the air brake. When one problem had been solved 
he immediately sought other problems to solve and his mind 
continued active until his death. What most men have given 
to posterity seems very small compared to what George West- 
inghouse has given. 

Encourage the General Foreman 

The General Foremen's Association, through its secretary, 
William Hall, Winona, Minn., has sent a number of letters to 
superintendents of motive power, urging that they encourage 
their general foremen to attend the annual convention to be held 
at Chicago, July 14 to 17. Among other things these letters 
state that "if the time spent at the convention would not be 
deducted from their annual vacation our membership would 
have been increased fifty per cent. A large number of general 
foremen would like to become members but they do not feel 
that in addition to defraying their own expenses the time 
should be deducted from their vacations." 

As we have said in these columns previously the General 
Foremen's Association has a wide field and a thorough discus- 
sion of shop problems by such an organization gives the mem- 
bers valuable information which they themselves can put di- 
rectly into practice when they get home. The general foreman 
is in the shop, on the job, and he can do much towards lowering 
the cost of production. It is of course not always possible to allow 
the foremen time, but those at the head of mechanical depart- 
ments should give these men all the encouragement they can to 
attend these conventions. 

Individual Motor Drive for Machine Tools 

For years the manufacturers of heavy machine tools, such as 
are used in the machine bays of railway erecting shops, have 
been advocating the use of individual motor drive. Greater 
efficiency for their machines is the object in view and this is 
obtained by the fact that the machine tool may be operated 
to a maximum capacity while at the same time its movements 
are directed with greater facility. 

The master mechanic or shop superintendent is not, how- 
ever, so much interested in the efficiency of any individual 
unit as he is in the efficiency of the department or the repair 



April, 1914 

shop as a whole. From the entirely mechanical, line shaft 
and belt, drive of a few years ago we have passed through the 
stage of partial electrical or large group drive to a period of 
almost universal electrical drive. This, however, is true only 
of the newly laid out shops. Shops which have been in service 
for years are not arranged, so far as their machine tools are 
concerned, in such a way as to make complete individual elec- 
trical drive feasible. Machine tools as built years ago are 
not always easily adapted to individual motor drive, especially 
when located in crowded quarters. It is always possible, how- 
ever, to arrange groups to be driven from motors in such a 
way as to have in each group only machines which are prac- 
tically all to operate simultaneously. It is nearly as inefficient 
to operate only one machine in a large group as it is a few 
scattered machines throughout a shop which is entirely me- 
chanically driven. 

The losses and inefficiencies of the mechanically driven shop 
and to a lesser extent of the shop in which the machinery is 
divided into large groups, are particularly flagrant under con- 
ditions of retrenchment and light work, or under conditions 
which drive the shop to over-capacity. The intermediate con- 
dition, that is, the period during which the shop is working 
evenly and regularly to full capacity, does not show up me- 
chanical and large group drives in their poorest light. This 
is due to the fact that in times of retrenchment only a part of 
the shop forces are engaged and for only short hours. At such 
times many of the machines, and sometimes the majority of 
the machines, are standing idle and, of course, the proportionate 
friction losses of line shaft bearings amount to a high figure, 
whereas the machines which are in operation can be operated 
by individual motors at practically the same power expense per 
machine as when the shop is running to capacity. 

Under the conditions which allow of the even full capacity 
operation of all machinery, line shaft bearing friction losses 
are divided proportionately among all machines, and it is at 
this time that the mechanical drive, as mentioned above, is 
least inefficient. In the period of a rush of repair work we 
have conditions at certain times of the day closely approaching 
those resulting from short time work. This is due to the fact 
that over-production of one department and under-production 
of another will result in the necessity of a great deal of over- 
time, which in turn calls for the operation nights and Sundays 
of a few machines scattered through the shop, and again indi- 
vidual motor drive prevents heavy power loss. 

It would seem, therefore, that there is no argument against 
the lay-out of a new shop for individual drive throughout except 
where machinery is so light that the cost of individual motors 
would be very excessive, and it would seem also that during the 
present period of dullness in repair shop work that the neces- 
sity for rearrangement of machinery in old shops to reduce 
to a minimum the amount of line shafting would be an object 
towards which mechanical officers should work. 

It is seldom impossible to equip the heavier machines with 
their own motors, even in the most crowded bay, and a study 
of almost any inefficiently mechanically driven shop is sure to 
show chance for improvement in this direction. Groups can 
be split up in such a way that only machines which are to 
operate simultaneously are driven by a single motor, and the 
expense of installing such motors, together with the rearrange- 

ment work, would not be found excessive when compared with 
the power losses and inconvenience of old methods, except 
where the power plant itself is not equipped with the neces- 
sary generating machinery, and such cases are few and far 
between, indeed in most cases this individualization will reduce 
rather than increase the current which the engine room is 
called upon to deliver. 

Making Mechanics 

Is there a scarcity of good mechanics in this country? Are 
we giving enough attention to the training of men to fill posi- 
tions in our shops? These are some of the questions which 
have been raised of late years by those interested in shop 
operation. Many are of the opinion that there. is a scarcity of 
good mechanics and if this is so, then the opportunity for men 
to become proficient in shop work must be lacking on many 
roads. Turning men into mechanics is a matter of production; 
if there is plenty of raw material entering your shop and but 
little of the finished product being turned out, something is 
wrong with the manufacturing end of your factory. If good 
mechanics are not plentiful, something is wrong with the efforts 
made to produce them. 

Good mechanics are well paid, their work is steady and the 
chance for advancement is as good as in other trades. The 
average boy, and the average man for that matter, will take 
the path of least resistance, however, and if no inducement is 
held out to him, he will enter that line of activity which 
appears at least to offer him some advantages. 

Many railroads have made no efforts to handle apprentices in 
their shops and others have paid but scant attention to the 
apprentices after once starting them in. It is time for these 
roads to wake up. There are some excellent apprentice systems 
on various railways of this country and it is a significant fact 
that the roads maintaining such systems are noted for the 
strength of their organizations. 

It is our purpose to run a number of articles on apprentice- 
ship systems and we present in this issue an article by F. W. 
Thomas, supervisor of apprentices on the Santa Fe system, 
which outlines the work being done on that road. That the 
system in use on these lines is a comprehensive one is indicated 
by the fact that there are at present twenty shop instructors, 
nine school instructors and seven joint shop and school in- 
structors devoting their efforts to the training of eight hundred 
apprentice boys. The complaint is sometimes made regarding 
apprentice systems that the boys do not stay with the road 
after completing the course and that some other line gets the 
benefit of their training. Wherever this is the case, we firmly 
believe that something is wrong with the system. One of the 
striking statements of Mr. Thomas' article is that after having 
had the present system of training apprentices in operation for 
over six years, 70 per cent of all the graduates are still in 
service. The reason for this is that the apprentices are made 
to feel that they are entering an institution; that the road is 
offering to them a definite training which will fit them for a 
definite field. They know that the officials of the road are 
watching them and are interested in them. The fact that some 
of the boys are dropped during the first six months also helps 
to make the boys feel that the course is something worth while. 
The management has shown its wisdom in encouraging the 

April, 1914 



formation of baseball clubs, bands and other organizations, for 
bringing the boys together as "Santa Fe boys" when work is 
for the time being forgotten. This is of inestimable value in 
promoting loyalty and making the boys contended. When the 
boys have worked together and played together for four years, 
it is not surprising that a big majority of them stick to the 
Santa Fe. It is work of this sort which builds up a competent 
and loyal organization. 

There are schools which boys can attend and learn to be 
bookkeepers, lawyers, stenographers, doctors and what-not, but 
a boy cannot go to a school and learn to be a competent me- 
chanic, a foreman or shop superintendent, before ever going 
into a shop. Therefore the boys who wish to become competent 
shop men in most eases have had to enter a shop and dig out 
the knowledge necessary to an intelligent understanding of 
their work, as best they could. It is not to be wondered at 
that they often took what appeared to be an easier and more 
profitable field. 

The railways, as the second largest industry in the country, 
must make their own mechanics; must offer opportunity to 
those who wish to enter their shops, if they want their shops 
filled with the best mechanics in the future. A good apprentice 
system is a sound foundation for the mechanical department 
of any road. 


Editor Bailway Master Mechanic — 

In the January issue you illustrated on page 15 a pop-valve 
that caused an explosion. Will you kindly describe just how 
this was arrived at? What bent the adjusting screw in that 
manner? Also kindly explain what the other two pop-valves 
were doing to allow the explosion to occur. The paper is cer- 
tainly a very interesting one and would be still more so if full 
particulars of this pop-valve incident were described. 

M. I. K. 

[A copy of the above communication was forwarded to the 
author of the paper and his reply follows. — Editor.] 
Editor Bailway Master Mechanic — 

In reply to the above will say that the other two pop-valves 
were in exactly the same condition as the one shown. Atten- 
tion was directed at the meeting to the condition of the adjust- 
ing screw, which had the corners twisted off and marks of a 
Stillson wrench on it, showing very plainly evidence of abuse. 
Views of two of these safety valves were shown at the meeting, 
but as they were almost identical it was probably thought 
unnecessary to publish both. 


Chief Inspector Division of Locomotive Boiler Inspection, 
Interstate Commerce Commission. 

THE SAFETY COMMITTEES of the Grand Trunk are doing 
most effective work in the prevention of personal injuries, as is 
clearly shown by a statement just issued by George Bradshaw, 
safety engineer of that system. From September, 1913, to 
February, 1914, inclusive, there was a decrease of 46 per cent 
in the number of employes killed and a decrease of 16 per cent 
in the number injured, including all classes of injury, serious 
or trivial, as compared with the corresponding months of 1912 
and 1913. The safety movement was put into effect on the 
Grand Trunk in August, 1913. 

The Northwestern Pacific will build a roundhouse and shops 
at San Rafael, Cal. The road has been granted permission to 
float a $5,000,000 bond issue. 


The order for ten locomotives just placed in Germany by the 
South-Eastern and Chatham Bailway of England raises some 
very important issues. Great damage is declared to have been 
inflicted recently on the British engineering industry as the 
result of orders for locomotives, rolling stock, and general 
equipment for Colonial railways and English-owned lines in 
South America being given to Continental and American 
manufacturers. Quite recently there has also been a tendency 
for British railways to order their equipment abroad. In re- 
gard to electrical plants, this is understandable enough, since 
there does not exist in the United Kingdom, a single electrical 
works which could handle the whole of a large electrification 
contract without recourse to a foreign factory, but it is not 
confined to electrical plant. Locomotive orders have also been 
sent out of the country. 

It will be of interest to give some actual particulars of eon- 
tracts recently awarded to foreign engineering concerns. The 
following table, which is by no means complete, refers only to 
orders for locomotives placed within the past eighteen months: 

No. of Country to which 
Name of Railway. Locomotives. order went. 

Buenos Aires Pacific 20 Germany 

Buenos Aires Great Southern 10 Germany 

Antofagasta (Chile & Bolivia) 10 Germany 

Egyptian State 5 Germany 

Egyptian State 5 Belgium 

Egyptian State 5 Germany 

South Indian 16 Germany 

Cordoba Central 5 Germany 

Nigerian Government 8 United States 

Assam-Bengal (Gov. Railway) 10 Germany 

South Indian 4 Switzerland 

South African (Government) 10 Germany 

Antofagasta 8 Germany 

South Indian 3 Germany 

Cordoba Central 28 Germany 

South-Eastern & Chatham 10 Germany 

The above orders represent a total of 157 locomotives. The 
mean value of each locomotive may be placed at between 
$17,500 and $20,000 (the locomotives ordered for the South 
African Government Railways cost considerably more), but it 
will probably be understating the figure to assess the average 
value at $18,750 apiece. This gives a total cost of $2,943,750, 
and if that be placed approximately at $3,000,000, it can be re- 
garded as a conservative estimate. This is not only a big loss 
to shareholders of British engineering firms, but a very great 
loss to British labor. The locomotive is pre-eminently one of 
those manufactured articles, in making which the cost of labor 
is a far more important item than that of material. Labor 
may, in fact, be responsible for as much as 75 per cent of the 
cost of turning out the finished product. But if we take it as 
66% per cent to be on the safe side — and this is the lowest 
possible estimate — it will be seen that the above orders alone 
represent a loss of $2,000,000 on wages to the British working 
man. And it is important to note that it is to a large extent 
the very highest class of skilled labor that is affected. 

In fairness it should be pointed out that when a contract 
of the kind is given to a foreign maker there is sometimes a 
stipulation to the effect that certain materials shall be of 
British origin. For instances, there may be a proviso for the 
use of Yorkshire iron. But at best this represents no more 
than about 25 per cent of the raw material used, or about a 
twelfth of the cost of the finished product. And the stipulation 
is not made in every contract. N 

The assistant general manager of the South-Eastern and 
Chatham Railway, G. B. Hayne, has stated the considerations 
which led them, for the first time since their establishment, to 
go abroad for rolling stock. To meet immediate requirements 
15 four-wheeled coupled bogie locomotives had been obtained 



April, 1914 

on loan from the Great Northern Railway, and the object in 
acquiring the additional engines being to meet the summer 
business, and especially that of the Continental and boat ex- 
press traffic. The decision of the directors was not due to a 
question of price, but entirely to one of delivery. The British 
locomotive and rolling stock firms were so full up at present 
that they could not undertake to let the company have the 
engines for many months so they had to look about outside to 
see whether they could secure them within a reasonable time. 
The German company had undertaken to build and supply the 
engines by the time they were wanted, and the railway com- 
pany would not have gone outside the country at all if this 
need could have been met at home. No British firm would 
undertake to deliver them by the end of May as required. And 
it was not either a question of the German firm being able to 
build them better; quickness was the sole deciding considera- 
tion. British firms were so full up with work that they could 
not take any more. The engines would be of the same type as 
if they had been built in England. 

By Herbert Corkran, Billing Instructor, Atlantic Coast Line. 
The M. C. B. billing department of most of the large rail- 
roads is not given the proper attention it should have by the 
head of the car department. 

The car department is usually well organized with the ex- 
ception of the billing department, which is often supplied with 
clerks from various other departments. 

The essential way to organize the M. C. B. billing depart- 
ment, in order to obtain the best results and save the company 
thousands of dollars each year, is as follows: 

An assistant to the head of the department, who is a prac- 
tical car man and is thoroughly conversant with the M. C. B. 
code of rules, with interchange work, piece work, and who 
knows how to deal with organized labor. 

A billing instructor, who will instruct the car clerks how to 
write the repair cards and check to see that repair cards are 
made for all work done to foreign cars. 

A chief bill clerk to handle the work in the office and with as 
many assistants as necessary. By using the billing machines 
with the adding attachments, on large roads where the work 
is heavy, a saving can be made of two clerks. All the clerks in 
the billing department should be practical car men with the 
exception of the billing machine operators. 

The assistant to the head of the department with the assist- 
ance of the billing instructor should train men at the car shops 
so they could be promoted to the office in case of vacancies, thus 
keeping a practical man on the job and promoting from the 

By having the billing department organized as above you can 
catch and stop the many leaks that would be overlooked by 
impractical men and put into the company's treasury thou- 
sands of dollars each year. 

I have made a personal study of the M. C- B. billing depart- 
ment and to bear out my argument that it should be well organ- 
ized with practical men, I will cite a few cases of comparison 
that I have made recently. 

Two repair cards called for the same work, namely, one draft 
timber 4 ft. 8 inches long and eight I%"x20" draft bolts at 
"A" end. On one card simply showing this information and 
charge versus owners for material and seven hours labor, the 
billing clerk arrived at the labor from M. C. B. rule 107, which 
allows seven hours for one short draft timber and bolts to apply 
same. The other card read as follows: one draft timber 4 ft. 
8 inches long and eight l%"x20" draft bolts at "A" end; four 
draft bolts in old timber and owner's charge for material and 
nine hours labor, seven hours for one draft timber and bolts to 
apply same and two hours for the four draft bolts in the old 
draft timber. The difference in the two cards was two hours 
at 28c an hour, which equals 56c. 

Two cards were made out as follows: one release valve rod 

applied account missing, the card price being 10c; the other 
card read, one release valve rod applied account missing and 
one cotter key, card price 16c, making a difference in the two 
cards of 6c. M. C. B. rule 59 makes a missing release valve 
rod an owner's defect. On the first card the maker failed to 
show the cotter key and the billing clerk priced same referring 
to M. C. B. rule 101, which allows 10c for a missing release 
valve rod, and priced the card accordingly. On the second 
card the maker did not omit the cotter key, as no doubt he had 
been instructed that every time a cotter key was applied to a 
foreign car and he failed to show same on the repair card, his 
company lost 3c. The man pricing same, being a practical man 
and knowing there should be a labor charge for this operation, 
referred to M. C. B. rule 111, which allows 3c for applying a 
release valve rod. 

Two cards reading as follows: one new knuckle pin at "B" 
end and card price 20c; the other card reading, one new knuckle 
pin and cotter key at "B" end and priced 23c, a difference of 
3c in the two cards. 

Two cards reading as follows: one brake shaft applied at 
"A" end account of broken and charge versus car owner for 
labor and material; the other card reading one brake shaft and 
cotter key applied at "A" end account broken and charge 
versus owner for labor and material, plus 3c for cotter key, 
a difference of 3c in the two cards. 

Referring to the last two cards, it is a U. S. Safety Appliance 
requirement that cotter keys be applied to knuckle pins and 
brake shafts. Undoubtedly they were applied in the above 
mentioned cases and the man writing the repair cards failed to 
show the cotter keys and the billing clerk also failed to detect 
these errors. 

I have compared a good many cards showing siding and 
sheathing applied, and will say that 25 per cent of the cards 
failed to show any paint and nails used in making the repairs-. 
Had the cards shown these items, they could have been billed 
versus car owners, as follows: paint 6c per lb. and nails 3c 
per lb. 

I have also noted in these comparisons that a good many 
cards show running boards repaired or refastened with nails. 
The first paragraph in rule 52 reads as follows: "running 
boards in bad order or insecurely fastened; bolts, rivets or 
screws to be used on parts repaired." 

Therefore, when a road makes repairs to a running board 
and uses nails, it simply uses its own material, paying the 
repair men for the work, and cannot be reimbursed by the car 
owner for same because the repairs are not M. C. B. standard. 
In the above cases there is a lot of room for the assistant 
to the head of the car department and the billing instructor 
to do some missionary work instructing the men on the repair 
track how to make repairs in accordance with the M. C. B.. 
rules; also in instructing the car clerks how to write the repair 
cards, in order that their company will be reimbursed for all 
labor and material expended according to the prices set forth 
in the M. C. B. code of rules. 

The above are a few examples of the many cases which are 
termed' a leakage and can be stopped by giving the proper 
attention to the M. C. B. billing department, and having it well 

THE CHICAGO GREAT WESTERN traffic department has 
issued a circular on answering telephone calls, stating that it is 
desirable to have a uniform method of answering calls and 
asking that they be replied to as follows: "Great Western, 
Smith talking," with an upward inflection at the end. The 
circulai' states, and undoubtedly it is a fact, that it will not 
only tend to increase efficiency but will increase the reputation 
of the company for courtesy. 

John R. Thompson has resigned as master mechanic of the Chi- 
cago Great Western, to take the position of senior mechanical 
engineer of the central district, Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion valuation board. His headquarters are at Chicago. 

April, 1914 


Making Mechanics on the Santa Fe 

By F. W. Thomas, Supervisor of Apprentices, Santa Fe Railway System, Topeka, Kansas. 


The writer has read the article in the January issue of the 
Bail-way Master Meclmnic under the caption of Apprentice 
Efficiency, by John Hewitt. While agreeing with him that 
there has been a growing scarcity of good mechanics in the 
country, we do not agree with him that there does not seem 
to be any more system in training apprentices than when he 
was a boy. He evidently does not read the railway publications 
regularly or else he would have been familiar with the present 
advanced system of training and educating apprentices in 
vogue on the New York Central Lines, the Erie, Pennsylvania, 
Canadian Pacific, Southern Pacific, Santa Fe, and other roads. 
Each of the above mentioned roads has a regular system for 
educating and training boys who enter their shops as appren- 
tices, and the Santa Fe, we think, has the most complete sys- 
tem in the country. 

tables, chairs, cabinets, models, drawing instruments, etc., all 
being provided free by the company for the use of the appren- 
tices. The man in charge of this room is known as the 
apprentice school instructor. He must be a man both theo- 
retically and practically educated. In fact, practically all the 
school instructors are men who have been graduated from 
some technical college or university and who served an ap- 
prenticeship on this road and are, therefore, familiar with the 
theoretical and practical operation of each device or part of 
locomotive, car, or shop tool. 

The subjects taught in the school room are mechanical and 
free-hand drawing, sketching, shop arithmetic, the simpler ele- 
ments of mechanics and business letter writing. A little trea- 
tise on the trade they are learning and the material used 
in such trade is also provided for their information. No reg- 

One of the New Schoolrooms for Apprentices on the Santa Fe. 

At the present time there are ' nine school instructors 
twenty shop instructors, and seven joint shop and school in- 
structors engaged in educating and training the 800 apprentice 
boys on the Santa Fe, and for the benefit of ^Ir. Hewitt and 
other readers of the Railway Master Median ie I am glad of 
the opportunity of describing our apprentice system. 

The Santa Fe apprentice system is composed of two co- 
ordinate branches, one known as school instruction, and the 
other as shop instruction. The men engaged at the smaller 
points having from twelve to fifteen apprentices, and who 
have charge of both school and shop work, are known as joint 
instructors. At the still smaller points, having from five to 
eight apprentices, we have a traveling instructor who visits 
two or more places each week, spending two days at each 


At each mechanical point on the system we have a room 
in the midst of the shop buildings, but sufficiently removed 
to be free of objectionable noises of the shop, this room being 
known as the apprentice school room. As its name suggests 
it is equipped with the necessary furniture, such ,as desks, 

ular text books are used, but lesson sheets (see illustrations) 
with practical problems, such as they daily come in contact 
with in their trade, are given them. Each lesson contains 
some part of the shop tools, locomotive or car, the object being 
to keep the boy's mind fixed on the trade he is indentured to 
learn and not allow his mind to wander in foreign fields. As 
stated, these lesson sheets are simple and practical and are 
kept up to date, for having a printer and press of our own 
we are at liberty to change these lesson sheets at any time 
we see fit. 

The apprentices are required to attend the apprentice school 
two hours a day for two days a week during daylight or work- 
ing hours. It is needless to say that it does not require very 
much "making," as our apprentices are always more than 
anxious for the hours to arrive at which they can go into the 
school room. Each apprentice has his own drawing board, a 
full set of first-class drawing instruments, scales, triangles, 
etc., and a regular place is provided in lockers for these, all 
of which is furnished free by the company and the boy is 
paid while attending school. The school hours are generally 
from 7:00 a. m. to 9:00 a. m., when the boy is fresh from 



April, 1914 

his night's rest. Bettor results are obtained at this time than 
any other part of the day. 

While night school may have been profitable years ago it 
was before this nervous, distracting age. A boy working in 
a modern railroad shop for ten hours is practically unfit for 
night work or study. There is so much to attract him these 
days that we believe that the evening hours should be left 
to him for his own amusement and recreation. While the 
brightest and most energetic and ambitious boy would prob- 
ably make the best of a night school, we do not always have 
these boys. It is the average boy with whom we must deal, 
and we must make our requirements suit his condition. Six 
years of day schooling with two or three yeajs of night work 
in our apprentice work has proven the truthfulness of the above 


In the shops where the real practical work must be learned 
we have found that in any of our modern shops where the 
officers of the shop are vitally concerned in the output of the 
shop, the foreman and gang foreman have very little, if any, 
time to devote to the apprentices and so for every twenty- 
five boys or less, and for each department, we have employed 
a man known as the shop instructor, whose sole duties are to 
teach and instruct the apprentice while learning his trade. He 
is not responsible for the output of the shop or the output 
of any machine, but he is there solely for the purpose of see- 
ing that the apprentice learns quickly and is taught the most 
improved and modern method for each operation. He takes 
the boy in hand, starts him out on some small simple machine, 
first showing him the different parts of the machine, how it is 
controlled or operated, how to avoid certain things in order 
that his fingers, arms, or body may never be endangered, also 
to be on the lookout at all times for the safety of his fellow 
workmen. He is moved from machine to machine, from one 

class of work to another class of work (machine to the floor, 
floor to bench, etc.), just as soon as he masters each step. 
There is no set program for moving or changing the boys 
around. Where some boy can master a lathe in 60 days, 
another can get away with it in 30 days. It may require him 
90 days to master the milling machine, while another will 
require six months. It is left entirely with the shop instruc- 
tor to say when the boy shall be transferred from one class 
of work to another, but the shop instructor is held solely 
responsible for the thorough instruction of the boy and he 
must be given every class of work in his particular shop during 
the four years apprenticeship. 

Each boy is provided with a first-class set of tools used 
in his particular trade. These tools are purchased at whole- 
sale price and sold to the apprentice on small monthly pay- 
ments, each apprentice thereby being provided with a uniform 
set of tools of first-class quality, and these are replaced free 


*f ,f vt if 


W 1 ■*> 

Apprentices and Instructors at a Mountain Division Shop. 

Santa Fe System 
Apprentice Schools 

Problems, Page 3. 

39. (a) Add three hundred six million, four hundred thirty-four 
thousand, sixty-three thousand, and five million five thousand five, 
(b) From three million three thousand three, subtract one million 
six hundred seventy-eight thousand nine. 

40. If it takes 54 screws to weigh one pound, how many cases each 
requiring 27 screws can be furnished from a stock of screws weighing 
38 pounds? 

41. Into how many lots of 36 lbs. each, can 3024 lbs. of screws 
be divided? 

42. A job has required the following labor: 4 men 52 hours each, 
3 men 5 hours each, 7 men 12 hours each, and 1 man 3 hours. What 
was the total time on the job? 

43. If the above job was divided equally among 25 men, how many 
hours would each man work? 

44. Find the weight of a steel I beam, 18 ft. long, if it weighs 24 
pounds per foot of length. 

45. At 9 lbs. per foot, what is the total weight of pipe used on a 
job of piping which requires the following lengths of 3} in. pipe? 

2 pieces each 18 ft. long 
6 pieces each 8 ft. long 

3 pieces each 5 ft. long 
2 pieces each 2 ft. long 
1 piece <> ft. long 
1 piece 14 ft. long 

4<V During a recent month, a blacksmith worked 223 hours at a 
rate of 34 cents per hour and received as bonus $30.59. What was the 
amount of his check, one dollar being deducted for hospital fee? 

47. At 50 lbs. per foot of length, what is the total weight of 675 
steel I beams each 12 feet long? 

48. A number of these beams were loaded pn a freight car and 
found to weigh 27000 lbs. How many beams were in the car? 

49. An order calls for 24 steel channels, each 17 ft. long, to weigh 
25 pounds for each foot of length. What would be the total weight of 
the steel? 

50. A steel rail weighing 100 pounds per yard is 30 ft. long. If 
its weight be divided equally among 8 men, how many pounds would 
each man carry? 

Santa Fe System 
Apprentice Schools 

Page 340 


Write out the answers to the following questions and hand to your 

1. In passenger cars what kind of wood is used for siding? Buffer 
beams? Dust guards? Door frames? Corner posts? 

2. In cabinet and furniture work, why is glue used? 
What is meant by "cleaning up lumber?" 
VVhy is veneering frequently used instead of solid wood? 
What kind of wood warps most? Which least? 
When would you use nails, and when would screws be prefer- 

7. What kind of wood when properly stained, makes the best imi- 
tation mahogany? Cherry? 

8. How would you prepare work for varnish finish? 

9. What kind of sand paper should be used in finishing wood work 
for Business Cars? What kind for common work? 

10. How would you sharpen a cabinet scraper? How a plane iron? 

11. What is the result of changing the position of the cap near 
the cutting edge of a plane iron? 

12. What do you mean by the set of a saw?" 

13 Give the correct name of each part of an iron smooth plane 
VVhy is white pine used for making patterns. 
How is veneering made and how applied to the head lining of 

In cabinet work, what kind of joint is the strongest and most 
What is the rrarket price of No. 1 grade of the following: 


a car? 



Oak, Yellow Pine, White Pine, Ash, Cherry, Bay Wood, Poplar, Mahog- 

18. In building a set of furniture for business car in which you 
use 42 pieces mahogany I"xl0"xl2\ what would the lumber cost? Sup- 
pose 23 pieces 18 inches long are destroyed. How much money has been 

19. In all cabinet or passenger car work, why is it necessary for 
the lumber to be thoroughly seasoned and dry? Why is the framing of 
coaches "blocked?" 

20. What causes passenger cars to creak while moving? 

21. Which class of work do you prefer, cabinet or coach work? 

22. If you have not a mitre box, how would you lay off 45°? 30°? 
60°? How can you prove it? 

23. What is the most difficult job you have ever done? 

April, 1914 



of charge should any defect develop in them. For the safe 
keeping of their tools they are furnished, free by the com- 
pany, a box in which to keep the tools. These boxes being 
made by the apprentices of the cabinet shop. 


Apprentices are selected from boys living in towns and com- 
munities adjacent to the railroad and must be between the 
ages of 16 and 22, with the exception of some states in which 
there is a law requiring boys to be eighteen years of age 
before entering a railroad shop. It is very seldom a boy over 
21 is employed. We have found that the best results can be 
obtained from boys 16 or 17 years of age. They are much 
easier handled, more easily taught and can more easily adapt 
themselves to the rules and regulations of their surroundings. 
The boys must have a common school education, preferably 
those who have finished the grammar school. Occasionally boys 
who have had meager opportunities, who are bright, indus- 
trious and energetic are employed regardless of their educa- 
tion. Of the applicant who has had unlimited opportunities 
we require much, but where he has had few opportunities we 
are very charitable. He shall be required to pass a medical 
examination and be free from any organic trouble or chronic 

Santa Fe Apprentice Baseball Team at Cleburne, Texas. 

Santa Fe System 
Apprentice School 

Problems Page 40. 



Fig. 13. 

Spring Rigging 


423. What will be tbe pressure on the top of tbe main driving box, if a weight of 
13,000 lbs. is pulling down os tbe end of the driving spring at A. and 13,200 lbs. on the other 
end at B? 

324. On a locomotive, class 900, the weight applied at tbe equalizer pin is 26,500 lbs., 
how many pounds are being applied to the haneer at eacb end of the equalizer, if dimension I 
is 11 inches and T 12 inches? What will be tbe weight on each hanger if X is 11 inches 
and T Hi inches? 

325 Why is it necessary to have dimension X and T on equalizer of different lengths? 

326. On a certain locomotive having spring rigging arranged as sbown in Fig. 13, 
the main driving wheels are found to be carrying too much weight. Which way should the 
equalizer pin be moved in order to relieve the main wheels of this excess weight? Why? 

427. If the weight applied on tbe equalizer pin on a certain locomotive is 26,500 lbs., 
where should tbe center pin bole of tbe equalizer bo located in order to place 200 lbs. more on 
the Luger C than B. Tbe end holes on equalizer are 22i inches apact. 

ailment. He is examined by the school and shop instructors 
who endeavor to ascertain the qualifications of the boy. We 
do not care much about the boy's parents so long as the boy 
himself is strong and industrious. We have found that char- 
acter letters are about the most useless things that can be 
written. We ask him a good many questions about himself, 
his opportunities, length of time he went to public school, 
why he left public school, what work, if any, he was engaged 
in before applying for apprenticeship, occupation of his par- 
ents, the number in his family, where he spends his evenings, 
what recreation he engages in, playmates or companions, and 
often talk to him about his best girl. We endeavor to find 
out from him as much as possible about himself. This will 
often govern our method of handling him in the future. 


We attribute much of the success of our apprentice sys- 
tem to the fact that all instruction is individual. While the 
boys go to school at certain hours in classes there probably 
may not be two boys in the whole class who are studying 
the same question or using the same lesson sheets, as each 
boy is treated as a unit. The information gathered from the 
little examination upon entrance, personal characteristics, his 
education and industry are all considered and carefully weighed, 
and the boy's instruction is governed by these conditions. 
A bright, smart, energetic boy passes along as rapidly as he 
learns the subjects and is not held back on account of the 
slower and duller boy. The slower and plodding boy moves 
along only as he masters his subjects. Each must thoroughly 
know the subject, branches or class of work before he will 
be moved to another. 


The first six months of his apprenticeship is known as a 
probationary period. He is given every opportunity to de- 

Santa Fe Syst.m 
Apprentice Schools 

Page 202 


26 How is a left hand thread cut? 

27. How is a double thread cut. and why is it used? 

28. Give the names of the different threads \ou have had ex- 
perience in cutting. 

2i). Chiefly, what class oi work is termed chuck work? 

M. For what purpose are the circular lines found .in nearly all chucks? 

31 Why should the threads on the spindle be kept well oiled? 

32. If you desired to face a concave semicircular surface in the 
lathe and do it accurately, how would you proceed? 

33 To machine a very irregular shaped casting in the lathe that 
could not be conveniently chucked, how would you , roeeed? 

34. How would you determine the speed of a lathe in feet per min- 

35. What is the most difficult operation v ou have done en a lathe? 
3K In making runuing fits, drive fits, press tits, etc. are you 

governed by any fixed rules? If so. state them: if not, why? 

37. Explain how the lathe in case of emergency can be readily con- 
verted into a horizontal boring mill? 

38. For what class of. work is the turret lathe especially convenient? 

39. Is it better to use high speed, light cut and feed, or slow speed, 
heavv cut and feed? Wh\? 

40. In what respect are planer tools ground different from lathe 

11. What is the most essential thing in setting up planer woik? 

42. Why should one use as short a bolt^ a^ possible in clamping down 

43. If you were planning a piece of work 24 inches long, would it be 
correct to use a 35 inch stroke? 

14. 11 nv long a stroke would you use in the above case'; 

4"). If one of the rail adjusting screws were bent, what effect would 
it have? 

4<>. How would you plane a (50° bevel? 

IT. What is necessary to prevent the tool from dragging on a side 

4* Is a poss i be to perform a radial operation on a planer? 

4'.t. Explain briefly how tile above is accomplished. 

50. How would you graduate on the planer? 



April, 1914 

Apprentice Band at the Topeka Shops. 

velop any talent lie may possess and he must show during that 
six months' period that he has the qualifications for the trade 
he is indentured to learn. Every thirty days after entering 
upon his apprenticeship the general foreman of the shop, de- 
partment foreman, gang foreman, shop instructors and school 
instructor receive a notice that the boy has served one or more 
months of his apprenticeship and to pay strict attention to 
him in order that they may, at the end of six months, be able 
to pass on his fitness to continue his trade. It is a great deal 
better that the boy should be dismissed earlier in his appren- 
ticeship rather than allowed to draw along the four years 
course when he is unfitted for the trade he is endeavoring 
to learn. 


In each shop we have what is known as the apprentice 
board, a committee composed of the general foreman, depart- 
ment foreman, gang foreman, pit foreman, shop and school 
instructors. The duty of this board is to pass on all questions 
in reference to the apprentices. They pass on a boy's fitness 
at the expiration of his probationary period, pass on all appli- 
cations for transfer from one shop to another, or from one 
trade to another. They recommend what discipline, if any, 
is to be administered to the boy for any infraction of the 
rules and regulations. This board is a live, active body, anx- 
ious to deal out real justice to the apprentice. Each has the 
same authority and each shows the same spirit or willingness 
to give the boy the best chance or opportunity posible. The 
personal prejudice of one man or one member of the board 
cuts very little figure. But they are anxious that each boy, 
however poor and friendless, may be given full justice. Any 
apprentice in the shop has a perfect right to apply to the 
board at any time that he deems another official has treated 
him unfairly. 


A modified form of the Brown system of discipline is used 
for the punishment of apprentices. They are no longer sus- 
pended and sent home for any infraction of the rules and 
regulations but are penalized on their agreement. If a boy 
is late at work, spoils a piece of work through carelessness, 
or lays off without permission, instead of being sent home, 
as is usually done in most shops, he is simply penalized on 
his agreement the number of days he would have ben sent 
home. This, of course, lengthens out his apprenticeship all 
the way from five to fifty hours for each offense. But if the 
boy, after being penalized, pulls himself together and attends 

strictly to business and goes six months without any further 
discipline, the penalty is removed and he is given a clean 
slate. We have found this to be the most fruitful and bene- 
ficial method of disciplining apprentices of any scheme we 
have tried. Our apprentice agreement, or contract we make 
with the boy when we employ him as an apprentice, stipu- 
lates that we will give him an opportunity to learn his trade 
and our regulations stipulate he shall work ten hours a day re- 
gardless of the number of hours worked by other shop employees, 

Santa Fe System 
Apprentice Schools 

No. 255 

Make free-hand sketch, tfive correct name. >tate where and for 
what i>urpo>e used, material of which U is made, and cost of each article. 








1 ' 

, , 

,. — t ■ + ., 








I 1 i 1 



April, 1914 



with the exception that thej- may work the apprentices one 
half day Saturday. Of course, if the shops should close for 
the entire day the apprentices will not work, nor will they 
be paid. While other employees may be put on short time in 
the shops the apprentices are required to work the regular 
ten hours each day. 

The general treatment of the apprentice boys on the Santa 
Fe is a wholesome one and is a mixture of parental and mili- 
tary treatment. We want them to have the very best time 
possible while serving their apprenticeship. No one is allowed 
to abuse or mistreat a boy and no one is allowed to curse 
or swear at a boy. He is not used as a matter of convenience 
nor in any sense as a helper in the shop. He is taught from 
the very beginning that the trade he is indentured to learn 
is the very best possible occupation for him, that he could 
not have selected any other work that is better suited to 
him. In other words, we endeavor to make him happy and 
contented in his work. The influence of our apprentice schools in 
the treatment of the boys has shown in the general deportment 
and action of the other employees in the shop. It is a common 
saying on the Santa Fe that wherever a Fred Harvey House 
is built it improves the whole moral tone of the town and it 
can be truthfully said that wherever an apprentice school has 
been established on the Santa Fe Eailway it has improved the 
whole moral tone of the shops. 


The company provides an athletic field and the boys are 
encouraged to engage in the various contests. Base ball, 
foot ball, basket ball, etc., are played in their regular season. 
Contests with apprentice teams from other points are regular 
features. The apprentices at three of the larger places have 
regular brass bands, from 23 to 40 pieces each, also orchestra 
and glee clubs. 


Upon graduating or completing his apprenticeship the ap- 
prentice is given a handsome diploma showing that he has 
served an apprenticeship in the shops of this company and 
that he has become a competent and skilled mechanic, this 
diploma being signed by the master mechanic, supervisor of 
apprentices and the assistant vice-president, who is the chief 
mechanical officer of the system. In addition to this he is 
given a draft for $135.00 as a reward for faithful and dili- 
gent application during his four-year apprenticeship. 


A full and complete record is kept of the apprentice during 
his four-year apprenticeship. The supervisor of apprentices 
knows the last day of the previous month the number of 
drawings he has made in the school room, the number of 

Center, lower row: M. J. Drury, Supt. Shops, Topeka; on his 
right, C. W. Cross, Supt. Apprentices, New York Central Lines, 
and on his left, F. W. Thomas, Supt. Apprentices, Santa Fe System. 
All others, apprentice instructors Santa Fe System. 

P'rsonal Characteristics of 

Walker, George R. Boiler Maker Apprentice 
La Junta t Colorado 9131 hrs 

(Please fill out personally, without assistance or knowledge of any other 
person, indicating with check mark in column. Mail direct to Super- 
visor of Apprentices, Topeka.) 

Education ... 

Special knowledge 

Experience ... 








Appearance .. 



Industry _ 

Initiative , 


Assertiveness _ 


Promptness _ 




Executive ability. 

Shop work 

School work 

Popularity with authorities... 

Popularity with associates 

Ls he making good? ^Ay^- 

Very Good 












Date. DeC,. J!, .1913 

Apprenti/e Instructor. 

problems he has made, other lessons he has learned, and what 
work he has done in the shops. He may do a dozen different 
jobs during the month but each is recorded, also the number 
of hours he is absent from work for all causes, and four times 
during his apprenticeship the shop and school instructors are 
required to ■ fill out a blank showing his personal character- 
istics, this blank having 28 subjects which the instructors 
must grade him on as being "very good," "good," "medium" 
and ' ' poor. ' ' They also advise the supervisor of apprentices 
at the completion of his apprenticeship if the young man has 
shown any qualification for leadership, in other words, whether 
he is material for the making of a foreman. Such names as 
have the above qualification for leadership are sent to the 
mechanical officers and when any need a foreman these young 
men are given the preference. The apprentice, after graduat- 




n > 






DATE NO. 36 

Simple Drawing Lesson. 



April, 1914 

ing, is not forgotten or turned loose. We still keep a watch- 
ful eye on him and continue to assist and direct him •when in 
need of help. We keep a record of him if he is transferred 
to another shop on the system, and even if he leaves the 
service we still keep track of him. We know where they 
all are today, know what they are doing, even the wages they 
are receiving. Seventy-five per cent of all the apprentices 

tice is kept in his office and all indentures for apprenticeship 
are approved by him. A set of rules and regulations govern- 
ing the apprentices are published by the supervisor of appren- 
tices and approved by the assistant vice-president and these 
rules are applicable to all apprentices. In addition to his 
office force all of the large points have one or more school 
instructors, who are appointed by the supervisor of appren- 


Ciu1iftratenr;\ppiTn lia ^ hi P 

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Certificate Given to Santa Fe Apprentices. 

or graduates who have left our service have, within six months, 
applied for re-instatement. 


The organization of the apprentice department on the Santa 
Fe consists of the supervisor of apprentices who has charge 
of all matters relating to the apprentices and he reports to 
the assistant vice-president in charge of mechanical operation. 
He has a central office wherein all lesson sheets, problems, etc., 
are made and sent out. A complete record of each appren- 

tices, and each shop has an instructor for every 25 boys, the 
sflop instructors being selected by the local shop authorities 
with the approval of the supervisor of apprentices. The senior 
shop officials are the employing officers, employing all the 
apprentices in the shops, but these must be examined by the 
shop and school instructors. 


The apprenticeship system on the Santa Fe has proven its 
efficiency from the very beginning, due primarily to the fact 

April, 1914 



that it has the earnest personal and official backing of all 
the officers of the companry from the president down. In a 
short while the schools became the pride of the local shop, 
officials and visitors are generally shown the apprentice school 
by the master mechanic with a great deal of pride and pleasure. 
The present apprentice system has become a fixture in our 
shops and is considered as much a fixture in the shop as the 
power house or tool room. If the shop instructor is absent 
for any cause for more than a day we generally hear a howl 
from the shop foreman as to "when is that instructor coming 
back." There has never been the least friction as to con- 
flicting authority between the foreman and instructor. They 
have always worked most harmoniously, the one helping the 
other. In the absence of the foreman for a day or more the 
instructor generally runs the shop. In the absence of the 
instructor the foreman does all in his power to assist and 
instruct the apprentices. The apprentice system on the Santa 
Fe has never been considered as a matter of convenience but 
has always been treated as a recruiting system for filling the 
shops with men of our own making and training. While the 
system has been more than sustaining from the very beginning, 
this fact alone was never considered. 

Set of Tools for Woodworking Apprentices. 

During the six and one-half years that our present system 
has been in operation 70 per cent of all the graduates are 
still in service and 93 per cent of all the boys graduated dur- 
ing the year 1913 are in service. About 12 per cent of the 
graduates have been given some official position. A great 
majority of these have more than made good. 

Those interested in the modern method of educating and 
training apprentices or considering inaugurating such a sys- 
tem will do well to consider that it is necessary to have one 
man as head of the system who will have full and complete 
authority and general management of the scheme. Also that 
the school work must be made entirely practical and free from 
college frills and that a full corps of shop instructors will be 
a most fruitful branch of the system, that the whole scheme 
shall be considered one of recruiting rather than one of con- 

Seventeen years ago one of our mechanical department of- 
ficers, who was then master mechanic, realizing the disad- 
vantages and drawbacks of mechanics who were not familiar 
with mechanical drawing and not haA'ing the opportunity him- 
self as a boy while serving his apprenticeship, determined that 
the apprentices under his jurisdiction should not be so handi- 
capped. He engaged a room and employed a competent in- 

structor paying for both from his own pocket and opened a 
night school for the apprentices in his charge. It must be a 
pleasure to him in knowing that more than half of these boys 
have filled official positions on this road, this being evidence 
that his efforts were appreciated, and further that his efforts 
were a success is evidenced from the fact that today there 
are over 800 apprentices on the Santa Fe System who are 
being trained by 36 instructors. 

[Mr. Thomas will be glad to furnish, through our columns, 
any further detailed information desired by any of our readers. 
— Editor.] 

By Isaac Jones, Chf. Inspector, Colo. & Sn. Ry. 

About three years ago on our road new packing was used to 
repack all journal boxes, the old dirty waste being generally 
picked up by the roundhouse men and used to light fires in 
locomotives. We ran out of new waste with which to make 
packing on one occasion and I put one of the men to shaking 
the dirt out of the old packing, resaturating it and using it 
over again. At this time the cost per 1,000 miles for freight 
car lubrication was 15 cents. I noticed that we were making 
;i considerable saving by using the old packing, and so I built 
and put into operation a machine for cleaning the packing, first 
applying for a patent on the process, which was allowed. 

•Tff* ^M 

4 *| W% 


' m 

Jones Waste Cleaner. 

In the photographic illustration the machine is shown with- 
out its sheet iron hood. Fig. 4 in the illustration indicates the 
perforated cylinder in which the waste is revolved in clean- 
ing; Fig. 2 indicates the perforated steam pipes through which 
steam is forced at 80 lbs. pressure. The perforations in the 
pipes are ^-inch in diameter, are spaced in 6-inches apart and 
are staggered so as to blow in all directions inside the cylinder. 
Fig. 1 shows the same piping as Fig. 2, entrance being made by 
means of brass stuffing boxes through each end of the cylinder. 
The bottom frame is enclosed with sheet iron and there is a 
sheet iron pan placed under the machine to catch the dirt. We 
have organized the Cheyenne Railway Supply Co., Cheyenne, 
Wyo., to place the machines on the market. All machines to 
be built in the future will have frames of 1 '4 -inch pipe instead 
of wood and will be equipped to run by means of a small fric- 
tion pulley or crank. The machine shown in the illustration 
is the first one placed in service. 

This machine has reduced the cost of car lubrication from 
15 cents per 1,000 miles in 1911 to 3% cents in 1913-14. We 
hardly ever run over 4 cents. The process takes out of the 
packing all short dead strands; also all burnt waste, all gravel 
and dirt without any loss of oil except what is retained in the 
dirt removed. The cost is $3.00 per ton, with a loss in dirt and 
burnt waste of 8 pounds per 100 pounds. We save all of the 
babbitt metal, our process separating it from the packing. The 
machine can be run by power or by hand and occupies a space 
4x5 feet. 



April, 1914 

By L. D. Royer. 

The brick arch is a boiler accessory that has had the atten- 
tion of railroad men for a number of years, yet it is only 
within the last few years that any decided steps have been 
taken towards perfecting this device so that its use could be 
extended and made practicable under all conditions of locomo- 
tive operation. 

We all agree that smoke escaping from the stack is a waste, 
and the greater the volume of smoke the greater the loss. The 
emission of black smoke is a sure indication of imperfect com- 
bustion. It is also a sure sign that there is some condition, 
either mechanical or human, existing that is detrimental to 
combustion and the question is: Can the emission of black 
smoke from the stack of a locomotive burning bituminous coal 
be prevented and how can it be done? 

It must not be assumed from the above statements that the 
absence of smoke is a sign of perfect combustion, as there are 
invisible gases, which may escape, which have a high calorific 
value, but the point I wish to bring out is that the presence of 
smoke is a sure indication and one which is readily observed, 
while with the invisble gases special apparatus and chemical 
analysis is necessary to collect and determine the amount of 
combustible gases which are escaping. 

A great deal has been written about methods of firing, most 
of them good when possible to follow them, but none of them 
sufficient to approach perfect combustion in the firebox of a 

Bituminous coal, which is used almost exclusively, consists 
principally of fixed carbon which burns on the grate with little 
or no flame and volatile matter which in different coals differs 
greatly in character. It is this volatile matter in coal with 
which we are most interested in studying combustion and the 
abatement of smoke, so before going further we will discuss 
briefly the volatile matter in coal as to its properties. 

The bituminous coals yield volatile matter containing large 
amounts of tarry vapors and hydrocarbons difficult to burn 
without a considerable excess of air and a high temperature. 

Visible smoke consists of solid carbon particles and solid or 
liquid hydrocarbon particles or "tar vapor."' Both result from 
incomplete combustion of the volatile products of the fuel. The 
carbon of the smoke is not derived from free carbon in the fuel, 
but is deposited by the cooling of hot dissociated hydrocarbon 
gases. Flame is a phenomenon accompanying the chemical 
union of certain gases, one of which is usually oxygen; and 
the incandescent particles made the flame visible. If some of 
these particles in the flame are carbon formed by the dissocia- 
tion of hydrocarbons, luminosity results, and if the temperature 
of these particles is reduced below the point at which they 
combine with oxygen, or if sufficient oxygen is not at hand 
to effect the union, they fail to unite with oxygen, and pass 
off as solid carbon in smoke. 

When a coal produces rich volatile gases bearing large 
amounts of heavy hydrocarbons, a comparatively large combus- 
tion space must be provided to allow the flame to be burned 
out before striking cool surfaces; and the flame must have an 
adequate supply of air at a sufficiently high temperature if it is 
to be burned out in time. 

Furthermore, when rich volatile product - ■ i i — till rapidly from 
a coal at medium or low temperatures, they must be taken care 
of by increased combustion space or by decreased rate of firing. 
The essential requirements of smokeless combustion are there- 
fore, three: (1) Sufficient combustion space, (2) sufficient air 
at a high temperature, and (3) sufficient thorough mingling of 
gases and air. 

Reduction of boiler efficiency may be due to several causes, 
chief among them being loss of sensible heat, loss of cinders, 
and loss of combustibles through the stack. That the last 
named factor is of large influence it seems safe to conclude 
from the general rule that high rate of firing involves increase 
of unconsumed combustibles in the stack. 

In view of the high rate of firing and the small combustion 
space in a locomotive, any refinement that will increase the 
combustion space or cause a more intimate mixture of the com- 
bustibles in the firebox will decrease the amount of uncon- 
sumed combustibles in the stack with a corresponding increase 
in boiler efficiency. 

The locomotive firebox is always found to be as small as the 
grate propertions will permit. 

The only thing that can be done in the way of improvements 
for this type of furnace is to install a brick arch which divides 
the furnace into two compartments, a furnace chamber and 
a small combustion chamber, taken from the furnace chamber 

The brick arch accomplishes a great deal considering the 
limiting conditions. The flame travel is greatly increased, 
resulting in a better mixing of gas and air. The temperature 
is greatly increased as proven by authentic tests. 

The brick arch adds to the firebox capacity and the fireman's 
capacity on account of the fact that more complete combustion 
forces the coal to yield a higher percentage of its total heat 

The brick arch saves coal because of the better combustion 
and because of the baffling and retaining effect on the gases 
and on the light combustible matter which without the arch 
would be drawn through the flues in the form of sparks or 
partly consumed combustible gases. 

The brick arch abates the smoke and cinder nuisance on 
account of the more thorough combustion due (1) to the better 
mingling of the gases and oxygen of the air drawn into the fur- 
nace chamber and (2) due to the fact that the longer flame 
travel gives more time for combustion to be completed before 
the gases pass into the flues. 

The brick arch affords protection to the flues. This statement 
can be verified by inquiring of almost anyone responsible for 
the upkeep of flues who has had opportunity to observe the 
difference in this respect between engines equipped with an 
arch and those not so equipped. — Pere Marquette Magazine. 


The mess made by some car letterers and numberers in the 
repair shops at Denver, Colo., when one set of numbers were 
placed on one side of a car and another entirely different set 
on the other side of the car may easily be imagined. Con- 
ductors found that they had an extra car in their trains. 
Tracers could not find the missing car. Finally some freight 
conductor who had drawn the "hoodoo car" thought to investi- 
gate and discovered the error. The mistake had gone unde- 
tected for nearly eighteen months and had caused inestimable 
trouble to the operating and traffic departments. — Railway Record. 


Albert Kern, of the Western Union Telegraph Company, tells 
this one: 

' ' Some years ago I was agent at a small station in Texas 
through which the International & Great Northern Railroad ran. 
One day a typical backwoodsman was standing on the station 
platform intently watching, perhaps for the first time in his 
life, an engine switching cars in the yards. On the tender 
were the letters 'I. & G. N.,' meaning International & Great 
Northern. He spelled the letters over slowly to himself and 

then said: 'I-&-G.-N? That's a of a way to spell engine, 

ain't it?' " — Dtiston Crucible. 

The Illinois Central will build a hospital at Chicago for its 
employes costing $400,000. A building permit has been issued, 
and it is expected that work will start in the near future. The 
hospital is to be located at Fifty-eighth and Stony Island 

April, 1914 



Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Railway. 

Business has increased so rapidly since the opening of the 
Oakland, Antioch & Eastern that in order to cope with the 
heavy through passenger traffic between San Francisco and 
Sacramento it has been necessary to place in operation two 
62-ton electric locomotives. The use of electric locomotives . 
for hauling passenger trail cars instead of using multiple-unit 
cars is a new and noteworthy departure in the electric railway 
field. The phenomenal growth in traffic mentioned above is 
largely due to the opening up of new territory which has been 
heretofore practically inaccessible to the Bay Cities except by 
long round-about steam route. 

The locomotives are of the 2-4-U articulated truck type and 
each is equipped with four Westinghouse No. 308-D-7, 250 h. p. 
600-1200 volt commutating pole motors and ''type HLF unit 
switch control. 

Each locomotive when operating at a balancing speed of 
approximately 56 m. p. h. is capable of hauling "a train of five 
steel passenger trail cars, weighing 37.5 tons each, on a level 
tangent track with 1,100 volts direct current on the trolley. 
With only three of these cars one of these locomotives under 
the same track conditions is able to attain a balancing speed 
of about 60 m. p. h. 

The mechanical parts were built by the Baldwin Locomotive 
Works. There are two articulated trucks, each having six 
wheels, four of which are drivers, making a total of eight 
drivers per locomotive. Each group of wheels consisting of 
two pairs of driving wheels and one two-wheeled radial truck 
has an independent frame. These two truck frames are con- 
nected together with an articulation link. The cab is mounted 
on a separate frame, which is supported on the truck frames 
by eight spring loaded friction plates, no drawbar pull being 
transmitted through the cab. The cab center pins carry no 
weight and are used simply to maintain the position of the cab 
with respect to the trucks. 

The truck side frames are steel castings of the steam loco- 
motive type, 3% inches wide, with their centers 76 inches 
apart transversely. These frames have renewable wearing gibs 
on the pedestals, and are designed in accordance with steam 
locomotive practice, except that in the present instance it is 
unnecessary to use a tempered pedestal and wedge. The two- 
wheeled trucks under the ends of the locomotive are of the 
modified Rushton type with radius bars, and are equalized with 
the driven wheels. In each group of wheels the equalization 
is continuous on both sides of the locomotive. 

The truck frames are strongly braced transversely at each 
end, and also at two intermediate points. The crossties at the 
inner ends of the frames have radial faces which bear against 
each other. These crossties are provided with spring buffers 
placed 38 inches apart. 

In negotiating curves the inside buffers are compressed, thus 
tending to restore the alignment of the frames after the curve 
has been transversed. These buffers, being in contact at all 
times, also help to promote steady riding when passing over 
rough tracks. • 

The cab underframe is a built-up structure composed of chan- 
nels, plates and angles. The longitudinal sills are four in num- 
ber and they consist of 8-inch channels which have a length 
of 33 feet, 11% inches. The width over the outside channels 
is 8 feet 10 inches. This structure is spring supported at eight 
points, four on each truck frame. The end supports are 37 
inches apart transversely, and the center supporters 90 inches 
apart. Longitudinally these center supports are placed close 
together as they are mounted near the ends of their respective 
truck frames. With this arrangement a minimum amount of 
shock is transmitted to the cab frame when the locomotive is 
running, and at the same time the trucks are maintained level 
under conditions of weight transfer due to the high tractive 
effort exerted by the motors. The center pins which hold the 
cab frame in alignment with the trucks are 14 feet 8% inches 

Electric Locomotive, O. A. & E. Ry. 

apart. One of these pins is allowed a limited amount of longi- 
tudinal movement in the center plate on the cab frame. This 
is in order to compensate for the varying distance between 
truck centers when the locomotive is traversing curves, and to 
relieve the cab frame from buffing shocks. 

The cab is of steel plate with a hardwood floor. It is ar- 
ranged for double end operation and is provided with a con- 
venient arrangement of doors and windows. These are of such 
size that all the cab equipment can be removed through them. 
All walking platforms outside the cab are of rolled steel checker 
plate, and the arrangement of steps and handholds conforms 
to the requirements of the International Commerce Commission. 

These locomotives are equipped with headlights, pilots and 
automatic couplers at each end. The couplers have radial draw- 
bars, which are provided with centering springs. This is an 
important feature, as in service these locomotives traverse 
curves of 100-ft. radius. The equipment also includes air 
sanders front and back and combined air and hand brakes on 
all driving wheels. One standard locomotive bell and two air 
whistles are supplied. The driving wheels have cast iron cen- 
ters with steel tires shrunk and bolted, while the truck wheels 
are of rolled steel. 

The principal dimensions of these locomotives are as fol- 

Gauge, 4 feet 8% inches. 

Wheel base, rigid, 7 feet 4 inches. 

Wheel base, total, 31 feet. 

Driving wheels, diameter outside, 42 inches. 

Driving wheels, diameter center, 37 inches. 

Driving journals, 5 inches by 9 inches. 

Truck wheels, diameter, 30 inches. 

Truck journals, 4% inches by 8 inches. 

Width overall, 10 feet. 

Height to top of cab, 12 feet. 

Length, center to center of coupler knuckles, 39 feet. 

Weight on driving wheels, 86,000 lbs. 

Weight, total engine, 124,000 lbs. 

In the right-hand corners of the cab are mounted the master 
controller, engineer's brake valve and sander valves. These 
locomotives are designed for double-end operation. The reversers 
or series parallel switches are placed next to the floor, the switch 
groups and line switches directly over them, and the resisters 
directly over the switch groups under the roof. 

The grid resistors are mounted in the main cab over the 
switch groups and are enclosed in a steel cabinet open at the 
bottom and provided with hinged doors on each side, so as to 
provide easy access. 

Ventilators are provided in the roof over the resistance 



April, 1914 

cabinet of such a type as to give free egress to the heated air 
and to prevent rain from entering. 

Forced ventilation is supplied by blowers mounted on the 
extended shaft of the dynamotors. 

The advantages of this centralized arrangement are numer- 
ous, and may be briefly summed up as follows: 

All the control apparatus is assembled compactly in one part 
of the locomotive instead of being scattered in different 

The switch groups are located in such a position that they 
are readily accessible from all sides and they are at such a 
height that a man can get at them freely without working in 
a cramped position, or inside the hood. 

Each locomotive is propelled by four Westinghouse electric 
250 horsepower motors. These motors are of the commutating- 
pole box frame type arranged for field control. 

The field of each motor has four coils, each of which is 
divided into two parts, one having a greater number of turns 
than the other. However, these two coils are insulated from 
one another, but bound so as to make one unit. Since these 
motors are of the field control type the field coils are con- 
nected in two circuits, one made up of the coils having the 
larger number of turns and the other of the coils with the least 
number of turns. In accelerating where a large tractive effort 
is needed, both these field circuits are connected in series, thus 
giving a strong field; and after the motors get up to speed the 
circuit containing the coils with the fewer number of turns is 
cut out; then the motors operate on short field. 

Two dynamotors are mounted on each locomotive. These 
operate the compressor and blowers and supply the required 
amount of 600-volt direct current for lighting the passenger 
cars, the locomotive, headlight and for operating the control. 
Each compressor has a capacity of 35 cubic feet of free air 
per minute. 

The air brake, built by the Westinghouse Air Brake Com- 
pany, are of the type EL especially designed for electric loco- 
motive service. 

By J. A. Elliott, Air Brake Fmn., I. C. B. B. 

When repairing air pumps it is very necessary that air valves 
have a correct amount of lift. The best of mechanics are apt 
to make mistakes when measuring for the lift of air valves, 
and when this job is given to the apprentice the chances for 
mistakes are greater. The gauges in the accompanying sketches 
were made to overcome all this trouble. They are so complete 
that there is absolutely no chance to make mistakes, and this 
work could, if necessary, be performed as well by a sweeper as 
by a mechanic. 

The quarter inch pin in the center is held secure when 

adjusted by a 3/16th inch set screw. This pin is exactly the 
same length as the two legs of the gauge, and thus requires 
only one adjustment to gauge the lift of a valve, there being 
used a small brass button the thickness of which is equivalent 
to the lift of the valves which you are gauging. It is necessary 
to have two gauges, one for the lower cage and one for the 
upper cap. 

When using the cage gauge shown in Fig. 1 place the upper 
ends of the gauge legs against the cage joint of the pump cylin- 
der and gently push pin in until it touches the valve boss in the 
cylinder. Then secure the pin in this position by means of a 
set screw. Now with valve in position in cage and brass button 
on top of valve, the pin should just touch the button when 
lower ends of gauge legs are placed on joint of the cage, as 
shown in Fig. 2. 

When using the cap gauge shown in Fig. 3, place the valve 
on the upper seat in cylinder and place the upper ends of the 
gauge .legs against cap joint on cylinder and gently push the 
pin in until it touches the valve. Secure the pin in this posi- 
tion by means of the set screw and with the brass button on 
the cap boss the pin should just touch the button when the 
lower end of the gauge legs are placed on the joint of cap 
shown in Fig. 4. The dimensions of these gauges are made to 
suit the cages and caps of the different sizes of pumps. 

THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS has just concluded the 
series of tests which have been in progress at its locomotive 
testing laboratory on the Illinois Central consolidation type 
freight locomotive No. 958. 

This engine was furnished by the Illinois Central for the 
purpose of these tests and was placed in the laboratory about 
a year ago. Since that time many tests have been made by 
both the faculty of the college of engineering and students in 
the railway courses. The highest speed at which any tests were 
made was 45 miles per hour. The greatest tractive effort regis- 
tered was 30,000 pounds, while the highest horsepower developed 
was 1,650. 

The tests were conducted primarily to increase the efficiency 
of the locomotive performance. Considerable work was also 
done during their progress to improve the running of the loco- 
motive. The data secured is now being worked up by the mem- 
bers of the railway department and the results of the tests will 
soon be known. 

The Southern is preparing to make an initial expenditure of 
$750,000 for classification yards and shops near Birmingham, 
Ala. The company owns 112 acres of land near that city which 
will be used for this purpose. Work will begin at an early 
date on the locomotive and car shops, and it is expected that 
the total cost when complete will be about $1,500,000. 

i • 

i | 
i J. 

i i 


in t 

- g " Round 


it "a e 





<- d& f 1G j 

Gage for Air Valve Cage. 

FIG. B. 
Oage Applied to Cage,. 

i i 
i i 



■ i 




J' 'Round 


I" <- 





FIG. J- 

Oage for Air Valve Cap 

FIG. 4. 
Gage Applied to Cap. 

Device for Gauging Lift of Air Pump Valves. 

April, 1914 



Air Line Junction Improvements 

The Lake Shore & Michigan Southern is now constructing at 
Air Line Junction, O., new engine terminal facilities and freight 
car repair shops to take care of all freight engines and cars 
which converge from divisions east and west of Toledo. The 
engine terminal facilities include one 90-foot 27 stall engine house, 
one 105-foot 13 stall engine house, machine shop, power house, 
sand house, coaling plant, cinder pits, etc. 


The 27-stall engine house is 90 feet deep. There are two 13-inch 
brick fire walls dividing the house into three sections of nine stalls 
each. This building is used for giving light repairs to heavy 
freight engines. No drop pits are provided. Eoom for the 
extension of 17 stalls to this house has been provided for. 

The 13-stall engine house was made 105 feet deep in order to 
give adequate space for repairs to Mallet type locomotives. It is 
provided with both driving wheel and truck wheel drop pits. 
The driving wheel drop pit is equipped with an eight-ton pneu- 
matic jack mounted on a four-wheel narrow gauge carriage 
which is actuated by an air cylinder attached to wall of pit. The 
truck wheel drop pit is equipped with a three-ton pneumatic jack 
mounted on a four-wheel carriage which is actuated by hand. 
Room for extension of 33 stalls to this house has been provided for. 

Both the 17 and 13-stall houses have a maximum height of 22 
feet from top of rail to bottom of roof truss. Foundations are 
made of concrete; walls of brick; roof trusses, window frames 
and columns of wood; smoke jacks are made of asbestos board. 
The wood is used in construction on account of the deterioration 
of structural steel, due to the gases and moisture from the engines. 
Composition roofing is used throughout. Great care was taken 
in designing the buildings to provide all the natural light possible, 
and also allow the smoke and gases to escape quickly. In addi- 
tion to the ordinary windows there is a monitor roof which 
extends all around the house. This has large windows in either 
side affording excellent natural light in center of house. The 
windows in the outer wall are of the triple sliding sash type. 
The windows in the monitor are of ib?. double sliding sash type. 

The engine pits are made of concrete, heavily constructed, the 
bottoms being lined with selected hard burned foundation brick. 
Walls have cast iron coping on top which forms a base and anchor 
plate for 80-pound rail. Tor the 27-stall engine house they are 
65 feet long, 3 feet 10 inches wide, 3 feet 2 inches deep at high, 
with slope of y s inch per foot. For the 13-stall engine house they 
are of the same dimensions as above, except they are 78 feet long. 


The heating system is of the indirect type furnished by the 
Green Fuel Economizer Co. It consists of three separate units, 
two for the 27-stall engine house and one for the 13-stall engine 
house. Each unit contains a heater, fan and engine. The heater 
has 8,875 lineal feet of 1-inch pipe, in five sections, which has a 
heating surface of 2,960 square feet. The fan wheel is 10 feet 
in diameter by 55 inches wide at periphery and delivers 75.000 
cubic feet of air per minute when running at a speed of 150 
R. P. M., and is driven by a 11 x 14 inch 35 H. P. horizontal steam 

With the above units a complete air change can be made every 
eight minutes. A temperature of 65 degrees is maintained within 
the house when the outside temperature is 10 degrees below zero, 
and 25 per cent of the air passed through the heater is drawn 
from the inside of the engine houses and recirculated. 

The air ducts from fans to engine pits consist of one large 
main duct which extends around the outer circle of engine house 
with branch leading to four screened inlets at each engine pit. 

The heating units are housed in separate buildings located 18 
feet from engine house, two units being located in building adja- 
cent to 27-stall house and one unit located in building adjacent 
to 13-stall engine house. 


Engine houses are illuminated by 250 watt tungsten lamps with 
white enameled steel Holophane reflectors hung 15 feet above 
floor. One row is hung near outer circle of building and one row is 
hung in center between pits. On the 27-stall engine house there 
are six 250 watt lamps with Holophane reflectors hung over 
doors on outside of house, and on the 13-stall engine house there 
are three 250 watt lamps with Holophane reflectors hung over 
doors on outside. These are for the purpose of illuminating 
tracks between turntable and engine house. Plug boxes are located 
on posts and suitable places on walls for hand extensions. 


The piping in the engine houses consists of washout, filling, 
blowoff and cold water system, steam blower, and compressed air 

The washout, filling, blowoff and cold water piping is carried 
overhead on rollers with suitable drops located on middle row of 
posts throughout engine houses; also flexible connections are 
provided overhead for blowing off and filling through dome of 
engine. The main blower line is 3-inch with 1-inch flexible drop 
at each pit. The main air line is 2*4-inch with 1-inch flexible 
drop located on middle row of posts throughout engine houses. 


Both engine houses are equipped with turntables 90 feet long 
driven by electric tractors furnished by Geo. P. Nichols & Bro., 
Chicago. Each tractor is equipped with a 22 H. P., 440-volt, 
3-phase, 25-cycle alternating current motor. 


This building is of the same general construction as the engine 
house, and is located at end of 27-stall engine house, and adja- 
cent to cinder pits, thereby being conveniently located for engine- 
men and firemen to get to register room. The building is 18 feet 
wide by 62 feet long and divided into rooms for the following: 
Despatchers, bulletin, register, engine house foreman, road fore- 
man of engines, chief clerk and filing. 

The building is heated by direct radiation, using low pressure 
steam and wrought iron pipe radiators, and is illuminated with 
25 and 60-watt Mazda lamps with Holophane reflectors. 


This building is located between the two engine houses and is 
of the same general construction as the engine houses, except 
that the roof trusses are of steel instead of wood. It is 62 feet 
6 inches by 250 feet, and also includes the blacksmith shop, 
heater room, tool room, store room, oil house, electrician's room, 
locker room, toilet rooms, examiner's room, waiting room and 
bunk room. The bunk room is located on the second floor over the 
five last named rooms. 

The machine shop occupies an area of approximately 7,775 
square feet. In one end is located an erecting pit. Tracks lead 
from this to each engine house. The pit is served by two Shaw- 
Electric 75-ton cranes used for lifting engines. The hoisting 
machinery is stationary but the bridge is traversed by hand, the 
controller for hoist being located on the floor. The balance of the 
machine tool equipment consists of a 4-foot radial drill, 24-inch 
shaper, 30-ton hydraulic press, 48-inch engine lathe, 18-inch 
engine lathe, two 10-inch engine lathes, No. 4 belt cutter, 32-inch 
by 32-inch by 9-foot 8-inch planer, 2-inch by 18-inch double 
emery wheel. Machines are arranged in one group and driven by 
a 15 H. P., 4401volt, 3-phase, 25-cycle alternating current motor. 

The blacksmith shop is 20 by 50 feet and contains the following 
equipment: 200-pound Bradley hammers, two 5-foot standard 
forges, two anvils, 1,000-pound jib crane, No. 7% Buffalo blower. 
Blower and Bradley hammer are driven by a 10 H. P., 440-volt, 
3-phase, 25-cycle alternating current motor. 

The heater room is 18 by 60 feet, floor line of which is 5 feet 
below that of machine shop and engine houses. It contains two 
tanks each 10 feet in diameter by 20 feet long, one for storage 



April, 1914 

Scale of Feet 

Layout of Terminal at Air Line Junction. 

of hot water for filling boilers and the other for storage of 
washing out water. In connection with these tanks are two 
14 by 10 by 12-inch duplex pumps, one for filling and one for 
washing out. The system was furnished by the National Boiler 
Washing Co. 

The machine shop building is heated by direct radiation, steam 
being supplied to pipe coils at 5-pound pressure, and is illuminated 
with 25 to 100-watt Mazda lamps with Holophane reflectors. 


This room is provided with a basement for the storage of the 
various kinds of oil, except the fuel oil, which is stored out in 
yard in two 6,000 gallon tanks. Bowser long distance pumps are 
located in the store room for drawing the oil. The first floor is 
used for shifting oil barrels when storage tanks are filled by grav- 
ity from the barrels. A balcony 18 feet 7 inches by 18 feet is 
located 9 feet 6 inches above first floor for the storage of baled 
waste. A suitable hoist on a runway directly over balcony is 
provided for lifting the bales. Track boxes are located outside 
of oil houses on service track so that tanks can be filled with oil 
from tank cars. 

The following oil storage is provided for : 12,000 gallons of fuel 
oil, 3,300 gallons of headlight oil, 1,500 gallons of signal oil, 1,500 
gallons of valve oil and 1,500 gallons of car oil. 


This building is 44 feet wide by 84 feet 4 inches long, floor 
line of which is 8 feet six inches below ground. This section 
below ground line and foundation is built of concrete, while the 
upper walls are brick. The roof trusses are of the Fink type, 
made of steel. The elevated ash storage bin is also made of 
steel. The power house equipment includes three McNaul hori- 
zontal water tube boilers, 250 H. P. each, fed by Taylor three- 
retort stokers, two 10 by 6 by 10-inch Canton-Hughes outside 

end packed plunger type feed water pumps, one Cochrane open 
type feed water heater, one Ingersoll-Eand 1,500 cubic foot air 
compressor driven by a Westinghouse Company's self -starting 
249 H. P., 4,000 volt, 3-phase, 25-cycle synchronous motor mounted 
on main shaft of machine. An after-cooler and storage tanks 
for air are located outside of power house. The ash hoist is of 
the skip-bucket type actuated by air and is located in front of 
boilers. A suitable ash storage bin has been provided directly 
over ash hoist. Natural draft is obtained by a 150 feet by 6 
feet 6 inches brick chimney. 

Electric current for all purposes is purchased from the Toledo 
Railways & Light Co., and supplied to the switchboard at 4,000 
volts, 25-cycle. This is transformed to 440 volts for power and 
110 volts for lighting. All high-tension circuits are controlled by 
oil switches with automatic release. 


This building is 14 feet wide by 103 feet long and Is con- 
structed of concrete and wood, having a gTeen sand storage of 
440 cubic yards. The dryer is of the gravity type heated by 
steam, the drying space being 6 by 13 feet with two receiving 
tanks beneath these tanks have semi-automatic valves so that 
when air is admitted sand is elevated into storage tanks which 
are located on coal chute. 


This structure is built of structural steel with corrugated iron 
roof and sides and concrete pits and foundation. It has storage 
bins of 1,000 tons capacity, seven 20-ton scale hollers, three 10 
cubic feet dry sand storage tanks, two continuous conveyors 
which handle 75 tons of coal per hour, and driven by 35 H. P., 
440-volt, 3-phase, 60-cycle motors. There are also four feeders 
which feed the coal from track hoppers to crushers which are 
driven by 5 H. P., 440-volt, 3-phase. 60-cycle motors. It also 

April, 1914 



Layout of Terminal as Air Line Junction (Continued). 

has four track hoppers served by two tracks, equipped with two 
coal crushers, driven by 25 H. P., 440-volt, 3-phase, 60-cycle 
motors. Engines can receive coal or sand from seven different 
tracks. The machinery was manufactured by the C. "W. Hunt Co., 
and the station was built by the Phillips-Lang & Co. 


The cinder pits are of the L. S. & M. S. standard, double track, 
open side type, with depressed tracks between, one 200-foot pit 
and 40-foot pit being located at each engine house. Space has 
been provided for extending the 40-foot pit to 200-foot long. There 
is also a 200-foot pit provided adjacent to classification yards. 
This pit is used for handling yard engines and through freight 
engines which are not required to be brought into engine houses. 
The pits are constructed of concrete lined with vitrified paving 
block, the outer rails being supported on concrete walls and inner 
rail supported on "I" beams and cast iron chairs. The floors 
of pits are sloped ts inch in 12 feet so that water will run off 
easily. Suitable catch basins for water have been provided for 
at ends of pits. 


This building is located adjacent to cinder pits and is con- 
structed of concrete and brick with wooden roof. It is divided into 
three compartments, one for locker and service room for cinder 
pit men, the other two for storage of tools, etc., taken from engines 
at cinder pit. The building is heated by high pressure steam 
through pipe coils. 

hostlers' building. 

This building is located adjacent to coaling station and con- 
structed of concrete and brick with wooden roof. It is used for 
hostlers' lockers and service room. The building is heated by 
high pressure steam through pipe coils. 

water system. 
Two 100,000-gallon water tanks 30 feet in diameter by 24 feet 

high are provided at engine houses, penstocks are provided near 
coaling station and also on outgoing engine tracks. Ample fire 
protection has been provided for in all buildings and throughout 

Freight Car Repair Shops and Yards for Repairing Wooden 


This group consists of a heavy car repair shop, wood mill, 
machine shop, blacksmith shop, brake beam shop, dry lumber shed, 
storehouse, including oil room, also an office on second floor ; build- 
ing including paint, tool, tin and oil rooms, air brake shop, mess 
and toilet room in repair yards, general toilet building, finished 
material shed, power house, light repair yard, lumber storage, bad 
order car storage, etc. 

CAR shop. 

This building is 243 feet wide by 441 feet 3 inches long and 
23 feet to top of crane rail. It is constructed of concrete, brick 
and steel; the roof construction is of the monitor type, thus 
affording excellent light in all parts of shop. Steel sash is used 
throughout. There are 12 repair tracks with standard gauge indus- 
trial track between every pair of tracks. These industrial tracks 
connect with all the other shops in group by means of turntables. 
Three twenty-ton cranes are provided in this schop for general 
service. Cranes are manufactured by the Cleveland Crane & 
Engineering Co. 

wood mill. 

This building is 61 feet 6 inches wide by 163 feet 2 inches long. 
Foundations are of concrete, walls of brick, roof trusses of steel 
and floor of wood. A wide monitor extends the entire length of 
roof and has windows on both sides. Following is the list of 
tools which are in this shop: 

One 14 by 20-inch planer and matcher, one 4-side 12^by 18-inch 
planer; one 42-inch band saw; one 36-inch cutoff saw, one 16-inch 
jointer, one 24-inch by 4-foot planer, one 20-inch wood turning 



April, 1914 

lathe, one 36-inch swing cutoff saw, one extra range heavy auto 
car gainer, one comb vertical and radial car borer — 5 spindle, 3 
vertical and 2 radial, 1 band, rip and re-sawing machine — capacity 
24 inches wide, 12 inches thick. 


This building is 61 feet 2 inches wide by 91 feet 2 inches long; 
foundations are of concrete, walls of brick, floor of wood and roof 
truses of steel. A wide monitor extends over roof, having windows 
on both sides. Industrial tracks are brought in this shop close 
to journal lathes, so that wheels and axles may be handled with 
least possible movement. A 6-inch 12*4 -pound I-beam for trolley 
is also provided for the unloading of material which comes from 
blacksmith shop. 

Following is the list of tools which are in this shop: 

2 36-inch drill presses. 

1 32-inch drill press. 

2 l^-inch triple head bolt cutters. 
1 2-inch single head bolt cutters. 
1 24-inch shaper. 

1 3 by 16-inch emery wheel. 

1 double journal turdning lathe. 

1 6-spindle nut tapper. 

1 18-inch by 8-foot engine lathe. 


This building is 71 feet 10 inches wide by 127 feet 6 inches 
long. Foundations are of concrete, walls of brick, and cinder 
floor, and roof trusses are of steel. A wide monitor extends over 
roof having windows on both sides. A 22-inch jib crane is pro- 
vided to serve the 1,500-pound steam hammer. 

Following is the list of individual motor driven tools which are 
in this shop: 

12 300-pound anvils. 
12 5-foot forges. 
1 combination punch and shear, 36-inch shear end and 48-inch 
punch end. 

1 friction saw, capacity 15-inch I-beam or its equivalent. 

16 by 10-foot furnace. 

1 4 by 8-foot furnace. 

1 1,500-pound steam hammer. 

1 200-pound Bradley hammer. 

2 6 by 10-foot face plates. 
1 punch, 21-inch throat. 

1 3 by 16-inch electric driven emery wheel. 

1 pressure blower, 4,000 cubic feet of air per minute. 


The construction of this shop is similar to the blacksmith shop. 
It is used for repairing steel brake beams of all kinds. Coupler 
yokes are also taken off and applied here. 

Following is the list of tools which are in this shop : 

1 iron shear. 

6 5-foot forges. 

1 3 by 7 by 4-foot double end furnace. 

1 coupler pocket press. 

1 24-inch drill press with sliding head. 

6 300-pounds anvils. 

1 pressure blower, 4,000 cubic feet of air per minute. 

1 3 by 16-inch emery wheel. 


This building is a frame structure 50 feet wide by 160 feet long 
with concrete foundation. The roof is of the shed type with 
monitor extending full length of building. On one side of this 
building is located a door shop 15 feet wide by 69 feet 10 inches 
long in which ear doors are repaired. 

Following is the list of tools which are in this shop: 

1 2spindle horizontal boring machine. 

1 No. 3 self -feed rip saw. 

1 16-inch cutoff saw. 

1 24-foot cutoff saw. 


This building is 47 feet 2 inches wide by 318 feet 10 inches 
long. It is constructed of concrete and brick and has a shed type 
roof. On one end of building is a second floor on which is located 
the general foreman of shops and his assistants, also file and 
record rooms. In the other end of the building there is an oil 
room 15 feet 9% inches wide by 45 feet long, in which is stored 
barreled oil and baled waste. 

A 12-foot receiving platform is provided on one-side of building 
and an 8-foot delivery platform on the other side; also large 
storage platforms at each end of building. The platforms and 
first floor of building are 4 feet above top of rail. Platforms 
and floor are composed of 4% inches of concrete covered with iy 2 
inches mastic finish. 


This building is 32 feet- 2 inches wide by 141 feet 2 inches 
long. Foundations are of concrete, walls of brick, roof is con- 
structed of 8-inch "l"< beams covered with concrete slab and 
composition roofing. Floors are of 2-inch yellow pine, except oil 
rooms and paint rooms, which are cement. Nine-inch walls 
divide off the rooms. Each room is entered by outside doors. 


This building is 27 feet 2 inches wide by 37 feet 2 inches long. 
Foundations are of concrete, walls of brick, roof trusses of wood, 
floor of 2-ineh yellow pine. This shop is equipped with one 
improved M. C. B. standard triple valve test rack and one 3-inch 
pipe cutting and threading machine. 


This building is 25 feet wide by 225 feet 9 inches long. Founda- 
tions are of concrete, walls of brick, roof of 12-inch "I" beams 
covered with concrete slab and composition roofing. Floor is 
4% -inch concrete slab with 1%-inch smooth finish. The toilet 
room occupies a space of 25 feet by 36 feet and has a 5-foot 
basement under entire room. This basement is used for access to 
pipes and traps. In this building are suitable tables, benches, 
lockers and toilets to accommodate 314 men. 

The general toilet building is 25 feet wide by 62 feet 2 inches 
long and is similar in construction to mess and toilet room in 
repair yard. It has toilet facilities to accommodate about 400 


This building is 41 feet 4 inches wide by 42 feet 2 inches long, 
and is of the same general construction as machine shop. This 
equipment consists of one 210 H. P. locomotive type boiler, one 
open type feed water heater, two feed pumps and one Ingersoll- 
Eand 1.500 cubic foot air compressor driven by a "Westinghouse 
Company's self -starting 249 H. P.. 4,000-volt, 3-phase, 25-cycle 
synchronous motor mounted on main shaft of machine, an after- 
cooler and storage tanks for air are located outside of power 
house; natural draft is obtained by a 3-foot 6-inch diameter by 
80-foot steel stack. Space is provided in power house for an 
additional future boiler. 


This yard is located adjacent to repair buildings and has a 
capacity of 370 cars; each pair of tracks are served by an indus- 
trial track which is connected with repair buildings by means of 
turntables. There is also bad order storage yards located adja- 
cent to repair yards which have a capacity of 387 cars. 


The car shop buildings are heated by direct radiators using 
high pressure steam and pipe coil radiators; a loop return system 
is carried to a vacuum pump which is located in power house. 
The brake beam shop, blacksmith shop and dry lumber shed are 
not equipped with steam heat. 

The shops and yards are illuminated by Mazda lamps with 
Holophane reflectors; suitable plug boxes for hand extensions are 
also provided along columns and walls in the various buildings. 

April, 1914 




George Westinghouse, inventor and engineer, died of heart 
disease at hia New York City residence on Thursday, March 12. 
His health had been failing for some time and consequently his 
death was in a measure anticipated. Mr. Westinghouse was 
born at Central Bridge, Scholarie County, N. Y., on October 6, 
1846. The father's ancestors came from Germany and settled 
in Massachusetts and Vermont before the Revolution; the 
mother 's were Dutch-English. Before he was fifteen he invented 
«ind made a rotary engine, and at an early age passed the 
examination for the position of assistant engineer in the United 
States Navy. In June, 1863, though barely seventeen, he 
enlisted in the Twelfth New York National Guard. Shortly 
afterward he accepted an appointment as third assistant 
engineer. United States Navy. On his return from the war he 
entered Union College, where he remained until the close of his 
sophomore year, and, obedient to his impulse for experiment, 
abandoned his classical studies and entered upon active life, to 
find a wider scope for his inventive genius. In 1865 he invented 
a device for replacing railroad cars upon the track, which, being 
of cast steel, was manufactured by the Bessemer Steel Works, 
at Troy, N. Y. 


Going to Troy one day, a delay caused by a collision between 
two freight trains, suggested to Mr. Westinghouse the idea that 
a brake under the control of an engineer might have prevented 
the accident. His first thought was an automatic brake attached 
to the couplers, which was unsuccessful. This was followed by 
steam, which proved also to be unsatisfactory because by the 
time it reached the brake from the engineer's cab it lost its 
power. At this point Fate seems to have entered his life. In 
the pages of a magazine he had subscribed to through the solici- 
tation of a young girl, he saw an account of the use of com- 
pressed air in digging the Mount Cenis tunnel, three thousand 
feet under ground. Instantly the inventor saw the light. 

He began to think over the matter, and, after much further 
study and investigation, the use of compressed air impressed 
itself on him. Drawings of the air-pump, brake cylinder and 
valves were made, but considerable time elapsed before a prac- 
tical trial of the brake was obtained. The first patent was 
issued April 13, 1869, and the Westinghouse Air Brake Com- 
pany was formed on the 20th of July following. 

During the next few years Mr. Westinghouse invented the 
' ' automatic ' ' feature of the brake, which overcame the imper- 
fections in the first form, and removed the danger from the 
parting of trains on steep grades. In 1886, he invented the 
"quick-action" brake, the improvement being made in what is 
known as the "triple-valve." The automatic and quick-action 

brakes are regarded by experts as surpassing the original brake 
in ingenuity and inventive genius, being not mere improve- 
ments, but distinct inventions of the highest class, unique and 

About 1880, Mr. Westinghouse became interested in the opera- 
tion of railway signals and switches by compressed air, and 
soon after there was developed and patented the system now 
manufactured by the Union Switch & Signal Company. 

In 1886 the Westinghouse Electric Company was formed for 
the manufacture of lamps and electric lighting apparatus, Mr. 
Westinghouse having become interested in the subject. The 
business rapidly developed and in 1889 and 1890 this company 
absorbed the United States Electric Company and the Consoli- 
dated Electric Light Company. In 1891 all these properties 
were reorganized into the Westinghouse Electric & Manufactur- 
ing Company. In 1892, Mr. Westinghouse secured for the elec- 
tric company the contract for the electric equipment of the 
World's Fair at Chicago, and in 1893 the contract for the large 
generators at Niagara Falls, both of which marked epochs in 
the progress of the electrical industry. 

The question of the steam turbine and its applications was 
investigated by Mr. Westinghouse and he secured the patent 
rights of Chas. A. Parsons of England on the turbine in 
1897-98. This development of a new prime mover soon led 
the inventor to consider the use of the turbine as a prime 
mover for ships. The trouble was the high speed. Mr. West- 
inghouse then developed and brought out one of the most 
-ingenious of modern mechanical engineering. This was the 
mechanical reduction gear for reducing the inherently high 
speed of a turbine to the slow speed of a ship propeller or 
direct current dynamo. He accomplished this work in collabora- 
tion with the late Admiral Geo. W. Melville, U. S. N., and John 
H. MacAlpine. Within the last few years he also occupied him- 
self with the development of an air spring for automobiles and 
motor trucks, which rapidly came into favor. 

It is simply stating a simple fact to say that Mr. Westing- 
house has been a great factor in the advance of civilization 
as represented by the important part he has played by intro- 
ducing improved means of transportation. Chance has had no 
place in the success of this man. It was due to his foresight, 
courage and technical skill. As with his first invention, the 
air brake, the different kinds of apparatus were developed to 
answer actual needs, in some cases acknowledged generally, and 
in others foreseen by him. When the apparatus had passed the 
experimental state and was ready for commercial exploitation, 
he established factories which are themselves models. 

Owing to his many achievements in merchanics, electricity, 
steam and gas, his name was known the world over, and he had 
many honorable distinctions conferred upon him for his achieve- 
ments and in recognition of the services he rendered the various 
branches of engineering. His alma mater, Union College of 
Schenectady, conferred upon him the degree of doctor of phil- 
osophy. He was decorated with the order of the Legion of 
Honor, with the order of the Royal Crown of Italy, with the 
order of Leopold of Belgium. He was the second recipient of 
the John Fritz medal. He received the degree of doctor of 
engineering from the Koenigliche Technische Hochsehule of 
Berlin, Germany. He was an honorary member of the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers, of which body he was also 
president in 1910. He was one of the honorary members of the 
American Society for the Advancement of Science. He was 
an honorary member of the National Electric Light Association 
of America. He was awarded the Scott premium and medal 
by the Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania. He 
received the Edison gold medal for meritorious achievements in 
the alternating current system of electrical distribution. He 
received the Grashof gold medal from the Society of German 
Engineers in Germany, which acknowledged him the greatest 
American engineer. 

Mr. Westinghouse was connected with a large number of 
industries at home and abroad, many of which bore his name. 



April, 1914 

The Westinghouse companies employ 50,000 men, on whom 
150,000 persons are dependent. The total capitalization of all 
the companies is $200,000,000. 

Mr. Westinghouse was married August 8, 1867, at Brooklyn, 
N. Y., to Marguerite Franklin Walker. They had one son, 
George, who is a graduate of Yale, and was recently married to 
the Honorable Evelyn Violet Brocklebank. His wife and son 
survive him. 


The Niagara. Frontier Car Men 's Association is the name of a 
new organization in the railroad world. There are over a 
hundred railroad men in the organization, and the object of the 
association is to bring together those interested in car department 
matters for the purpose of exchanging ideas and educating the 
car men to a keener knowledge of economy in maintenance of 
equipment and for the settlement of disputes. 

The officers are as follows: president, W. H. Sitter ly; first vice- 
president, W. B. Shone; second vice-president, J. McCormick; 
secretary, E. N. FTankenberger ; treasurer, C. J. Charlton. The 
following comprise the board of directors: B., R. & P., C. Hilde- 
brand; Buffalo & Susquehanna, W. Monan; D., L. & W., G. J. 
Charlton; Erie, T. Tracy, M. Meehan; Grand Trunk and Wabash, 
D. C. Messeroll, S. WarTen; L. S. & M. S., A. G. Berg; Lehigh 
Valley, J. Deibert, J. McCormick; Pennsylvania, W. H. Sitterly; 
N. Y. C. & H. E., A. Faerber, J. Muhlbauer, W. Shone; N. Y. 
C. & St. L., J. Gordon; Mich. Central, E. Howe, J. Balwdin; Pere 
Marq., G. J. Charlton, J. Muhlbauer; H. Fryer; P. Bach; W. 
Krantz; J. Schmidt; H. Yaeger. 

Committee on subjects: J. Schaeffer, A. Berg, H. H. Fyer. 

Committee on introduction and welcome: F. Cleary. J. M. 
Gietzen. A. J. Krueger. 

Auditing committee: M. Hneenan, F. J. Fennell, J. C. Schmidt. 
Committee on publicity and membership : F. J. Fennell, A. J. 
Krueger, W. B. Shone. 

THE NEW YORK RAILROAD CLUB on Friday, March 20, 
held its tenth annual electrical night. The feature of the 
evening was a paper on "Swiss Electrification," by Emil 
Huber-Stockar, permanent consulting engineer on electrification 
of the Swiss Federal Railways. He reviewed the development 
of electric traction in Switzerland, from the first electrification 
in 1894, to date. The last large work was the 15,000-volt single- 
phase electrification of the Lotschberg Railway. Mr. Huber 
said that the commission had recommended the single-phase 
system, although the costs of the three systems did not vary 
greatly. Other speakers were George Gibbs, consulting en- 
gineer, Pennsylvania R. R.; A. H. Armstrong, General Electric 
Co.; W. S. Murray, consulting engineer, New York, New Haven 
& Hartford R. R., and N. W. Storer, Westinghouse Electric 
& Manufacturing Co. 

BOMBAY, INDIA, is considering the electrification of the 
railways in the city and suburbs. Mr. Merz, who made a report 
on the electrification of the Melbourne, Australia, railways, has 
prepared a report on the Bombay situation, which is altogether 
in favor of electrification. The report estimates that the elec- 
tric trains could be driven at 20 per cent higher speed than 
steam trains. 

H. W. Ensign has been appointed master mechanic of the Chi- 
cago Great Western at Clarion, la., succeeding John R. 

picking over 


The Car Repair Shop as the Cartoonist Sees It. 

April. 1914 



By Hon. Orville F. Berry, Examiner Attorney, Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, Washington, D. C. 

In this busy age in which we live it is well for us sometimes 
to pause and turn our eyes backward and review briefly, at 
least for present use, the past. One of the greatest enterprises 
and interests in the world today, in business lines, is the rail- 
roads of the country. The subject I have chosen — past and 
present railroading — in its very nature, must take the form 
of past history and present operation. 

Railroads had their origin in tramways over 200 years ago in 
the mining districts of England, and were used to convey coal 
to the seaboard with animal motive power. It was discovered 
in 1814 that a smooth wheel would adhere to a smooth rail, 
thus making if possible to consider the use of the tractive 
power of a rolling locomotive. Hence its necessity, and it is 
said truly that necessity is the mother of invention. Thus, soon 
after, followed the trial trip of the "Rocket" in 1829, which 
may with reasonable certainty be described as the first success- 
ful steam locomotive. 

"While railroads of different character existed in this country, 
the Baltimore k Ohio was the pioneer American railroad built 
for public use and of any practical value. On July 4, 1828, the 
first rail of this road was laid by the Honorable Chas. Carroll, 
the only surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence 
at that time, and thirteen miles of this road was open for traffic 
in 1830. The same year the West Point foundry began build- 
ing locomotives and soon produced the well-known "DeWitt 
Clinton." It weighed 3% tons, and was built for the Mohawk 
& Hudson River, the pioneer company and beginning of the 
present New York Central Lines, which had been chartered in 

This line was opened for use from Albany to Utica in 1836, 
and to Buffalo in 1842. Connections rapidly followed to New- 
York and Boston. 

About this time in Pennsylvania the Columbia Railroad was 
built from Philadelphia to Columbia, which was the pioneer 
division of the present great Pennsylvania System. 

Following the panic of 1837 little development was made in 
railroad construction or operation. In 1850 began the era of 
rapid extension of railroads and the welding together of short 
connecting lines under a single ownership. Strange as it may 
seem, consolidation of railroads was as vigorously opposed at 
that time as it has been in later years. Originally there were 
eleven companies interested in and operating the line between 
Albany and Buffalo. Between Buffalo and Cleveland changes 
of passengers and freight were made at both Dunkirk and Erie. 
This, indeed, would seem a strange proceeding at this time. 
We are sometimes compelled to change passengers and freight 
from one train to another in times of storm and even then it 
is so inconvenient that most of us lose our patience. 

This change at that time was made necessary by the differ- 
ence in gauge of the two divisions, one being six feet the other 
4 feet 10 inches. Very properly, plans for the consolidation of 
these lines for through operation were undertaken to be made 
to obviate this transfer. The proposition so aroused the indig- 
nation of the people of Erie that they resorted to violence. 
And iu December, 1853, they tore down the railroad bridge so 
that no trains were sent through until February, 1854. This 
bridge was rebuilt and again torn down by a mob. Finally a 
compromise was made which ended what was known at that 
time as the ' ' Erie War, ' ' and the gauge was changed for 
through operation. 

In 1851, the Erie Railroad joined New York with Lake Erie. 
The Baltimore k Ohio reached the Ohio River. Two years later 
connected the Atlantic Seaboard and Chicago, and the follow- 
ing year reached the Mississippi. These extensions to what was 
then the western frontier, opened traffic for the first time 
between the Ohio and the Mississippi Rivers. 

•A paper read before St. Louis Railway Club. 

In these early days there was a great public desire for rail 
trnsportation and the public was willing to furnish financial 
support, but so much trouble had occurred and antagonism 
aroused in places, that some of the States passed laws prohibit- 
ing assistance. When the Louisville & Nashville was built, 
Cincinnati desired an outlet to the South, but the law above 
referred to prohibited them from giving assistance, and a 
scheme was devised by which a line was built, owned and 
operated by it; later leased to the Cincinnati, New Orleans & 
Texas Pacific. 

Railroads and railroad transportation were important factors 
in the conduct and carrying on of the Civil war. Great dam- 
age was done to many lines in the South on account of military 
operations, and until after the close of the war no pronounced 
advance in protection by appliances employed in the control of 
train operation was made. 

The first Pacific Railroad was begun with government aid in 
the '60s. Thus began the opening up of the West beyond the 
Mississippi River, and the return to industrial pursuits of the 
people after the war marks a remarkable era and period in 
railroad building. During the ten years beginning with 1880, 
70,000 miles of railroad were built in the central and western 
territory, thus opening up vast heretofore unoccupied agricul- 
tural, grazing and mineral sections for development. But again 
in 1893 the panic practically stopped the extension of railroads 
and the period since 1900 has been more a period of reconstruc- 
tion and improving existing lines, the growth of industries, the 
increase of population along present lines of railroad than 

The importance and magnitude of the railroad business will 
be better understood by us all when I tell you that about 20 
per cent of the capital of the United States is invested in rail- 
roads. Nothing can be much more interesting to any individual, 
and especially to the railroad man, tban the continuous growth 
by years or periods of railroads. In 1830 we had 23 miles of 
railroad; in 1840, 2,800; in 1850, 9,000; in 1869, 30,600; in 1870, 
53,000; in 1880, 93,000; in 1890, 163,500; in 1900, 193,000; in 
1914, about 300,000. 

A careful study of these figures will give us a mountain-top 
vision of railroad growth and its value and importance today. 
It would be interesting and profitable, if time allowed, to study 
the history of our country in all other lines, showing its gradual 
growth with the development of the railroad, and such study 
will convince any intelligent man that railroads have been one, 
if not the one, greatest element in the development of our 
country along all kinds of business development, and to that 
may be added the development of schools, churches and col- 
leges which have rapidly followed the advancing line of rail- 
roads westward. 

May we now go back and look at some of the specific im- 
provements and their growth in connection with the operation 
and management and convenience of railroads and railroading. 
As the density of traffic increased the demand naturally fol- 
lowed for more speed, and that fact required greater weight in 
equipment. This followed very rapidly and the first apparent 
need was for more efficient brakes or means of controlling the 
train, and that it should be simultaneously applied and from 
a single point of control if possible. 

In 1869, George Westinghouse, Jr., presented what is known 
as the "Straight Air Brake." These brakes proved, however, 
unsuccessful and useless, for the reason that a break in the air 
line made them useless. With this and other shortcomings of 
that particular brake the automatic air brake was produced in 
1873. With the application of this air brake to freight cars 
it was found the reduction of pressure was not quick enough 
to set the rear brakes and accidents followed from bunching of 
cars. But American genius was still at work, and about 1886 
witnessed the introduction of the Westinghouse quick action 
air brake, which has continued from that time to this, with 
many features of improvements and is very successful today. 

This apparent means of control emphasized the necessity of 



April. 1914 

some better coupling device, all railroad men realizing that the 
coupling and uncoupling of cars involved the all-important 
questions of interchange and safety. In view of many diffi- 
culties and accidents, F. B. Adams, of the Boston & Albany 
Eailroad, recommended to the Master Car Builders' Association 
at its convention in 1869 that a uniform height should be estab- 
lished for couplers. At the convention of the same association 
in 1873 a committee on that subject pronounced the automatic 
couplers a failure. Another committee at the same convention 
gave recognition to automatic couplers by reporting that a 
great advantage would be derived from the use of a uniform 
drawbar, such as would be accepted as a standard and which 
would be a self-coupler. 

In 1885, public tests of couplers were made at Buffalo. Forty- 
two couplers were tested, only 12 of which were recommended 
for further test. In 1887, the executive committee of the Mas- 
ter Car Builders' Association reported in favor of the Janney 
type of coupler. This report was adopted in 1888. At the con- 
vention in 1889 action was taken on this subject, making this 
type standard and it has been so regarded since and called 
• • Master Car Builders ' Coupler. ' ' 

In 1893, Congress enacted a law requiring all railroads 
engaged in interstate commerce to provide all cars and locomo- 
tives with continuous power brakes capable of being controlled 
by the engineman in the locomotive cab, and also to use auto- 
matic couplers, so that today we practically have a uniformity 
in height and contour such as to insure perfect contact between 
all classes of equipment. The design and attachment to car 
bodies are prescribed of a strength in excess of the power of 
locomotive in modern friction draft gear, the strength of which 
reaches 250,000 lbs. This branch of operation having been rea- 
sonably well settled, the next improvement that would naturally 
be considered would be signaling. 

The need of indicating the condition of the road to trains 
came naturally with increase of traffic and speed. As these 
conditions developed in England before they did here, the first, 
step along that line was taken there. In 1834, the Liverpool & 
Manchester Eailroad introduced the first system of mixed sig- 
nals consisting of an upright post with a rotating disc at its 
top, showing red for danger, and the absence of indicating by 
day and a white light by night for clear-. This being the 
foundation or start, many improvements have been made along 
this line. Many demonstrations have been made and tested, 
many have failed of successful approval and many have been 
adopted and have proven very successful. Until about 1841 
there was no communication between stations. Each signal 
man displaying his signal at danger after the passage of a 
train until a certain time had elapsed, when it was clear, and 
the only information conveyed to the engineer was that the 
preceding train had been gone from the station a certain length 
of time. 

The failure to act with sufficient promptness at the display 
of danger position and the many collisions that followed, led to 
the installation of additional signals to give advance informa- 
tion to the engineer. 

Thus we have here clearly outlined the first thought of the 
present block signal. 

Making use of the telegraph, the chief engineer of the United 
New Jersey Canal & Railroad Co. devised and installed in 1864 
the first block signal system in this country, on the double 
track line between Philadelphia and New Brunswick. The 
signal itself was a white board by day and a white light by 
night, indicating clear. For the danger indication, a red screen 
fell to cover the white board or light. Notwithstanding numer- 
ous improvements in apparatus the same practice of fixing a 
positive space interval, by means of communication between 
block stations, still holds good, and one cf the important sub- 
jects now being discussed and perfected by railroad experts is 

Following in natural sequence, the next subject of importance 
would be interlocking, developing naturally along the same 

lines of manual operation of signals, and as a further safeguard 
against mistakes interlocking grew up as a means for prevent- 
ing conflicting signals being given at the same time. As with 
signals, so with interlocking, England led us. The first plan of 
interlocking adopted was where the entire control fell to one 
man, so located as to be in touch with the whole situation and 
equipped with a machine that would not permit of setting up 
conflicting routes. Railroads were prompt to see this advan- 
tage and in a short time many similar machines were put in 
operation. In 1876, the first power-operated interlocking sys- 
tem was perfected, which was the pneumatic type. In 1900, an 
all-electric interlocking machine was put in operation and has 
proved reasonably successful. 

The more recent development of power-operated interlocking 
systems, with complete electric indication of the condition of 
all tracks, has made it possible for larger systems to be con- 
solidated under the control of a central plant, and under the 
direction of one authority. These machines are being used 
largely and very satisfactorily. 

With this increase of equipment and manner of control, it is 
not strange that railroad men at once began to devise some 
plan of train dispatching, and the first departure from the old- 
time interval and flagging method of operation of trains came 
in 1851. The New York & Erie Railroad established a line of 
telegraph between some of its stations for company business. 
And again we find necessity the mother of invention. 

The superintendent of telegraph of this railroad and the 
division superintendent were together at the Elmira depot and 
learned that the west-bound express from New York was four 
hours late (it is well to note that it is not only in modern times 
that railroad trains are late) ; the superintendent of telegraph 
had information that at Corning an east-bound stock train and 
a west-bound freight at Elmira were waiting for the express, 
and he suggested that the freight train at Elmira could be 
sent to Corning and the stock train at that point ordered to 
Elmira with perfect safety before the coming of the express. 
The move was successful and very much encouraged similar 
operations, and this, indeed, is the beginning of train dispatch- 
ing. Its adoption over the entire line of road followed, in spite 
of the opposition that the general superintendent met when 
planning for its introduction, and many conductors and 
engineers resigned rather than operate a train on telegraphic 
orders against the time of another train. In later years experi- 
ments have been made in train dispatching by telephone. The 
investigations that I have made along this line lead me to 
believe that there is a great difference of opinion among rail- 
road people on that subject. 

Having briefly noted the growth of operation along certain 
lines of railroading, may we now turn to the equipment itself, 
and notice its growth. As early as 1680 Sir Isaac Newton pre- 
dicted steam-propelled carriages, and through the eighteenth 
century several types of steam vehicles appeared, but they 
were considered curiosities. Some of them, as we study their 
form and makeup, indicate the locomotive, others the modern 
automobile, but not until 1803 was anything really deserving 
the name "locomotive"' built. Richard Treverick, a Cornish 
miner, constructed a locomotive bearing his name, and strange 
to say it was the result of a bet. 

On the trial, this machine, or locomotive so-called, conveyed 
ten tons of iron nine miles on a cast iron tramway by steam 
power, and he won his bet. The desire of other mine owners to 
use steam motive power was so strong that it led to the prac- 
tical demonstration of adhesion, which is so necessary in such 
operation. On this principle Wm. Hedley built his "Puffing 
Billy," a complicated affair composed mostly of levers, beams 
and gears. 

On the completion of the Liverpool & Manchester Railroad 
the directors were undecided as to what kind of power they 
would use, and they offered a prize of £500 for a locomotive 
moved by steam that would fulfill certain conditions named. 
The test came in October, 1829, on a level piece of track about 

April, 1914 



lYo miles long, between four competitors. Stevenson's 
' ' Rocket ' ' won, and gave the world the mechanical combina- 
tions largely represented in locomotives until this day. 

American locomotive practice and building almost universally 
followed the Stevenson model. The four-wheel engines of the 
English type proved injurious to the light rails and sharp 
curves on our early roads, and to overcome this John B. Jervis, 
chief engineer of the Mohawk & Hudson Eailroad, introduced 
the four-wheel "Bogie" truck. For some twenty years this 
design remained, until in the '50s. The demand came for more 
tractive power. This brought about the addition of another 
pair of coupled drivers, — thus evolving the well-known Amer- 
ican type of locomotive. Between the years 1880 and 1890 more 
drivers were added and the ten-wheel type began to be used in 
high-speed service. This was followed in about 1895 by what 
is known as the Atlantic type. 

The Pacific type, or the most modern high-speed locomotive, 
is a development of this idea. In 1888 Mallet designed the 
articulated locomotive, and in 1904 the first one of this type 
was placed in operation on American roads, and it has gained 
in favor where maximum tractive power on heavy grades is 
required. It is well to remember that in no branch of art or 
industry has there been greater improvement, both practical 
and artistic, than has been made in the development of the rail- 
road locomotives, and today we stand in the presence of one of 
these mighty machines and admire not only its beauty and 
power, but almost seeming intelligence, and when we realize its 
mighty power and that its entire operation and usefulness 
depend upon the man who holds the throttle, we unconsciously 
take off our hat to the engineman. 

With the growth of the engine, naturally the problem of car 
construction must accompany it, and a careful examination of 
the history of the railroad car shows it moved along readily, 
step by step, with the development of the locomotive. The 
increase in length of passenger cars with corresponding in- 
creases in weight led in the year 1880 to the almost general 
employment of a six-wheel truck instead of four, and even 
eight-wheel trucks were used for a time, but finally rejected on 
account of the excessive length of wheel base and other com- 
plications. Great interest attaches at this time to the manu- 
facture of solid steel-forged wheels, as well as all-steel cars, and 
today most of our best vestibule trains may be said to be in 
reality a ' ' parlor on wheels. ' ' Following car construction 
comes car heating, both for comfort and convenience of the 
passengers. The original method was with stoves, which were 
not only a discomfort, but a great danger in case of accident. 

The next step above that was the hot-water heater, which 
was an improvement, but still left the danger of fire. But today 
the growth and capacity of the steam boiler and the perfection 
of the couplings has led to the present practice of steam heat- 
ing cars, which is very satisfactory and apparently safe. 

A well-built and well-heated car would be useless in this day 
without proper lighting. Car lighting has passed through the 
identical stages of growth that house lighting has passed 
through, and has improved as rapidly until today most of our 
trains are as well lighted as the modern home. 

Thus far we have considered almost entirely railroad equip- 
ment or its control. In view of our great lines of railroad 
today, crossing the entire continent, and having overcome both 
rivers and mountains, it is well to remember some of the facts 
in connection with this branch of progress in railroads, for in 
this as in no other department of railroading do we see the 
ability and courage of the railroad engineer. In bridge con- 
struction for centuries the simple beam or arch were the only 
spans employed. The construction of railroad bridges requires 
something more than either of these, and today we find the 
great railroad bridges with truss construction, enabling the rail- 
roads to bridge streams and secure continuous roadway. 

It was very interesting to me in looking up this history to 
find that the first railroad bridge was built across the Missis- 
sippi Biver at Rock Island in 1856. And still stranger it 

appears that it had hardly been completed at great expense 
before St. Louis steamboat interests demanded its removal as 
an obstruction to navigation, and stranger still the United 
States District Court found it was an obstruction and ordered 
its removal within six months. The judge, in his opinion, among 
other things, stated: "If one railroad is able to transfer 
freight and passengers without delay and expense of changing 
at the river, financial necessity will compel competing roads to 
provide themselves with the same facilities." Which evidently 
led him to see in the far distant future the ruination of all 
traffic. It is still interesting to know that this case was 
appealed to the United States Supreme Court and that Abraham 
Lincoln was attorney for the Railroad Bridge Company. He 
argued that both river and railroads were great highways for 
people, and while at that time the traffic on the river wad 
possibly greater than on the railroad, he predicted with that 
foresight that so marked his entire life, that the time might 
come when the railroad would carry as much traffic as the river. 
Therefore, he urged that they should be entitled to equal con- 
sideration, and the Supreme Court took that view of the case 
and the bridge remained. 

Such an argument would seem very strange now, and yet it 
only emphasizes the great growth and the great difference 
between past and present railroading and railroad ideas. 

I might with profit, if time would permit, discuss the im- 
provement, which is equally interesting and rapid, of the rail 
upon which these locomotives and cars run. The most interest- 
ing fact that comes to us in the study cf the development of 
the rail is the very simple changes that were necessary and 
how a little thing properly used becomes so very important, 
and it is sufficient to say that our rails, rail fastenings, ties 
and ballast have kept pace with all other developments of rail- 
roading. The general demand made upon railroads by the pub- 
lic and by railroad officials and employes as well for "safety 
first" will necessarily sooner or later, and we hope sooner, 
bring about the abolition of grade crossings, the trespassing 
upon railroads and the abandonment in a large measure of all 
wooden cars for passengers. 

Notwithstanding the great improvement in all equipment, 
including roadbed, track, bridges, signals, etc., the human 
element necessarily is the most important element in its opera- 
tion. And with a view of raising the standard along these lines 
and improving individual service, a system of physical and 
mental examination has been adopted by practically all the 
roads. In the early days of railroading, the individual service 
was much less definitely classified and the exactions much less 
than they are under modern conditions. In keeping with the 
progress of mechanical and other safety devices the necessity 
of a better system of training for the employes has become 
apparent. Employes must pass an examination today as to 
vision, color and hearing, and their general knowledge of the 
fundamental rules and regulations as well as a general knowl- 
edge of the road, safety appliances and other equipment. These 
examinations conducted from time to time, my information 
leads me to say, after talking with the management of the road 
and the employes, are satisfactory, necessary and meet the 
approval of all. Some of the larger roads are establishing 
schools of instruction for their employes, where they may fit 
themselves, not only to better perform their present duties, but 
put themselves in line for promotion. The great need today 
among the employes of railroads is to feel their great responsi- 
bility and to realize fully the great value of both property and 
life that is entrusted to their care. My experience as railroad 
commissioner has led me to believe, and I say without any 
reservation, that the railroad operation of today is equal, if not 
superior, to any other business in its management, and that 
there cannot be found in this country, in any other business, 
more capable and conscientious men than are found in every 
department of the railroad operation, yet it should be remem- 
bered that the entire system of operation is only as strong and 
as safe as the weakest place in that organization or the most 



April, 1914 

unreliable employe. In other words, no chain is any stronger 
or of more value than the weakest link in that chain. There- 
fore the importance to the public of careful and conscientious 
employes in every department of its operation. 

I trust that this brief study of past and present railroads and 
railroading may be as profitable to each one of you as the study 
of it has been to me. Its growth and present importance is 
such as to inspire enthusiasm in every person connected with it, 
and we should all f&el that we are a part of the great organiza- 
tion whose work relates in a very large measure to the public 
good, and that while there is a large number of people engaged 
in such operation and connected with the railroad, that fact 
does not lessen the personal responsibility of every individual, 
but rather increases it. 

From a few miles of tramways the world has in a century 
built 500,000 miles of steam-operated and 100,000 miles of elec- 
tric operated railroads. Instead of the old manner of operating 
we have the modern. Instead of the old-fashioned train we now 
have the huge Pacific locomotive drawing a train of 600 tons 
at a speed of 70 miles per hour, yet under the control of one 
man, just as the "Rocket" was a century ago. Instead of the 
old manner of stopping, or rather failure to stop, we now have 
the air brakes that make stopping a certainty in a definite dis- 
tance. Progress of a most pronounced kind has occurred during 
the last century. What the future of railroading may be I do 
not undertake to say. I believe, however, it is high time that 
special consideration was given to this great industry and that 
it should be encouraged from every possible standpoint. 

Wherein the increased safety of operation may lie is a ques- 
tion in many minds. It would be a mere conjecture if I were 
to attempt to explain it. Let us beware, however, that the mul- 
tiplication of rules with so many devices for additional pro- 
tection does not lead us to rely on a false sense of security. 

None of these devices alone will bring safety. They may 
materially aid it, but unless there is an obedience to the rules 
of operation they will add but little to the safety of the public. 

My association with men in every department of railroading 
has convinced me that we owe much of the speed, comfort and 
convenience of travel to the men who not only guide its general 
movements, but also to the men who directly operate the trains 
and to the men who keep the track and equipment in proper 


Progress reports from two roads which are testing heat- 
treated chrome-vanadium steel tires have recently been re- 
ceived, and also records to date of one of the first sets of vana- 
dium steel tires made, which have been in service over four 
years. These records are given below: 

Three sets of heat-treated chrome-vanadium steel switch en- 
gine tires were purchased last year by the Chicago, Rock Island 
& Pacific for test purposes. In the early part of February of 
this year contours were taken of two sets, on engines No. 196 
and No. 1224, respectively. The first mentioned were applied in 
April, and the latter in July of last year. Contours were also 



taken of two sets of plain carbon steel tires on the same class 
of switchers and in their first term of service. 

A comparison of the performance to date of the vanadium 
steel tires on locomotive No. 196 and one of the sets of plain 
carbon steel tires, which went into service at practically the 
same time, shows 93 per cent increase in mileage per 1/16 
in. maximum tread wear in favor of the vanadium tires. 

Up to the first of February the vanadium tires had made 
22,084 constructive miles. They showed a maximum tread 
wear of 5/32 in. This gives 8,830 miles per 1/16 in. maximum 
tread wear. Up to the same period the carbon steel tires had 
made 16,000 constructive miles. They showed a maximum of 
7/32 in. tread wear, which gives only 4,570 miles per unit of 
maximum wear. 

Comparing the two sets of vanadium and the two sets of 
carbon steel tires on the basis of mileage per average tread 
wear there is an increase of 108 per cent in favor of the former. 
The mileage per 1/16 in. average wear for each of the four 
engines was as follows: 

Vanadium Tires. 

per 1/16 in. 
Eng. No. Avg. wear 

196 11,494 

124 11,042 

Carbon Tires. 

per 1/16 in. 
Eng. No. Avg. wear 

235 5,333 

228 5,483 

Average c . 11,268 Average 5,408 

It will be noted that the mileage per unite of wear is very 
uniform in the case of both types of tires. 

All of the above locomotives are of the 0-6-0 type, having a 
total weight on drivers of 140,000 lbs., giving an average of 
23,300 lbs. per wheel on the rail. The tires are 44-in. I. D. 
and 4 in. thick and the rigid wheel base is 11 ft. 

The Western Maryland applied two sets of heat-treated 
chrome-vanadium steel passenger engine tires for test pur- 
poses to Pacific type locomotives, Nos. 156 and 158, respec- 
tively. Those on the first mentioned locomotive were applied in 
April of last year, the other set some time later. 

Contours of the first set were taken this month, after 11 
months' service. No contours of the other have yet been 
taken, but the railroad company reports that the engine has 
just gone through the shop for general repairs and the tires 
were not turned. 

Comparison between the performance to date of vanadium 
steel tires on locomotive No. 156 and the average for three sets 
of plain carbon steel tires on sister engines running in the 
same district show an increase of 148 per cent in mileage per 
1/16 in. maximum tread wear in favor of the vanadium steel 

Up to March 1 the vanadium steel tires had made 49,096 
miles. The maximum tread wear was 3/16 in., or 16,365 miles 
per 1/16 in. maximum wear. The three engines equipped with 
carbon steel tires showed respectively 5,393, 6,140 and 7,250 
miles per 1/16 in. maximum tread wear, or an average of 6,594 
miles per unit maximum wear. 




Vanadium Steel Tire Contours. 


April, 1914 



The service of the vanadium steel tires is clearly shown by 
the accompanying illustration. This shows the present con- 
tours and contours taken in October, after six months' service, 
superimposed on each other and also on the original contour to 
which the tires were rolled. The full line represents the present 
contour and the middle dotted line the contour taken in Oc- 
tober of last year. As will be seen, the flanges are in excellent 
condition, not being in any sense sharp. The flange wear is 
somewhat greater on the right than on the left tires. The 
tread wear, though quite uniform, shows, if anything, a little 
less wear in proportion during the last five months of service 
than during the first six months. 

The Pacific type engine, to which these tires are applied, 
has a total weight in. working order of 188,800 lbs., with 122,600 
lbs. on drivers, or an average of 20,430 lbs. per wheel on the 
rail. The rigid wheel base is 11 ft. 10 in. and the total engine 
wheel base 30 ft. 4^ in. The tires are 62 in. I. D. and 3 in. 

The Grand Eapids & Indiana has in service some of the first 
heat-treated chrome-vanadium steel tires made. A set of this 
type of tires was applied in November, 1909, to locomotive No. 
6, a ten-wheel type in passenger service. This set is still in 
service after four years and four months. 

Up to February 1 these tires had made 281,646 miles. The 
railroad company reported that they expect them to make over 
300,000 miles before they will be worn to the limit and have 
to be removed. Already they have made 100,000 miles more 
than the average total mileage for plain carbon tires of the 
same thickness on the same class of engine. 

Up to the time the engine was last shopped, in March, 1913, 
they had made 226,124 miles, which was equivalent to 11,900 
miles per 1/16 in. loss in thickness due to wear plus turning. 
This would seem to be an exceptional .performance. In Sep- 
tember, 1913, when contours were last taken, they had made 
40,000 miles since being turned and showed a maximum of only 
3/32 in. tread wear, or 26,660 miles per 1/16 in. wear. 

From this rate of wear it would seem that the railroad of- 
ficials' expectations as to the total mileage which they would 
make before being scrapped would be more than fulfilled, as 
they are still from y 2 to 7/16 in. above the limit of wear 

The engine to which they are applied has a total weight in 
working order of 169,800 lbs., of which 126,550 lbs. is carried 
on the driving wheels, giving an average of 21,000 lbs. per 
wheel on the rail. The rigid wheel base is 14 ft. and the total 
engine wheel base 25 ft. 9 in. The tires are 62 in. I. D. and 
were originally 3% in. thick. 


A series of tests is being conducted by the University of Il- 
linois for the Scullin-Gallagher Iron & Steel Company of St. 
Louis, on a neAv style of car coupler, which is believed to be 
an improvement over the coupler now in use. 

The weak point of most car couplers now in use is the face, 
this being the place where fracture generally occurs. The new 
style of coupler eliminates this difficulty by having a solid 
face and a new type of tail knuckle. A former test made by 
the university showed that when failure of the new style 
coupler occurred it was generally at the knuckle. After the 
first tests the design was changed so as to add about 15 lbs. 
of metal to the knuckle. The new design is now being tested 
under the supervision of Prof. J. M. Snodgrass of the railway 
engineering department. 

Four sets of tests are made: the "striking test," the "jerk 
test," the "guard-arm test" and the "pulling test." In the 
striking test the coupler is placed in the drop testing machine 
and a 1,640-lb. weight let fall on it from varying heights. 


The double-sided eccentric press with a profile shear built in 
between the two sides, here illustrated, was built by the Wil- 
helmsiitte of Saalfeld, Germany. Each press side can exert 
a maximum pressure of 250 gross tons; the central profile 
shear 300 tons. It is principally intended for the under fram- 
ing of steel and iron passenger and freight cars. I beams and 
channel irons are cut in the central portion to the requisite 
lengths; on one press there are flanging tools for punching 
both flanges at once, thus avoiding all turning of the work 
piece. The other press side is used for profile punching. The 
entire work of preparing a sill, which was formerly done on 
three separate machines and took 18 to 20 minutes, is done on 
this machine in about five. It comes in handy also for various 
other work; for instance die-forging — one press side doing the 
rough work and the other cutting off the fins. Further, it is 
employed in hot forging of axle holders; one press side cutting 
out the piece and the other finishing it. One special feature 
is the device for regulating the stroke between 1.18 inches 
and 3.94 inches by means of a screw. This shortening and 
lengthening of the stroke takes place only on the upper part, 
so that the ram always comes down to its lowest position, no 
matter what the stroke length; this doing away with vertical 
adjustment of the dies by shims. As the machine has a high 
throat the guides are plenty long, and are adjustable from all 
sides by strips. To obviate bending of the eccentric shaft, all 
the gear wheels lie close to the main frame and the couplings 
are placed outside. These latter are automatic, and after 
every stroke bring the slide to the highest position for which 
it is adjusted. They can, however, be thrown in and 6ut for 
steady continuous work. A special hand-lever serves to adjust 
the dies. The power is applied to the slide by an eccentric 
shaft with double bearings and pitmans. The latter have phos- 
phor-bronze bushings in their eccentric bearings, and press 
against hardened steel plates in the slide. 

The profile knife can be adjusted to cut I beams and channel 

The Lake Shore & Michigan Southern has decided, it is said, 
to electrify the Dunkirk, Allegheny Valley & Pittsburgh from 
Warren, Pa., to Youugville, 9 miles. 

Double-Sided Eccentric Press, With Shear. 



April, 1914 

iron 10° obliquely, and angle-iron either at right angles or at 
any desired oblique angle. The hold-down operates with screw 
and hand-wheel. 

The machine is driven by an electric motor of 24 h. p. 
through a triple reducing gear, the gear-wheels being malleable 
Siemens-Martin steel castings with hobbed teeth. The eccentric 
presses make twenty 3.94-inch strokes a minute; the profile 
shear makes fifteen cuts a minute. Should any one of the three 
parts of the machine be out of service for slide adjusting, etc., 
the other two can be run. 

The main frame consists of two boilerplate sheets having a 
tensile strength of 92,450 lbs. per square inch; stiffened by 
four wide gussets as feet. They are assembled with the 
interior parts of the machine and with the slide-guides by shear- 
ing bolts, these being deemed preferable to rivets, and give a 
more durable stiffness. 

When used for drawing, the machine is used with a table 
which is adjustable in height. 

By A. B. Lawson. 

Because of trouble experienced on fast freight and through 
passenger locomotives on account of hot bearings on the tenders 
and locomotive trailing trucks a water cooling device has been 
adopted on one road and has overcome the trouble to a very 
great extent. 

The valve for this device is extended up through the bottom 
of the tank at the edge into the water, it being applied on a line 

Wafer Cooling . 

z"Hose- Attached ,/ 
to Journal Sox Desired ^' 

4J"x 8" 
* Box 

Fig. 2 — Diagram of Hose Ends. 

with the truck center. Four valves are required for the tender. 

The sides of the tank projects over the tender frame floor, 
which makes it easy to apply these valves and where there is 
not sufficient room they are applied on an angle. 

The valves are entirely of brass, to prevent corrosion, and are 
controlled from the ground. A hose leads from the valve to a 
brass connection into the journal box. Only one hose is car- 
ried for each valve, but each journal box is arranged with a 
connection, and as hot journals develop the hose is connected 

-■"y" Angle Valve 

'fa Union 

This arrang'mt 
for cooling trail- 
er journals 

•Je of 
journal box 

2" Host lo trail- 
er journal bos 
always attach 
ed in warm 

Location of Spud in 
Trailer Box.. 

Fig. 1 — Arrangement and Details. 

=t0>O Set under r oot step. 
S — / close lo coal deck 


■ Tank 

Fig. 3 — Cooling Device for Trucks. 

April, 1914 



to the hot journal, and the opposite side of valve is closed with 
a standard %-inch pipe plug. Figure 1 shows the application 
of valve to tank and the drilling of the various size boxes. 

Figure 2 shows details of valve, journal box spud, bevel 
washer and hose ends. The length of hose required for the 
tender is four feet. 

For the trailing truck %" angle valves are connected into the 
tank by a %" pipe nipple, and the hose is connected to these 
angle valves by means of standard service ells and pipe unions. 
The length of hose required is twelve feet and one is carried 
on each side. 

Figure 3 shows application and drilling of trailing truck 
journal box. 

Oil Furnace and Flue-Welding Machine. 

By W. P. Hobson, M. M., Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. 
The illustrations show a machine for welding 4 1 2-inch and 
5% -inch superheated flues, which was designed by Jas. W. Mul- 
cahy, foreman blacksmith shop of the Chesapeake & Ohio shops 
at Covington. Ky., and which was built at the shops. One of 
the illustrations show the machine alone, while another shows 
it in conjunction with the oil furnace. The machine produces 
a weld that is the most perfect in every respect that I have 
had the opportunity of seeing. The welding arm or hammer 
is actuated by a belt -driven shaft. By pressing on the foot 
lever the motion is transmitted through a system of levers 
until the. upright arm which holds the striking hammer is drawn 
back, thus allowing the hammer to get into action. 

Flue-Welding Machine, C. 

The machine was built out of old scrap car axles at a total 
cost of $122, and its capacity is 20 superheater flues per hour, 
or 180 flues in nine hours. It is operated by three men, whose 
rates are 24.5c, 22.4c and 15c per hour. The cost per flue for 
welding is a fraction over 3c. 

By Louis E. Endsley, Professor Railway Mechanical Engineer- 
ing, Purdue University. 

The tests herein described were conducted upon the Master Car 
Builder's testing machine, located at Purdue University, Lafay- 
ette, Ind. 

The purpose of the tests was to determine the stresses set up 
in the plate of different designs and weights of cast iron wheels 
under the varying conditions of brake shoe pressure and appli- 


The Master Car Builder's brake shoe testing machine is fully 
described in detail in the proceedings of the Master Car Builders' 
Association for 1894 and supplement in 1907. A brief descrip- 
tion of the machine is- here given. By the use of the machine, a 
standard brake shoe may be made to act upon the face of a 
revolving car wheel mounted upon the same axle with a heavy 
fly wheel, until the whole system is brought to rest. The car wheel 
to which the shoe is applied may be either steel, steel-tired or 
cast-iron, and in any case is 33 inches in diameter. A double- 
cylinder steam-engine serves to revolve the machine. The pressure 
with which the shoe is made to act upon the car wheel is regulated 
by weights applied to a system of levers, while the tangential pull 
resulting from the application is recorded upon a paper scroll 
by an Emery testing machine. 


r ll II" 

: J 

It » £J 

! i 'i m. i 

KBWJ^^^H d 


f} % > \jjf--' | 


Fig. 1 — Brake Shoe Testing Machine, Purdue University, 
Lafayette, Ind. 

The machine is also equipped with a special apparatus whereby 
it may be run steadily at a given speed, the shoe being automat- 
ically applied and released. 

In preparation for the test, precautions were taken to insure 
good contact between shoe and wheel. The process consisted in 
making repeated applications of the shoes to the wheel under com- 
paratively light pressure until a 90 to 95 per cent of the full 
bearing surface of the shoe was obtained. This accomplished, the 
record tests were made. 

An illustration of the machine is shown in Fig. 1. This shows 
clearly the wheel mounted upon the axle, the leverage for apply- 
ing the normal load to the shoe and the tangential arm which runs 
back to the Emery recording machine. It also shows in the back 
ground the engine for driving the same. The thermometers placed 
in the wheel for recording temperature in the rim, plate and the 
hub of the wheels are also shown. 


The wheels tested were cast iron wheels and there were nine in 
all. They were given for the purpose of the test, laboratory num- 
bers from one to nine, inclusive. 

*A paper delivered before the Western Railway Club. 



April, 1914 

or 625" f-lC B WttEL 


o* 6 7,3" MCB. WnECL 

o» 725* r-lC B wnCCL 

of 640# A 1' WHEEL 

of C90# A P WHEEL 


of 740# A P WHEEL 

of 840# A P WHEEL 


Wheel No. 1 was a standard 625-pound MCB wheel. A cross 
section of half the wheel is shown in Fig. 3. 

Wheel No. 2 was a standard 675-pound MCB wheel. A sketch 
of half the wheel is shown in Fig. 4. 

Wheel No. 3 was a standard 725-pound MCB wheel. A sketch of 
half the wheel is shown in Fig. 5. 

Wheel No. 4 was a 640-pound wheel having on "arch plate" 
and will hereafter in this report be referred to as an AP wheel. A 
sketch of one-half the wheel is shown in Fig. 6. 

Wheel No. 5 was a 690-pound wheel also of the arch plate 
design. A sketch of half the wheel is shown in Fig. 7. 

Wheel No. 6 was a 740-pound AP wheel. A sketch of half the 
wheel is shown in Fig. 8. 

Wheel No. 7 was an 840-pound AP wheel, a sketch of which is 
shown in Fig. 9. 

Wheel No. 8 was a 690-pound wheel having a specially designed 
plate. This wheel had the same dimensions as the MCB 625- 
pound wheel, except that metal had been added to the plate of 
the wheel as shown in Fig. 10 to make it weigh 690 pounds. 

Wheel No. 9 was a 690-pound wheel having a specially designed 
rim. This wheel had the same dimensions as the 625-pound MCB 
wheel, with the exception that metal was added to its rim shown 
in Fig. 11 bringing the weight up to 690 pounds. 


There were five shoes used in the tests. These were given for 
the purpose of this work, laboratory numbers, 400, 406, 407, 408 
and 409. 

Shoe No. 400 was a soft cast iron shoe and was only used in a 
special test to determine the effect on the stress in the plate of 
the wheel by placing the shoe in contact with the throat and then 
with the rim. 

This was accomplished by grinding away about half of the face 
of the shoe on the side where the contact was not desired. 

Shoe No. 406 was a Streeter shoe. It had two L-shaped steel 

Shoe No. 407 was a cast iron shoe with chilled ends. 

WEIGKTto 690" 

SECTiOn o« 625 ' f~lC b wr£EL 
BRinG WEIGHT to 690 ' 

Dotted une» 
Stir* BtS' 

FIG n° 10 


Shoe No. 408 was a Diamond "S" shoe. This shoe had an 
expanded metal insert which was plainly visible. 

Shoe No. 409 was a cast iron shoe with the ends chilled and it 
also had two " V " shaped inserts in it. 


For the purpose of determining the stress in the plate of the 
wheel a Berry strain gauge was employed. The gauge is so con- 
structed that elongation in a two-inch gauge length can be deter- 
mined to .0001 of an inch. The method of applying the strain 
gauge is shown in Fig. 2. 

The point at which readings were taken for each of the wheels 
is shown in Figures 3 to 11. These figures also show the location 
of three thermometers which were used in each of the wheels to 
determine the temperature in the rim, hub and plate. 

The temperature as determined by the thermometer in the plate 
was used to correct the elongation as read on the Berry strain 
gauge, i. e., there was an elongation due to the expansion of the 
metal from heat and also elongation caused by the strain set up 
through the difference in temperatures of the wheel rim and its 
rub. The procedure in testing for this elongation was as follows: 

Only one test was made on any one wheel per day, so that before 
a test began the temperature of the entire wheel was the same. 
Before each test readings of all three thermometers were taken and 
were found to be always the same ; thus, when the test began there 
was no stress in the wheel plate due to heat. At the beginning 
of a test a reading of the Berry strain gauge was also taken, 
after which the brake shoe machine was started and a speed of 
approximately 20 miles per hour was maintained. Readings of the 
temperatures and strain gauge were taken at stated intervals by 
stopping the machine, such stops occupying from 40 to 60 seconds. 

During the test of wheel No. 5 or the 690-pound AP wheel all 
shoes were tested at the following pressures: 800-pound continu- 

April. 1914 



ous, 2,808, 4,152 and 6,840 pound intermittent. Under the 800 
pounds pressure the shoe was left on the wheel the entire time. 
Under the other three pressures the shoe was in contact for 610 
revolutions. The three heavier pressures were carried on until 
100 applications of the brake shoe had been made. Eeadings 
were taken after the 2d, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 30th, 40th, 
50th. 60th, 70th, 90th and 100th applications. 

In the case of the 800-pound pressure in which the shoe was in 
contact with the wheel the entire time, the tests were continued 
through the same length of time or until the same number of 
revolutions of the wheel had been made as during the test of the 
heavier pressures. Eeadings of the temperatures and strain 
gauges were taken at approximately the same interval, i. e., after 
1,600, 3,200, 4,800, 6,400, 8,000, 12,000, 16,000, 20,000, 24,000, 
30,000, 40,000, 48,000, 56,000, 64,000, 72,000 and 80,000 revolu- 
tions of the wheel. Wheel No. 5 was also tested under a continu- 
ous brake shoe pressure of 4,152 pounds. This test continued until 
the plate of the wheel cracked. The other chilled iron wheels, 
namely, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, were each tested under 
brake shoe pressure of 800, 2,000 and 3,000 pounds continuous 
application. During the testing of the above mentioned wheels 
the machine was stopped every five miutes and a reading of the 
temperatures and the strain gauge were taken. 

The tests under the above pressures were continued until the 
stress indicated by the elongation was approximately constant. 
This, however, did not require the same time for the different 
pressures as is indicated by the results given in the tables which 
will be explained a little later. 

Wheel No. 2 was tested under a brake shoe pressure of 4,152 
pounds which was continued until the plate of the wheel cracked. 


In order to determine the relation of stress to strain, i. e., the 
relations between elongation and stress, three test bars were cast 
of wheel iron. These bars were approximately 18 inches long and 
for a distance of 11 inches in the center the diameter was 1.8 
inches and the ends were approximately 2% inches in diameter. 
These bars were tested in tension at the testing laboratory of Pur- 
due University, 

From the average results of two of these bars which showed 
about the same results, the third one having a flaw in it, a curve 
was plotted. In this curve the elongation in .0001 inch per inch 
was plotted against the stress in thousand pounds per square inch. 
The upper end of the curve was obtained by continuing the curve 
in accordance with the equation of the test bar curve. 

From the readings taken of the strain gauge throughout the 
test the elongation in inches per inch could be determined. As it 
was known that some of the elongation was due to heat expansion a 
correction was made from the total elongation by obtaining the 
rise in temperature from the thermometer No. 2, the rise being 
figured in each case from the original reading before the test 
began. By using the co-efficient of expansion of cast iron which is 
.00000556 and multiplying this by the rise in temperature of No. 2 
thermometer the elongation in inches per inch due to heat was 
determined. This heat elongation was subtracted from the total 
elongation and the elongation due to stress was obtained. By the 
use of this elongation and the curve, the stress in pounds per 
square inch was obtained. The relation of stress to strain in 
cast iron is a curve. This is typical of cast iron. It is well 
known that there is always some set produced in a test bar of 
cast iron after it has been tested. That is, the bar does not 
return to its original length after the load is released. This, 
however, was not shown to be true after the plates of the wheel 
had been subjected to a strain clue to the heat produced by the 
brake shoe, as it was shown that the reading of the strain gauge 
was the same after the wheel had cooled as it was before the test 
began. This was true of all wheels tested, so there must be some 
difference in the effect of straining a plate in regard to its set. 
For this reason it was felt that this curve would not only show the 
relation of stress to elongation for the first test on any wheel, but 
could be used for repeated tests on the same wheel. This also was 
proved by repeating tests under the same condition, in that the 
same elongation was obtained. The exact procedure of obtaining 
the stress for any elongation will be explained later. 


We find that in most cases the stress in the plate for any given 
wheel is nearly proportional to the difference in temperature 
between the hub and the rim. This holds true whether being the 
temperature be high or low, the difference in temperature being the 
controlling factor. It will also be seen that for any given test 
this difference in temperature becomes a constant the stress 















— ct: 














% I 




















Fig. 2 — Method of Applying the Berry Strain Gage. 

2 J ■+ £ 6 7 

Wheel numbers 

Fig. 12. 



April. 1914 






3 <* 5 & 7 9 9 
Wheel Number-^ 
Fig. 13. 

also remains constant. In about 30 applications, neglecting indi- 
vidual error of reading, the stress remained constant throughout 
the remaining applications. The rise in temperature of the three 
thermometers was uniform until a certain number of applications 
had been made after which the temperature would remain prac- 
tically constant; that is, after this point had been reached the 
radiation of heat was equivalent to the added heat. 

By comparing the results for any wheel while using 800 pounds 
continuous pressure with that of the same wheel under 6.840 pounds 
intermittent pressure practically the same amount of work being 
done in both cases, the resultant maximum stress is for all prac- 








tical purposes the same. That is, for any given wheel the stress 
set up in the plate of the wheel is almost proportional to the 
amount of work done by the brake shoe in a given time. The 
thing which affects this stress in the plate most is the design of the 
wheel. This is well shown by comparisons given in Figs. 12 to 14. 
Fig. 12 gives the comparison of the stress developed in the plate 
of the nine wheels under a continuous brake shoe pressure of 800 
pound after the test on each wheel had continued for 32,000 revo- 
lutions or at a point when the stress in each wheel had practically 
become constant. It will be seen from this figure that the stress 
varies from about 12,000 pounds in the 840 pound arch wheel to 
20,000 pounds in the 675 pound MCB wheel. 

It will also be seen that the three arch plate wheels Nos. 4, 5 
and 6 weighing respectively 640, 690 and 740 pounds, had a much 
lower stress than wheels Nos. 1, 2 and 3 of the 625, 675 and 725 
standard MB wheels. That is, the average stress obtained indi- 
•ated in this figure on the three MCB wheels was 17,900 pounds and 
on the arch plate wheels, namely, 4, 5 and 6 designed for the same 
service, the average stress was 13,000 pounds or the reduction in 
stress was 4,900 pounds. 

Wheels Nos. 8 and 9, which were made by increasing the weight 
of the 625-pound wheel to 690 pounds, show some interesting 
results. Wheel No. 8, which had 65 pounds added to the plate, 
showed considerably less stress than the standard 625-pound wheels, 
but wheel No. 9 which had the 65 pounds of metal added to the rim 
of the wheel, did not show any less stress with a continuous brake 
shoe pressure of 800 pounds. That is, this metal added to the rim 
was practically ,of no value in reducing the stress in the plate 
of the wheel due to brake shoe friction. 

The comparison in stress of the different wheels as shown in 
Fig. 13 under a constant brake shoe pressure of 2,000 pounds after 
the wheel had made 3,200 revolutions indicates practically the same 
conclusions as those shown in Fig. 12. Here it will be seen the 
difference in stress between the low and high stress steel is greater 
than in the 800-pound tests, due to the rapid rise in temperature 
of the rim. Also the results shown in Fig. 14 giving a compari- 
son of the several wheels under a continuous brake shoe pressure 
of 3,000 pounds after the wheel had revolved 3,150 revolutions 
indicate the same relative difference, but then again the difference 
between the low and high steel wheel. 

By looking at the results shown in Figs. 12 and 14 it would seem 
that the MCB 675-pound wheel, which gave the highest average 
stress, must be the poorest designed wheel tested. 

In order to show the exact difference of applying the shoe to 
the throat of the wheel and then to the rim of the wheel, curves 
were plotted and they indicated that while the final stress is prac- 
tically the same under both conditions, the stress set up in the 
plate during the early part of the application is much greater 
when the shoe is applied to the rim than when it is applied to the 

From a careful study of these results it would seem that the plate 
of the MCB design of cast iron wheel might be improved by mak- 
ing the inside of the plate a smooth curve with a comparatively 
large radius instead of reversing the curvature of the plate and 
making a sharp curve as now made. 

<? 3 e> 7 e 
Wheel riurnher^ 

Fig. 14. 

TO TEST the general observance of rules on the Pennsyl- 
vania Bailroad, 5,961,732 observations were made and reported 
in 1913, with 8,120 failures, showing a record of 99.9 per cent 
perfect. These tests included a great variety of violations, 
from employes reporting late to smoking on duty, using locomo- 
tive whistle unnecessarily, leaving headlight burning in day- 
time, using foot to adjust couplers, going between cars to repair 
leak in air brake hose without notifying train crew, placing 
torpedoes where persons are liable to be injured by them, and 
the use of reliable watches. In all 93 different kinds of observa- 
tions were made. Exactly 784,675 observations were made as 
to the use of intoxicants by employes, and only 158 cases 
required discipline. 

April, 1914 



Railway associations in all departments are doing a great 
deal of good and should be encouraged whenever possible. Fol- 
lowing is a list of the associations in the mechanical depart- 
ment, the dates and places of the next convention of each and 
the name of the secretary. There is also given a list of the 
topics to be covered at each meeting, so that the field and work 
of the respective associations may be compared. 

Air Brake Association. 
The twenty-first annual convention of the Air Brake Asso- 
ciation will be held at the Hotel Pontchartrain, Detroit, Mich., 
on May 5, 6, 7 and 8. F. M. Nellis, 53 State St., Boston, Mass., 
is secretary of the association. The subjects to be presented 
are as follows: 

1. "Electro-Pneumatic Signal System for Passenger Trains," 
by L. N. Armstrong. 

2. "Air Hose," by T. W. Dow. 

3. ' ' Clasp Type of Foundation Brake Gear for Heavy Pas- 
senger Cars," by T. L. Burton. 

4. "Air Gage and Conductor's Valve in Caboose Cars," by 
Mark Purcell. 

5. "The Analysis of the Factors Involved in Controlling and 
Stopping Passenger Trains," by Walter V. Turner. 

6. "One Hundred Per Cent Efficiency of Freight Train 
Brakes," by Fred Von Bergen. 

7. "Recommended Practice," S. G. Down, G. R. Parker, 
H. A. Wahlert, J. R. Alexander and N. A. Campbell. 

8. Topical Subject— "Mountain Grade Work," by H. H. 

9. Topical Subject— "Modern Train Building," by G. W. 

Railway Storekeepers' Association. 

The eleventh annual convention of the Railway Storekeepers' 
Association will be held at the Hotel Raleigh, Washington, 
D. C, on May 18, 19 and 20, 1914. The standing committees 
of the association expect to have their reports ready within a 
short time and these will also be printed and distributed before 
the meeting. Papers on the regular subjects will also be dis- 
tributed to all members. J. P. Murphy, Box C, Collinwood, 0., 
is secretary of the association. The regular subjects are as 

K-l. "Stores Department Expenses." 

K-2. "How to Obtain the Greatest Efficiency from Em- 
ployes in the Stores Department. ' ' 

K-3. "Handling of Stationery." 

K-4. "Classification of Electric Railway Materials." 

The committee reports are as follows: 

Recommended Practices — Chairman, H. S. Burr. 

Accounting — Chairman, E. E. McCracken. 

Piece Work — Chairman, W. W. Eldridge. 

Standardization of Tinware — Chairman, W. F. Jones. 

Stationery — Chairman, S. C. Pettit. 

Uniform Grading and Inspection of Lumber — Chairman, J. H. 

Scrap Classification — Chairman, W. T. Bissell. 

Membership — Chairman, W. M. Portlock. 

Standard Buildings and Structure — Chairman, J. H. McMillen. 

Book of Standard Rules — Chairman, J. G. Stuart. 

Marking of Couplers and Parts — Chairman, A. H. Young. 

Railway Fuel Association. 

The International Railway Fuel Association will hold its 
sixth annual convention at the Hotel LaSalle, Chicago, HI., 
May 18, 19, 20 and 21. C. G. Hall, 922 McCormick Bldg., 
Chicago, is secretary-treasurer. The subjects for consideration 
at the meeting are: 

Storage of Coal — Its Feasibility and Advantages to Pro- 
ducer, Carrier and Consumer. 

Sizing of Coal for Locomotive Use. 

A Uniform Method of Computing Locomotive Fuel Consump- 
tion for Office Statistics and Trip Performance. 

Honeycombing and Clinker Formation. 

Coal Space and Adjuncts of Locomotive Tenders. 

Relation of Front End Design and Air Openings of Grates 
and Ash Pans to Fuel Consumption and Sparks. 

Economies in Roundhouse and Terminal Fuel Consumption. 

Pre-heating of Feed Water for Locomotive Boilers. 
Master Boiler Makers' Association. 

The eighth annual convention of the Master Boiler Makers' 
Association will be held at the Hotel Waldron, Philadelphia, 
Pa., on May 25, 26, 27 and 28. Harry D. Vought, 95 Liberty 
St., New York, is secretary of the organization. 

Committee reports on the following subjects will be given at 
the meetings: 

"Advantage or Disadvantage of Oxy-acetylene and Electric 
Processes for Boiler Maintenance and Repairs." F. A. Griffin, 

"What Benefit Has Been Derived from Treating Feed Water 
for Locomotive Boilers Chemically?" T. F. Powers, chairman. 

"What Can the Association Do to Get a Uniform Rule Re- 
garding the Load Allowed on Staybolts and Boiler Braces?" 
C. P. Patrick, chairman. 

"Advantages or Disadvantages of Flexible Staybolts to Be 
Used in Crown Sheets to Take the Place of Sling Stays. " C. E. 
Steward, chairman. 

"Advantage or Disadvantage of Combustion Chambers in 
Large Mallet or Pacific Type Engines, Other Than a Shorter 
Flue." A. N. Lucas, chairman. 

"What Shape and Size Head of a Radial Staybolt in Crown 
Sheet of Oil-burning Engines Gives the Most Efficient Service?" 
C. L. Hempel, chairman. 

"Does the Method of Flue Cleaning or Rattling Have Any 
Effect on the Further Sealing Up of Flues?" B. F. Sarver, 

"Combustion and Fuel Economy." C. F. Petsinger, chairman. 

"Proper Inspection of a Boiler While in Service." C. E. 
Fourness, chairman. 

"Law." W. H. Laughridge, chairman. 

The first day will be given over to addresses by a number 
of prominent men and the business of the association. The 
committee reports will be taken up on May 26, the second day. 
On May 27 members and visitors will visit the plants of the 
Parkesburg Iron & Steel Co. and the Lukens Iron & Steel Co. 
Two special addresses and the unfinished business will be the 
order on the last day, as well as the annual dinner at 7:00 p. m. 
Master Mechanics and Master Car Builders' Association. 

The forty-eighth annual convention of the Master Car 
Builders ' Association will be held at Youngs Million Dollar Pier, 
Atlantic City, N. J., on June 10, 11 and 12. The forty-seventh 
annual convention of the American Railway Master Mechanics' 
Association will be held at the same place the following 
week, June 15, 16 and 17. J. W. Taylor, Karpen Building, 
Chicago, is secretary of both organizations. 

The following subjects will be covered by standing and 
special committees at the Master Car Builders' meeting: 


"Revision of Standards and Recommended Practice." 

' ' Train Brake and Signal Equipment. ' ' 

"Brake Shoe and Brake Beam Equipment." 

"Coupler and Draft. Equipment." 

"Rules for Loading Materials." 

"Car Wheels." 

"Safety Appliances." 

' ' Car Construction. ' ' 

"Car Trucks." 

"Prices for Labor and Material." 

"Train Lighting and Equipment." 

"Tank Cars." 

"Damage to Freight Equipment by Unloading Machines." 

"Specifications and Tests for Materials." 

"Retirement of 40,000 and 50,000 Pounds Capacity Cars from 



April, 1914 

The following subjects will be covered by standing and 
special committees of the American Kailway Master Mechanics' 

"Revision of Standards and Recommended Practice." 

"Mechanical Stokers." 

"Safety Appliances." 

"Design, Construction and Inspection of Locomotive Boilers." 

"Locomotive Headlights." 

"Standardization of Tinware," 

".Use of Special Alloy and Heat Treated Steel in Locomotive 

"Smoke Prevention." 

"Revision of Standard Efficiency Tests of Locomotives." 

"Revision of Air Brake and Train Signal Instructions." 

' ' Superheated Locomotives. ' ' 

"Train Resistance and Tonnage Rating." 


' ' Fuel Economy. ' ' 

Also the following individual papers: 

"Dimensions for Flange and Screw Couplings for Injectors." 
By O. M. Poster. 

"Motors for Railway Shops." By B. P. Kuhn. 

' ' Review of Work Done by Other Mechanical Organizations. ' ' 
By Dr. Angus Sinclair. 

International Railway General Foremen's Association. 

The tenth annual convention of the General Foremen's Asso- 
ciation is to be held at the Hotel Sherman, Chicago, HI., on 
July 14, 15, 16 and 17. The secretary is William Hall, 829 
Broadway, Winona, Minn. Committees will report on the 
following subjects: 

"Engine House Efficiency. " Walter Smith, chairman. 

"Cylinders, Pistons, Crossheads, Guides and Valves." J. T. 
Mullin, chairman. 

"Practice and Methods of Maintenance and Repairs to the 
Air Brake aud Its Appurtenances. " CM. Newman, chairman. 

"Autogeneous Welding." C. L. Dickert, chairman. 

The following papers will also be presented: 

"The Taylor System." By W. W. Scott. 

"Railroading at a High Altitude." By J. W. Scott. 

Tool Foremen's Association. 
The sixth annual convention of the American Railway Tool 
Foremen's Association Will be held at the Hotel Sherman, Chi- 
cago, on July 20, 21 and 22. A. R. Davis, 750 Pine St., Macon 
Ga., is secretary and treasurer. The subjects to be covered 

"Standardization of Reamers for Locomotive Repair Shops." 
"Machine Tool Repairs, Methods of Handling, Records, Etc." 
"Tool Room Grinding, Clearance, Angles, Grinding Wheels 
and Special Applications. ' ' 

"Special Tools for Drilling, Reaming and Milling." 
"Distribution of Tools for Shop Use, Arrangement of Tool 
Racks, Delivery of Tools, Etc." 

"Dies for Cold Work, Press and Special Punching," 

Traveling Engineers' Association. 

The twenty-second annual convention of this association 
will probably be held at the Hotel Sherman, Chicago, late in 
August. W. O. Thompson, Buffalo, N. Y., is secretary. Com- 
mittees will report on the following subjects: 

"Difficulties Accompanying Prevention of Dense Black 
Smoke and Its Relation to Cost of Fuel and Locomotive 
Repairs. ' ' 

"Operation of All Locomotives With a View of Obtaining 
Maximum Efficiency at Lowest Cost." 

"Advantage to Be Derived from Use of Mechanical Stokers 
Considering: (1) Increased Efficiency of the Locomotive; (2) 
To Increase the Possibility of Securing a Higher Type of 
Candidates for Position of Firemen; (3) The Utilization of 
Cheaper Grades of Fuel. ' ' 

"Care of Locomotive Brake Equipment on Line of Road and 

C. Kenyon. 
By 0. S. 

at Terminals; Also Method of Locating and Reporting Defects." 

Also the following papers: 

' ' Advantages Derived from the Use of Speed Recorders and 
Influence of Same on Operating Expense." By Frederick 

"Practical Chemistry of Combustion." By A. 

"Scientific Train Loading; Tonnage Rating." 
Berger, Jr. 

Master Blacksmiths' Association. 

The twenty-second annual convention of the International 
Eailroad Master Blacksmiths' Association will be held at 
Milwaukee, Wis., on August 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22. A. L. 
Woodworth, Lima, 0., is secretary and treasurer. Committees 
will cover the following subjects: 

"Flue Welding." 

"Making and Repairing Frogs and Crossings." 

' ' Carbon or High Speed Steel. ' ' 

"Tools and Foremen." 

"Electric Welding." 

' ' Drop Forgings. ' ' 

' ' Spring Making and Repairing. ' ' 

"Piece Work and Other Methods of Having Work Done." 

"Locomotive Frame Making and Repairing." 

' ' Oxy-acetylene Process for Cutting and Welding of Metals. ' ' 

' ' Case Hardening. ' ' 

"Heat Treatment of Metals." 

"Shop Kinks." 

C. I. C. I. & C. F. Association. 

The fifteenth annual convention of the Chief Interchange 
Car Inspectors' and Car Foremen's Association will be held at 
Cincinnati, 0., on August 25, 26 and 27. The discussions will 
cover the M. C. B. rules and other topics of interest to the car 
department. Stephen Skidmore, 6th and Millcreek, Cincinnati 
is secretary. 

Painters' Association. 

The Master Car and Locomotive Painters' Association will 
hold its annual convention at the Hermitage Hotel, Nashville, 
Tenn., on September 8, 9, 10 and 11. A. P. Dane, Reading, 
Mass., is secretary and treasurer. 

By J. T. Hendrum, Florence & Cripple Creek R. R. 
The sketch shows a distance gauge, the use of which elim- 
inates all guess work in setting of tires. The gauge is placed 
on the rim of the wheel center between the spokes and has an 
offset at A, which fits against the tire section. Screwing down 
the set-screw against the rim serves to hold the gauge in posi- 
tion. After the tire is in place, the clamp is inserted and the 
clamp nut is screwed down until the tire is against the off-set 

. 3 — 

Clamp Detail 
Mode e/SifTSrce/ 

Distance Gauge for Applying Tires. 

April, 1914 



section of the gauge. Three gauges are used on each wheel 
and are kept in place until the tires have cooled sufficiently. 
The off-set at A, of course, is equal to the distance the tire pro- 
jects inside the wheel center. 

There is no measuring to be done when this distance gauge 
is applied and it insures the tire being on straight. The device 
is especially good when changing tires with the wheels under 
the engine, for you get away from trying to measure the tire 
distance on inside of wheel center, with the spring, spring 
hanger and frame in the way. 

By L. E. Dix, M. M., Union Ry. 

The test pump shown in the sketch was designed and built 
by H. J. Osborne, while master mechanic at the Valley Junc- 
tion, la., shops of the Rock Island, and is being very success- 
fully used at our shops. It is used for putting water pressure 
on boilers and consists of a scrap 8-inch air pump with the air 
cylinder bushed to 4% inches. The apparatus is mounted on 
a cart so that it may be taken to any part of the shop. The 
pump will run with steam, water or air and a pressure of 500 
pounds may be obtained. The cost of the outfit will not exceed 
4>50. One of these pumps is in use at McGehee, Ark., and an- 
other at Cedar Rapids. 

A. KIPP, general car inspector of the New York, Ontario & 
"Western at Middletown, N. Y., was present at the meeting of 
the executive committee of the Chief Interchange Car In- 
spectors and Car Foremen's Association, and his name should 
have been included in the report of the meeting published in 
our last issue. 


Following is a list of concerns which have arranged foi 
•exhibit space at the convention of the Master Car Builders' and 
American Railway Master Mechanics' Associations at Atlantic 
City, June 10-17, 1914: 

Acme Machine Tool Co., Cincinnati, O. 

Acme Supply Co., Chicago, 111. 

American Abrasive Metals Co., New York City. 

American Arch Co., New York City. 

American Balance Valve Co., Jersey Shore, Pa. 

American Brake Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

American Brake Shoe & Foundry Co., Mahwah, N. J. 

American Brass Co., Ansonia, Conn. 

American Car & Foundry Co., New York City. 

American Car & Ship Hdwe. Mfg. Co., New Castle, Pa. 

American Flexible Bolt Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

American Locomotive Co., New York City. 

American Mason Safety Tread Co., Boston, Mass. 

American Nut & Bolt Fastener Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

American Roll Gold Leaf Co., Providence, R. I. 

American Steam Gauge & Valve Mfg. Co., Boston, Mass. 

American Steel Foundries, Chicago, 111. 

American Tool Works Co., Cincinnati, O. 

Anchor Packing Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Armstrong-Blum Mfg. Co., Chicago, 111. 

Ashton Valve Co., Chicago, 111. 

Baker Bros., Toledo, O. 

Bareo Brass & Joint Co., Chicago, 111. 

Baush Machine Tool Co., Springfield, Mass. 

Besly, Chas. H. & Co., Chicago, 111. 

Bettendorf Co., Bettendorf, Iowa. 

Bird-Archer Co., New York City. 

Blackall, Robert H., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Boker, Herman & Co., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Bowser, S. F. & Co., Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Brown Automatic Hose Coupling Co., Toledo, O. 

Brubaker, W r . L. & Bros., Millersburg, Pa. 

Buckeye Steel Castings Co., Columbus, O. 

Buffalo Brake Beam Co., New York City. 

Camel Co., Chicago, 111. 

Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

Carnegie Steel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Cayuta Mfg. Co., Sayre, Pa. 

Chase, L. C. & Co., Boston, Mass. 

Chicago Car Heating Co., Chicago, 111. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co., Chicago, 111. 

Chicago Railway Equipment Co., Chicago, 111. 

Chicago Varnish Co., Chicago, 111. 

Chisholm & Moore Mfg. Co., Cleveland, O. 

Cincinnati Bickford Tool Co., Cincinnati, O. 

Cincinnati Milling Machine Co., Cincinnati, 0. 

Cincinnati Planer Co., Cincinnati, O. 

Clark Foundry Co., Rumford, Me. 

Coe, W. H. Mfg. Co., Providence, R. I. 

Commercial Acetylene Ry. L. & S. Co., New York City. 

Commonwealth Steel Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Consolidated Car Heating Co., Albany, N. Y. 

Consolidated Ry. Elec. Lgt. & Eqpt. Co., New York City. 



|' 'Brass Bushing 

Cast Iron 

4" Boiler Plate 

- 1" Water Outlet 

Press Fit- 
in Cylinder 

Boiler Test Pump. 



April. 1914- 

Cooper-Hewitt Electric Co.. Hoboken, X. J. 

Crane Co.. Chicago, 111. 

Crosby Steam Gage & Valve Co.. Boston, Mass. 

Curtain Supply Co.. Chicago, 111. 

Damascus Brake Beam Co., Cleveland, O. 

Dazie Mfg. & Supply Co., Xew York City. 

Dearborn Chemical Co., Chicago, III. 

Deforest Sheet & Tinplate Co.. Xiles. Ohio. 

Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit, Mich. 

Dixon, Joseph, Crucible Co., Jersey City, X. J. 

Draper Mfg. Co., Port Huron, Mich. 

Dressel Bailway Lamp Wks., Xew York City. 

Duff Mfg. Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

DuPont Fabrikoid Co., Inc., "Wilmington. Del. 

Eagle Glass & Mfg. Co., Wellsburg, W. Ya. 

Economy Devices Corp., Xew York City. 

E. D. E. Company, Chicago, 111. 

Edison Storage Battery Co., Orange, X. J. 

Edwards, O. M.. Co.. Syracuse, X. Y. 

Electric Controller & Mfg. Co., Xew York City. 

Electric Storage Battery Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Elwell-Parker Electric Co., Xew York City. 

Equipment Improvement Co., Xew York City. 

Fastnut, Limited, London, Eng. 

Flannery Bolt Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Forged Steel "Wheel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Fort Pitt Malleable Iron Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Foster, Walter H. Co., Xew York City. 

Franklin Eailway Supply Co., Xew York City. 

Frost Eailway Supply Co., Detroit, Mich. 

Galena Signal Oil Co., Xew York City. 

Garlock Packing Co., Palmyra, X. Y. 

General Electric Co., Schenectady, X. Y. 

General Bailway Supply Co., Chicago, 111. 

Gold Car Heating & Lighting Co.. Xew York City. 

Goldschmidt Thermit Co., Xew York City. 

Gould Coupler Co., Xew York City. 

Greene, Tweed & Co., Chicago, 111. 

Griffin Wheel Co., Chicago, 111. 

Grip Xut Co., Chicago, HI. 

Hale & Kilburn Co.. Xew York City. 

Hammett, H. G., Troy. X. Y. 

Harrington, Edwin, Son & Co., Lac, Philadelphia, Pa, 

Hartshorn, Stewart Co., Chicago, 111. 

Heppenstall Forge & Knife Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Hewitt, H. H., Xew York City. 

Hewitt Rubber Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Heywood Bros. & Wakefield Co., Wakefield, Mass. 

Hunt-Spiller Mfg. Corp., So. Boston, Mass. 

Hutchins Car Roofing Co., Detroit, Mich. 

Illinois Steel Co., Chicago, 111. 

Independent Pneumatic Tool Co., Chicago, 111. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co., Xew York City. 

Jacobs-Shupert U. S. Firebox Co., Xew York City. 

Jenkins Bros., Xew York City. 

Johns, H. W., Mannville Co., Xew York City. 

Joliet Railway Supply Co., Chicago, HI. 

Jones & Lamson Machine Co., Springfield, Yt. 

Jones & Laughlin Steel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Joyce-Cridland Co., Dayton, O. 

Justice, Phillip S. & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Kerite Insulated Wire & Cable Co., Xew York City. 

Keyoke Railway Equipment Co., Chicago, 111. 

Keystone Lubricating Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Landis Machine Co., Waynesboro, Pa. 

Lehon Co., Chicago, LU. 

Locomotive Stoker Co., Schenectady, X. Y. 

Locomotive Superheater Co., Xew York City. 

Lodge & Shipley Machine Tool Co., Cincinnati, O. 

Long, Chas. R., Jr., Co., Louisville, Ky. 

Lunkenheimer Co., Cincinnati, O. 

Lutz-Webster Engineering Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Magnus Metal Co., Xew- York City. 

Mahr Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Manning-Maxwell & Moore, Inc., Xew York City. 

Massachusetts Mohair Plush Co.. Boston, Mass. 

Midvale Steel Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mudge & Co., Chicago, 111. 

Mc Conway & Torley Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

McCord & Co., Chicago, 111. 

McCord Mfg. Co., Chicago, 111. 

MoGraw Publishing Co., Xew York City. 

Xathan Mfg. Co., Xew York City. 

Xational Graphite Lubricator Co., Scranton, Pa. 

Xational Lock Washer Co., Xewark, X. J. 

Xational Malleable Castings Co.. Cleveland, O. 

Xational Tube Co.. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Xewhall, Geo. M.. Engineering Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Xewton Machine Tool Works. Inc., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Xiles-Bement-Pond Co., Xew York City. 

Xorton, A. O., Inc., Boston, Mass. 

Xuttall, R. D. Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Okonite Company. Xew York City. 

O 'Malley-Beare Yalve Co., Chicago, 111. 

Pantasote Co., Xew York City. 

Parkesburg Iron Co., Parkesburg, Pa. 

Pels, Henry & Co., Xew York City. 

Pilliod Co., Swanton, O. 

Pocket List of RR. Officials. Xew York City. 

Pollak Steel Co., Xew York Cit;-. 

Power Specialty Co.. Xew York City. 

Pressed Steel Car Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Pyle Xational Electric Headlight Co., Chicago, 111. 

Pyrene Mfg. Co., Xew York City. 

Quigley Furnace & Foundry Co.. Xew York City. 

Railway Electrical Engineer, Chicago, 111. 

Railway List Co., Chicago, 111. 

Railway Materials Co.. Chicago, 111. 

Railway Review. Chicago, HI. 

Railway Utility Co., Chicago, 111. 

Ralston Steel Car Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Reading Specialties Co., Reading, Pa. 

Reed Mfg. Co., Erie, Pa. 

Reliance Electric & Engineering Co., Cleveland, O. 

Remy Electric Co., Anderson, Lad. 

Robinson Co., Boston, Mass. 

Rochester Germicide Co., Rochester, X. Y. 

Ross Schofield Co., Xew York City. 

Ryerson, Joseph T., & Son, Xew York. 

Safety Car Ht 'g & Lt'g Co., Chicago, 111. 

Sargent Co., Chicago. HI. 

Sellers, Wm.. & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Simmons-Boardman Publishing Co., Xew York City. 

Standard Asphalt & Rubber Co., Chicago, LU. 

Standard Heat & Ventilation Co.. Xew York City. 

Standard Steel Car Co., Pittsburg. Pa. 

Standard Stoker Co., Inc.. Xew York City. 

Strong-Carlisle & Hammond Co., Cleveland, O. 

Symington, T. H., Co., Rochester, X. Y. 

Transportation Utilities Co., Xew York City. 

Union Draft Gear Co., Chicago, HI. 

Union Railway Equipment Co., Chicago, LU. 

Union Spring & Mfg. Co., Pittsburgh. Pa. 

United Engineering & Fndry. Co.. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

U. S. Light & Heating Co., Xew York City. 

U. S. Metal &- Mfg. Co., Xew York City. 

TJ. S. Metallic Packing Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Universal Draft Gear Attachment Co., Chicago, HI. 

Valentine & Co., Xew York City. 

Vissering, Harry & Co., Chicago, 111. 

Warner & Swasey Co., Cleveland, O. 

Watson-Stillman Co., L T nion County, X. J. 

April, 1914 



West Disinfecting Co., New York City. 
"Western By. Equipment Co., St. Louis, Mo. 
Western Steel Car & Fndry. Co., Chicago, 111. 
Westinghouse Air Brake Co., E. Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., E. Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Westinghouse Machine Co., E. Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Wheel Truing Brake & Shoe Co., Detroit, Mich. 
Wiley & Russell Mfg. Co., Greenfield, Mass. 
Wilmarth & Norman Co., Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Wilson Remover Co., Newark, N. J. 
Wiltbonco Mfg. Co., Boston, Mass. 
Wine Railway Appliance Co., Toledo, O. 
Yale & Towne Mfg. Co., New York City. 
Zug Iron & Steel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

W. B. Kilgore has been appointed road foreman of engines of 
the Baltimore S~ Ohio, with office at Lima, O., and with juris- 
diction between Troy and Cincinnati. 

A. E. McMillan has been appointed assistant master mechanic 
of the Baltimore 4" Ohio Southwestern, with office at Cincin- 
nati, O. 

J. B. Harward succeeds W. H. Keller as general foreman of 
the Baltimore 4" Ohio Southwestern at Flora, 111. 

Oscar Stevens succeeds W. C. Garaghty as road foreman of 
engines of the Baltimore 4" Ohio Southwestern at Cincinnati, O. 

William Graff has been appointed road foreman of engines 
of the Baltimore $r Ohio Southwestern at Chillicothe, 0. 

J. S. Sheafe has been appointed master mechanic of the Bal- 
timore Sr Ohio at Clifton (S. I.), N. Y. Mr. Sheafe was 
formerly engineer of tests of the Illinois Central at Chicago. 

H. A. Martin succeeds S. D. Page as general car foreman of 
the Bangor 4" AroostocJc, with office at Milo Junction, Me. 

F. G. Drolet succeeds S. L. Tracy as general engine foreman of 
the Bangor Sr AroostocJc at Milo Junction, Me. 

W. W. Boulineau has been appointed road foreman of the 
Central of Georgia at Macon, Ga., succeeding A. D. Prendergast. 

A. G. McLellan succeeds W. H. Wunderlee as foreman of loco- 
motive repairs of the Chicago &r Alton at Bloomington, 111. 

W. H. Naylor succeeds W. H. Davies as road foreman of 
engines of the Chicago Sr Alton, with offices at Bloomington, 111. 

Howard Timmel, road foreman of the Chicago, Burlington Sr 
Quincy, has been transferred from Sterling, Colo., to Edgemont, 
S. D., where he succeeds E. R. Morrison. 

F. Carter has been appointed purchasing agent of the Chicago 
Sr Illinois Midland, succeeding H. F. Campbell. His office is at 

F. W. Murphy succeeds John Bauer as master mechanic of the 
Chicago, Ottawa S~ Peoria, with office at Ottawa, 111. 

F. Fisher succeeds W. H. Cour as general foreman of the 
Chicago, Peoria Sr St. Louis. His office is at Springfield, 111. 

W. H. Keller succeeds W. A. Deems as general foreman of the 
Cincinnati, Hamilton Sr Dayton at Lima, O. 

John Simmes has been appointed general foreman of the Cin- 
cinnati, New Orleans Sr Texas Pacific at Ludlow, Ky., succeeding 
J. G. Lewis. 

D. J. Mullen has been appointed superintendent of motive 
power of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago Sr St. Louis, succeed- 
ing S. K. Dickerson. His office is at Indianapolis, Ind. 

F. K. Murphy succeeds D. J. Mullen as assistant superintendent 
of motive power of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago Sr St. Louis, 
with office at Indianapolis, Ind. 

W. E. Ricketson succeeds C. A. Brandt as mechanical engineer 
of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago Sr St. Louis, with office at 
Beech Grove, Lad. 

F. Bauer succeeds F. K. Murphy as master mechanic of the 
Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago S- St. Louis, with office at Indianap- 
olis, Ind. 

C. A. Brandt has been appointed assistant master mechanic of 
the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago Sr St. Louis, with office at 
Indianapolis, Ind. Mr. Brandt was formerly mechanical engineer. 

W. E. Lefatvre succeeds Thomas Tipton as purchasing agent 
of the Denver Sr Bio Grande, with office at Denver, Colo. 

B. Ferris has been appointed acting general foreman of the 
Detroit, Toledo 4' Ironton at Delray, Mich., succeeding George 

H. Allen succeeds William Russell as foreman car repairs of 
the Galveston, Earrisourg Sr San Antonio at El Paso, Tex. 

F. A. Bladorn succeeds J. D. Brown as locomotive foreman 
of the Great Northern at Billings. Mont. 

D. P. Phalen succeeds H. G. Koch as locomotive foreman of 
the Great Northern at Butte, Mont. 

W. P. Milon succeeds R. E. Molt as locomotive foreman of the 
Great Uorthern at Whitefish, Mont. 

F. Heins has been appointed master mechanic of the Gulf Sr 
Sabine River, vice C. E. Magee. His headquarters are at Fuller- 
ton, La. 

Charles F. Barnhill, as announced in our last issue, has been 
appointed master mechanic of the Gulf, Colorado Sr Santa Fe, 
with office at Silsbee, Tex. Mr. Barnhill was born on December 
26, 1872, at McArthur, 0., and entered railway service in October, 
1886, as a machinist apprentice with the Ohio Southern Railway. 
He completed his apprenticeship in 1891 and worked in various 
shops as a machinist during the following two years. From 1893 
to 1898 he was successively machine foreman, erecting foreman 
and general foreman at the Clifton Forge shops of the Chesapeake 
& Ohio. From 1898 to 1900 he was erecting foreman for the 
same road at Huntington, W. Va., later going to the Columbus, 
Shawnee & Hocking as machine and erecting foreman. In 1902 
he became erecting foreman of the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe 
at Cleburne, Tex., and from 1904 to 1907 was roundhouse fore- 
man at the same point. In March, 1907, he was made division 
foreman of the same road at Gainesville, Tex., which position 
he held until his recent appointment. 

H. B. Brown, formerly assistant superintendent of machinery 
of the Illinois Central, is now general fuel inspector of that road, 
with headquarters at Park Row Station, Chicago. 

W. G. Hall, as announced in the February issue, has been 
appointed master mechanic of the International Sr Great Northern 
at Mart, Tex. Mr. Hall was born at Palestine, Tex., in 1882, 
was educated in the public schools at that place and commenced 
railway work as a machinist apprentice with the International 
& Great Northern in October, 1898. Upon completing his ap- 
prenticeship in October, 1902, he took service with the St. Louis, 
Iron Mountain & Southern at Argenta, Ark., as a machinist, later 
going with the St. Louis Southwestern at Pine Bluff, Ark., and 

W. G. HALL. 



April. 1914 

with the Chicago A Lis-tern Illinois at Danville. 111., where he 
was made gang foreman in August. 1905. In December, 19"7. 
he became roundhouse foreman of the Trinity & Brazos Valley 
at Teague. Tex. In January. 1910. he was made roundhous< 
foreman of the International & Great Northern at Palestine. Tex., 
holding this position until his recent promotion. 

C. E. Fowler has been appointed master mechanic of the Jef- 
son $ Xorthirextern. with office at Jefferson. Tex. He suc- 
ceeds T. H. Y. Xewcorub. 

Charles Woodard soeeee - I . L. Adair as master mechanic of 
the Kansas Citu. Mexico & Orient of Texas, with office at San 
Angelo. Tex. 

W. M. Bosworth. whose appointment as mechanical engineer 
of the Louisvil' .< N shuttle was announced in the last issue. wa> 
born June 13, lS7f». at Baltimore. Md. He commenced railway 
work in July. - ial apprentice at the Mount Clare 

shops of the Baltimore <Sc Ohio and later became a draftsman 
at the same place. From 1906 until 1911 he was chief draftsman 
of the Baltimore & Ohio and in 1911 was appointed mechanical 
engineer of the Kansas City Southern at Pittsburg. Kan., where 
he remained until his present appointment. 

B. J. Peasley has been appointed superintendent of shops of 
the Missouri Pacific at Argenta. Ark. He succeeds B. E. Stevens. 

G. K. Stewart succeeds B. J. Peasley as master mechanic of 
the Missouri Pacific at DeSoto, Mo. 

J. A. Sheppard has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Missouri Pacific shops at Coffeyville. Kan., succeeding G. K. Stew- 
art. Mr. Sheppard was born at Clinton. la., on August 14. 1867, 
serving his apprenticeship on the Chicago & Northwestern at that 
point. After completing his apprenticeship he served with the 
Chicago. Milwaukee &: St. Paul at Savanna. 111., with the Duluth 
A: Iron Bange at Two Harbors, Minn., and with the Clinton 
Bridge & Iron Works at Clinton. la. Later he was with the 
B. C. B. Railway at Cedar Rapids. la., a? machinist and foreman. 
He left Cedar Rapids on December 1, 1908. to become division 
foreman of the Missouri Pacific at Council Grove. Kan., and in 
the spring of 1911 was transferred to the same position at Pueblo. 
Colo., where he remained until his present appointment. 

J. L. Woods has been appointed assistant purchasing agent of 
the Xashville, Chattanooga 4' St. Louis, with office at Nashville. 

I. M. Ramsdell has been appointed master car builder of the 
Oregon-Washington li. B. 4' V,. with office at Portland. Ore. Mr. 
Ramsdell was formerly master car builder of the Chicago k Alton 
at Bloomington. 111. 

L. Woster succeeds F. Ritner as superintendent of motive power 
of the Ohio Southeastern, with office at Cincinnati. O. 

J. C. Nolax has been appointed master mechanic of the St. 
is, Brownsiille «f Texas, with office at Kingsville. Tex. 

A. F. Hawkins has been appointed general foreman, car de- 
partment, of the - Antonio, Uvalde 4' Gulf, with headquarters 
at Pleasanton, Tex., vice W. H. Pinson. resigned. 

H. Jacksox has been appointed general foreman, locomotive 
department, of the San Antonio, Uvalde 4' Gulf, with headquar- 
at Pleasanton. Tex., vice H. M. Warden, resigned. 

J. H. Rcxtox has been appointed superintendent of motive 
power of the San Antonio, Uvalde 4' Gulf, with headquarters at 
Pleasanton, Tex. 

George St. Pierre has been appointed superintendent of equip- 
ment of the San Francisco-Oakland Terminal, with office at Oak- 
land. Cal. He was formerly master mechanic at that point. 

J. J. Robixsox succeeds S. C. Shepperd as general foreman of 
the Southern at Manchester. Ta. 

C. E. Keever succeeds J. J. Robinson as general foreman of 
the Southern at Greenville. S. C. 

F. A. Balich succeeds A. L. Stewart as general foreman of the 
Southern at Charlotte, N. C. 

T. W. Heixtzelmax. as announced in our last issue, has been 
appointed general superintendent of motive power of the Southern 


Pacific, with headquarters at San Francisco. Cal. Mr. Heintzel- 
man commenced railway work as a machinist apprentice, following 
it up with a term in the draughting room and afterwards being 
promoted to foreman in the machine shop. He then gave up shop 
work and entered road service as a fireman and later as a loco- 
motive engineer. Subsequently he was made general foreman and 
- :-tant master mechanic on the Chicago. St. Paul, Minneapolis 
A: Omaha and then master mechanic, on the Chicago. St. Paul 
A Kansas City (now the Chicago Great Western). He remained 
with this road until he took service with the Southern Pacific as 
master mechanic at Sacramento in LSSS. In 1902 he was pro- 
moted to superintendent of motive power of the northern district 
of this company, occupying this position until his present pro- 

O. B. Schoexky has been appointed shop superintendent of the 
Soutli' in Pacific at Sacramento. Cal.. succeeding C. T. Nbyea. 
D. S Watkixs has V»een promoted to assistant superintendent 
-hops of the Southern Pacific at Sacramento, Cal. 

J. P. Brexdel succeeds O. B. Schoenky as general foreman of 
the car shops of the Southern Pacific at Sacramento, Cal. 

F. M. Maseley has been appointed roundhouse foreman of the 
T- h $ Gulf, succeeding R. J. Wilson. His office is at Long- . 
view. Tex. 

P. Stefftax has been appointed purchasing agent of the Ve 'a 
Cru: Terminal, with office at Mexico City. Mexico. 

F. T. Hyxdmax. superintendent of motive power of the Wheel- 
ing it- Luke Erie, has had his headquarters transferred from Cleve- 
land to Brewster. O. 

F. Clarke has been appointed locomotive foreman of the Ca- 
nadian Xorthern at Calgary. Alta. 

A. H. Sweetmax has been appointed car foreman of the Ca- 
nadian Xorthern at North Battleford. Sask. 

H. Thompsox succeeds J. Quinn as locomotive foreman of the 
Canadian Xorthern Ontario, with office at Parry Sound. Ont. 

A. H. Bixxs succeeds L. F. Hamilton as master mechanic of 
the Ontario division of the Canadian Pacific, with headquarters 
at West Toronto, Ont. 

F. W. Nicks has been appointed acting master mechanic of the 
Manitoba division of the Canadian Pacific, with office at Winni- 
peg, vice P. S. Lindsay, on leave of absence. 

M. 8. Moxtgomery has been appointed road foreman of the 
Northern Pacific at Duluth, Minn. 

B. F. Lilly succeeds W. L. Jones as general foreman, car de- 
partment, of the St. Louis, BroicnsvUh f Mexico, with office at 
Kingsville, Tex. 

April, 1914 




William Appe, at one time master car builder on the Canadian 
Pacific and later holding the same position on the Algoma Central 
$• Hudson Bay. died at his home al Toronto, March 21, at the 
age of 67. 

D. C. FITZGERALD, former assistant superintendent of motive 
power of the SI. Louis <J- San Francisco, lost his life in the fire 
which destroyed the Missouri Athletic Club at St. Louis. Mo., on 
March 9. 

Wpng'^ Manufacturers 

Robbing journal boxes of waste for use in starting fires, oil- 
ing small machines, etc., has resulted in a good many cases of 
delay to trains due to hot boxes, with the attendant danger, 
and also in the injuring or destruction of the journal brasses. 
To prevent this source of loss, annoyance and possible danger, 
a device has just been perfected and placed on the market 
called the Nuway journal box packing guard. This is in the 
form of a plate made of 14 gauge steel with teeth on sides and 
bottom, designed so that the waste cannot work out at the 
front of the journal box and also so that waste is retained abso- 
lutely against the efforts of anyone to extract it from the box. 

Journal Box at Left is Equipped with Nuwav Packing Guard. 
One at the Right Is Not So Equipped. 


The guard is held in place by the weight of the car, so that 
there is no possibility of tampering or removing the guard 
without lifting the car. This device, therefore, absolutely 
insures the lubrication of the axle at the heaviest bearing point 
at all times, provided there is any oil whatever left in the 
packing — this in addition to saving a large amount of waste. 
An element of additional safety is provided for the proper 
operation of cars without boxes running hot. This journal box 
packing guard is being marketed by the Nuway Packing Guard 
Co., Tuscaloosa, Ala. 


Many accidents in a locomotive cab are due to the failure of 
the coal sprinkling apparatus. Water for sprinkling is usually 
taken from the delivery pipe of the injector, and the tempera- 
ture is so high and the pressure so great that when the delivery 
hose becomes clogged, as it frequently does as a result of the 
heat and pressure destroying the inner lining, the hose either 
bursts or is blown off the connection, scalding the occupants of 
the cab. Of all cab accidents 70 per cent are said to come 
from this source. 

The Hancock sprinkler, which acts on the principle of an 
ejector, is so designed that it is absolutely pnof against acci- 
dents of this kind. 

The principle feature of the Hancock coal sprinkler, made 
by the Hancock Inspirator Co., New York, is a valve which 
automatically discriminates between steam and water, and its 

action is so positive and reliable that there cannot be a sudden 
and unexpected discharge of steam through the hose. 

The sprinkler is generally applied on the strainer or on the 
suction valve of the injector of the locomotive by the use of a 
short connecting nipple having a bend so that the sprinkler will 
be in a vertical position. A valve is placed - in the steam pipe 
at a point where it can be conveniently reached. 

In operating the coal sprinkler the steam valve in the pipe is 
opened wide and that action opens the valve 7. That action 
also closes the drip hole B, the piston end on the lower end of 
guiding stem covering the hole. Steam will now flow through 
nozzle No. 4, forming a jet and combining with water in valve 
5. (But there never will be a flow of steam in starting because 
tubes 4 and 5 are always under water by reason of the location 
of the sprinkler at a point lower than the tank.) 

Steam will flow into the pressure chamber A and valve 2, 
which has been closed heretofore, will be lifted. Port C, which 
has been opened heretofore, will also be closed and the water 
will be forced through the delivery pipe and into the delivery 

The accidents resulting from the use of a sprinkler have 
generally been caused by an interruption of the water supply, 
due to an obstruction, such as leaves, waste or coal at the 
strainer, or by the failure of the injector to work. Should the 
flow of water be interrupted or the injector refuse to work, 
where a Hancock coal sprinkler is used, the valve No. 2 which 
discriminates between steam and water will close the sprinkler 
so that no steam will escape into the hose; instead the steam 
will be blown back toward the suction pipe, will flow into the 



Hancock Coal Sprinkler. 



April, 1914 

pressure chamber A and force valve 2 upward. The end E of 
valve 2 will seat against the surface F, thus making it impossi- 
ble for steam to flow into the delivery tube. 

"When not operating both valves will seat. The discriminat- 
ing valve No. 2 is heavy enough to prevent water flowing up 
the delivery pipe and then all the water in the delivery pipe 
will flow out of the drain hole C. At the same time steam valve 
7 will seat, no water will flow up the steam pipe and all water 
or steam in the steam pipe will drain out at the hole B. 

This sprinkler uses comparatively cold water; no steam can 
escape; it is self-draining and cannot freeze. 


The metal car seal shown in the illustration is made of two- 
ply steel, punched so that it can easily be bent in the shape 
of a triangle and locked by turning one of the ends back, as 
shown in one of the figures. An attempt to unlock the seal will 
break off this end, as the metal of the seal will not stand up 
under rebending, due to its composition. The seal of the car is 
thereby broken. The seal is put through the slot in the door 
pin, is bent at the two punched holes in the manner shown and 
the end F is inserted and pressed down into slot D. The narrow 

Application of Edgar Car Seal. 

portion of the end F fits into this slot. The end A is then bent 
at the entrance to slot D, until F passes through the square 
hole B. If the numbered end is raised enough to allow the F 
end to be slipped out of the slot, the numbered end will 
invariably break off. The seal can be used with the hasp and 
staple without a pin, and with a two-pin hook it is only neces- 
sary to put the seal through one pin. When sealing through a 
horizontal slot the seal should be applied with the number on 
the lower side so that it may be easily read. The seal has been 
placed on the market by the Metal Car Seal Co. of Chicago, 111. 


The Gold Car Heating & Lighting Co. of New York has just 
issued a booklet descriptive of Gold's electric thermostatic 
control of steam heating. This is an economical method of 
controlling the steam, maintaining an equable temperature in 
every car throughout the train, lessening the parts and weight 
of the steam heating system, and cutting down the steam con- 
sumption both in yards, at terminals, and in service. 

* * » 

"A Manual of Electrical Testing" is the subject of a new 
forty-eight page bulletin, issued by the Wagner Electric Manu- 
facturing Co. of St. Louis. Besides describing the line of 
portable instruments manufactured by the Wagner company, 
this bulletin describes various types of electrical instrument 
movements, the errors to which they are subject and gives sug- 
gestions for their handling and care. The methods for making 

tests on alternating current and direct current motors and 
generators and on transformers are described at length and 
illustrated by comprehensive and instructive diagrams. 

• • * 

Locomotive hoists as manufactured by the Whiting Foundry 
Equipment Co., Harvey, HI., are fully described in catalogue 
No. 105 of that firm. They are of the electric screw jack type, 
the mechanism consisting principally of two stationary and two 
movable screw jacks located in pairs on opposite side of rail- 
road track on which locomotive to be wheeled is run. Illustra- 
tions of a number of installations are given. 

• • • 

The National Malleable Castings Co. has issued circulars No. 
65 and No. 66, covering respectively the National safety brake 
lever and the National safety clevis and pin for uncoupling 


• • • 

"National" Bulletin No. 11B of the National Tube Co., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., contains some 27 pages of the history, characteris- 
tics and advantages of "National" pipe. Considerable research 
work was necessary to secure some of the information and the 
booklet is interesting and valuable. 

» * * 

The Waterhouse Welding Co. of Boston, Mass., has published 
a booklet entitled ' ' Welding and Cutting Plants, ' ' containing 
illustrations, details and prices of six different outfits of this 
sort which are furnished by this firm. 

• • • 

A. L. Henderer's Sons of Wilmington, Del., have issued their 
1914 catalogue, which is divided into a tube expander section, 
a punch section, a pump section and a jack section. A com- 
plete line of tools is shown in each section. 

g>Selfogf /Side 

James T. Gardner, for a number of years in the railway sup- 
ply business, with offices in the Bailway Exchange building, 
Chicago, died on April 9 at his home in Chicago. Mr. Gardner 
spent many years in railway service, being successively super- 
intendent of the Buffalo. New York & Philadelphia; general 
superintendent of the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh, and 
general manager of the Cincinnati, Saginaw & Mackinac. He 
has been in the railway equipment business since 1891. 

The Joyce-Watkins Company has removed its office from 134 
South La Salle street, Chicago, to the McCormick building, 332 
South Michigan avenue. 

The IT. S. Light & Heating Co. has moved its Chicago office 
from 1013 Peoples Gas building to 2335 State street, thus bringing 
the Chicago sales office and service station into the same building. 

The Scarritt-Comstock Furniture Co.. St. Louis, has been 
incorporated as the Scarritt-Comstock Corporation. 

The A. S. Cameron Steam Pump Works. New York, has opened 
a branch office and warehouse in each of the following cities: 
Birmingham. Ala.; Chicago; Cleveland, Ohio; Duluth. Miim. : 
Houghton, Mich. ; Knoxville, Tenn. ; Los Angeles, Cal. ; Phil- 
adelphia, Pa.; Pittsburgh, Pa.; St. Louis, Mo.; Seattle, Wash. 

The Dieter Nut Company has moved its offices from 84 William 
street. New Y~ork, to 80 Maiden Lane. 

J. T. Anthony has been appointed assistant general eastern 
sales manager of the American Arch Company. Mr. Anthony was 
born in February, 1883, was graduated at Georgia Tech. in 1902, 
and was engaged in textile manufacturing for four years; entered 
the service of the Atlantic Coast Line in 1906, and changed to the 
Central of Georgia in January, 1907, being located in the motive 
power department. He took the position of combustion engineer 
with the American Arch Co. in January, 1912, and was made 

April, 1914 




assistant to president in January, 1913, which position he held 
until March 1, 1914, when he was appointed to his present position. 
Harlow D. Savage has been appointed general eastern sales 
manager of the American Arch Co., with office at 30 Church street, 
New York. Mr. Savage was born at Memphis, Tenn., April 16, 
1860, and was educated in the public schools and at Kenyon Mili- 


"tary Academy. From June, 1907, to March 1, 1914, he was with 
the Ashland Fire Brick Co. 

W. L. Anderson has been appointed manager of the railway 
sales department of the Union Fibre Company, Chicago. He was 
formerly with George E. Molleson Co. 

Edward A. Hawks has been appointed a special representative 
of the department of car equipment of Dahlstrom Metallic Door 
'Co., Jamestown, N. Y. 

Frank J. Schraeder, Jr., formerly with the Koberts & Schaefer 
Company, Chicago, has formed a partnership with E. E. Gurley, 
formerly with the T. W. Snow Construction Company. The firm 
will be known as Gurley & Schraeder, with offices in the Ellsworth 
building, Chicago. 

G. W. Alden, formerly with the McMyler-Interstate Co., of 
Bedford, Ohio, has been appointed western sales manager for the 
Ohio Locomotive Crane Co., of Bucyrus, Ohio, with office in the 
Fisher building, Chicago. 

Arthur J. Odegaard, manager of the St. Louis office of the 
Spencer Otis Co., and former assistant purchasing agent of the 
Eock Island Lines, was killed in the fire which destroyed the 
Missouri Athletic Club in St. Louis, Mo., on March 9. 

I. W. Lincoln has been appointed vice president of the Duncan 
Lumber Company, of Portland, Ore. He is in charge of the east- 
ern sales office in the McCormick building, Chicago. 

Bertram Smith has been appointed assistant manager of the 
Edison Storage Battery Supply Company, San Francisco, which 
handles the Edison battery on the Pacific coast. 

W. K. Allen, formerly secretary of the Elgin, Joliet & Eastern, 
has been made general western agent of the Hudson Mechanical 
Eubber Company, 50 Church street, New York, and the United 
Eailway Signal Company, Trenton, N. J., with office in the Peo- 
ple's Gas building, Chicago. 

George Hills has resigned as president of the Welding Mate- 
rials Co., New York, to become general sales agent of the Siemund 
Wenzel Electric Company, of New York. 

Frank N. Gregg has been appointed sales agent of the Trans- 
portation Utilities Company, with office at 1201 Virginia Eailway 
& Power building, Eichmond, Va. 

The Barco Brass & Joint Co., 226 North Jefferson street, Chi- 
cago, in order to take care of its increasing business, has en- 
gaged the services of Clarence L. Mellor, who was formerly 
with the United States Metallic Packing Co., in charge of 
western sales, and has appointed Mr. Mellor western repre- 
sentative. Mr. Mellor has been in the railway supply business 
a number of years. From 1897 to 1899 he was in the London 

Barco Brass & Joint Co., Chicago. 

office of Edward Mahoney; he at that time represented the 
Baldwin Locomotive Works, Harlin & Hollingsworth, Edgemore 
Bridge Works, etc. He returned to the United States in 1899 
and was with the Baldwin Locomotive Works as foreman in 
various departments until 1909, when he went with Alfred 
Lowell as chief inspector. He remained there a few months 
and then went with the United States Metallic Packing Co., 
whom he has represented in the west ever since. 



April, 1914 


The Southern Hotel at St. Louis, which was one of the best 
known and most popular with railroad men, is to be reopened 
on May 1 on a strictly modern and high-class basis and will 
be operated along the same lines which made it so popular 
in days past. The original Southern Hotel was built by Thomas 
Allen, but was destroyed by fire in 1877. Allen then determined 
to build a hotel which could not be burned, and in building the 
new hotel, steel rails and stone were used. This building was 
erected in 1880. Since that time many prominent men have 
been entertained under its roof. The St. Louis Railway Club 
held its meetings there for many years and there is now quite 
a favorable sentiment being shown towards holding its meet- 
ings there in the future. 

The hotel has 350 guest rooms and is to be operated on the 
European plan exclusively. The Missouri Athletic Club has 
engaged quarters on the ground floor for two years and this 
of course will serve to add to the popularity of the hotel. 


The new officers are: Walter Powell, president; Joseph Tur- 
ley, secretary and treasurer, and "Jack" Ryan, manager. 
"Jack" Ryan will be well remembered by the former patrons 
of the hotel as he has been connected with it since 1888, with 
the exception of two or three years. Ryan is always there with 
ever present good cheer and hospitality and no one need be 
blue while he is on the job. The reopening of this hotel will 
undoubtedly meet with a great favor among supply and rail- 
wav men as well as others. 

Some two years ago the Karpen brothers conceived the idea 
of fitting up an entire floor of their spacious building at 900 
Michigan avenue, Chicago, for a concentrated and collective ex- 
hibit of railway supplies and equipment, and to this end 
equipped the twelfth floor with the necessary telephones, furni- 
ture, etc., which would make it possible for anyone interested in 
this industry to have every possible convenience afforded by a 
modern office in addition to having their product on exhibit the 
year round to visiting railroad men. The past two years has 
proven that the idea was thoroughly practical, and that many 
of the manufacturers who had salesrooms and offices in Chi- 
cago recognized the importance of having their goods displayed 
on the floor and rented space for that purpose, but the only 
thing that hindered the rapid growth of the plan was the loca- 
tion of the Karpen building — its distance from the loop pre- 
vented many visiting railroad men from attending it. owing to 
lack of time, and resident railroad men could not spare time 
during business hours to visit it. 

i mm- 

ft llilliillltlt 

' , . i_*i m 2 £ £ 2 2 23 s in n 1 


Lytton Building. 
To overcome this and bring the idea to a full fruition, the 
management perfected arrangements to occupy the entire ninth 
floor of the new Lytton building, corner State street and Jack- 
son boulevard, on and after April 1st. No expense has been 
spared to make the floor attractive and comfortable to tenants 
and visitors alike. Elaborate grill room facilities have been 
planned and many improvements, born of the knowledge gleaned 
from past experience, will be made. Allen Sheldon, who has 
been in active charge of the exhibit at the Karpen building, 
will have full charge of it at the Lvtton building. 


'UP T 

an 1 


/ 1 








t~lev.- | 







l i 





5 1 








X 1 

■ ■ 









Floor Plan of Railway Supply Permanent Exhibit. 

This plan offers railway supply manufacturers, railway sup- 
ply representatives and in fact anyone interested in the sale 
of their products to railroads an exceptional opportunity to 
keep their goods constantly before the eyes of interested rail- 
road men. It also offers office facilities in the very heart of 
the railway supply industry at a cost far below the maintenance 
of individual offices, with the distinct advantage of having the 
buyers brought to their door instead of having to seek them. 

Wanted — A high-grade railway mechanical man covering Chi- 
cago and Middle Western States, who is well established, hav- 
ing many years' experience and a large acquaintance among 
the railway men would like to represent one or two more 
concerns who have an article of merit. Address, O. C. C, The 
Railway List Co., 431 South Dearborn street, Chicago, 111. 

May, 1914 




The World's Greatest Railway Mechanical Journal 
Published at the World's Greatest Railway Center 

Established 1878 

WILLIAM E. MAGRAW. Tres. and Treae. 
CHAS. S. MYERS, Vice-Pres. L. F. WILSON, V. P. & Editorial Director 


J. M. CROWE, Mgr. Central Dist. KENNETH L. VAN AUKEN, Editor 


Office of Publication : Manhattan Building, Chicago 

Telephone, Harrison 4948 
Eastern Office: 50 Church Street, New York 

Telephone, Cortland* 5765 

Central Office: House Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Address all editorial and business communications to the Com- 
pany, at Chicago. 

A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, car equipment, 
shops, machinery and supplies. 

Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are solicited. 
Subscription price, $2.00 a year; to foreign countries, $2.50, free of 

postage. Single copies, 20 cents. Advertising rates given on 

application to the office, by mail or in person. 

In remitting, make all checks payable to The Railway List Company. 

Papers should reach subscribers by the 16th of the month at the 
latest. Kindly notify us at once of any delay or failure to 
receive any issue and another copy will be very gladly sent. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter June 18, 1P95, at the Post Office 
at Chicago, Illinois, Under Act of March 3, 1879. 

Vol. XXXVIII Chicago, May, 1914 No. 5 


Editorial — 

Insulation of Steel Cars 171 

Failures in the Exploitation of New Devices. . . .' 171 

Steel Coach Finish 172 

The June Exhibits 172 

Twenty Years Ago This Month 173 

Railway Mail Pay 173 

Increased Cost of Maintenance of Cars and Locomotives 173 

Metallic Packing 174 

Purification of Water for Locomotives 175 

Improper Loading of Box Cars 181 

Instructions for Valve Setting, C. N. R 182 

Aliens' Flush Car Door 183 

International Engineering Congress 184 

"Cy" Warman's Last Poem 184 

Training Apprentices on the Erie R. R 185 

Present Day Running Repairs 191 

The Exceptional Employe 193 

Conservation of Our Car Supply 194 

Oar Deaprtment Statistics, N. Y. C. & H. R 195 

Why He Kept the Job 195 

Pacific Shops of the Panama Canal 195 

Railway Lessons for March, I. C. S 196 

Articulated Compound Locomotive, Erie R. R 196 

Electric Towing Locomotive, Panama Locks 198 

Steel Passenger Coaches, C. P. R 199 

Loyalty 201 

Safeguarding Railroad Shops 201 

American Railway Association Meeting 202 

French Locomotive Improvements 203 

Tool Foremen's Convention 203 

Shaper Attachment 204 

Membership of Railway Associations 204 

Personals 205 

Among the Manufacturers 206 

Nathan Coal Sprinkler 206 

Wahlstrom Automatic Drill Chuck 206 

Arc Welding 206 

Searchlight Gas for Shop work 207 

Improved Eye Protectors 207 

Hunt Nut Lock 208 

Alloyed Steels for Tools 208 

New Literature 208 

The Selling Side 209 

White Enamel Refrigerator Co. Successful in Damage Suit 210 

Insulation of Steel Cars 

Since the first all-steel car was placed in service, railway me- 
chanical officers have been concerned with their insulation. The 
heat conductivity of steel is so much greater than that of wood, 
which in itself is extensively used as an insulating material, that 
a problem of considerable dimensions presents itself. The use of 
a dead air space between the outer and inner plates of the walls 
of steel cars was at first thought to be a means of securing reason- 
able insulation. When it was found that this end was not attained 
thereby, it appeared that the loss of heat was due to the fact that 
the channels uniting the outer and inner plates were responsible 
for the conduction of heat. To offset this an insulating material 
between channels and plates has been used. Difficulties of con- 
struction as principally evidenced in riveting troubles forced 
further consideration of the subject. 

Tests now in progress at the University of Illinois seem to show 
that the heat losses are not so much due to the conduction of the 
metals in contact as to connection. In other words, the dead air 
space is not what it purports to be. The air in this space is in 
circulation — taking up heat from the inner plates rising and pass- 
ing over against the outer plates, there cooling and falling to 
repeat the cycle. This is the most logical hypothesis and unless 
disproved must be acknowledged and proper steps taken to offset 
its effects. 

The practice of rivetting through insulation between the chan- 
nels and the plates with its attendant difficulties may be discon- 
tinued as not productive of any great benefit, and the air currents 
between the plates, broken up by filling the space with insulating 
material. Granulated cork is inexpensive and has been used with 
good results. It is probable, however, that the use of asbestos 
or other prepared material will be found to serve the purpose 
still better. 

Failures in the Exploitation of New Devices 

There are, roughly speaking, two kinds of failures in the ex- 
ploitation of new inventions covering alleged improvements in 
railway construction, maintenance and operation. We presume 
that this statement covers the industrial field generally but are 
concerned only with such matters as they pertain to the railways. 

We are all familiar with the type of inventor who is certain he 
has a wonderful patent and who, through ignorance of conditions 
or of business methods generally, is never able to make more than 
a faint start at its exploitation and ultimate adoption. He is 
foredoomed to failure unless he is picked up by moneyed interests, 
whether his invention has merit or not. He is always with us and 
he always interests us. He is never dangerous or seriously objec- 
tionable. His failure harms no one but himself and he is usually 
quick to recover. 

The second class of failure is not such a harmless one. It is 
the result of dishonest exploitation of meritless patents. A pro- 
moter does not need a really good patent or patented article of 
merit to serve his purpose if he is dishonest. The promotion of a 
stock company is sufficient to serve his ends and in the organization 
of such a stock company his first move is to select a state with 
lax corporation laws. The device to be exploited is of secondary 
importance. This device must, however, be one which offers oppor- 
tunity for sensational description; one the universal use of which 
may be described as a means for saving thousands of lives 
annually. The sale of a large amount of stock is the aim.. 



May, 1914 

The canny promoter does not go to the officers of railway 
mechanical departments to sell stock in a locomotive or car device 
nor does he go to officers of the engineering departments to pro- 
mote a track improvement. He would be handicapped in such 
cases by the technical knowledge of his victims. The stock sales 
are made among those who have seen just enough of railway work 
*o appreciate that there is room for improvement but who have 
no powers of analysis which go with technical knowledge and 
long experience. A stock argument is the supposed interest of 
politicians and the prospect that the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission will order the device universally applied in the interests of 

These methods hinder rather than forward real progress in the 
manufacture of transportation. Suspicion of anything new is fos- 
tered by experience with dishonest promotion. Were it possible 
to impress upon all with money to spend in this way that the 
advice and co-operation of the mechanical staffs of the railways 
is not impossible or difficult to secure for any legitimate and 
practical improvement in locomotive and car construction, investors 
would look for such evidence before spending their money. With 
sly winks and insinuations, however, the promoters explain the 
lack of such evidence in the desire of railway officers to spend no 
money for improvement, no matter how needed, until forced to 
do so. 

State and federal laws will in time correct the more glaring 
aspects of this evil, but its complete elimination by law cannot 
be expected this side of the millenium. For the good of the 
cause, mechanical officers should not avoid opportunity to express 
themselves verbally or in public print in denouncing fake devices 
and encouragement should be unhesitatingly given where deserved. 

more effort to make it pleasing as well as utilitarian on some roads 
would more t